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of coining silver freely in the Indian mints as legal Mr. Evarts returned in September, and, in tender throughout the Indian dominions of her Maj- answer to inquiries regarding the results of the tional on the acceptance by a number of the principet that a great advance had been made as compared to open their mints for a similar term to the coinage with the results accomplished by the conference of of silver as full legal tender in the proportion of 1878. In that assemblage the great powers were very 15} of silver to 1 of gold, and the engagement on the reserved, or were wholly unrepresented. Now the part of India would be obligatory only so long as that principal countries of Europe, including Germany and agreement remained in force.
Great Britain, both of which held aloof in 1878, are
generally agreed upon the advisability of the adoption Sittings were held on the 4th, 6th, and 8th of a bi-metallic standard of commercial values. So of July, and then an adjournment was taken far as India was concerned, which is the great silver to April 12, 1882. A declaration, consisting and considerable active participation shown by the
interest of England, there was considerable freedom of four clauses, was made to the conference by delegates this year. The position of the United the French and American delegates by way of States is well known and understood now in Europe formulating the basis for future proceedings. -—that our interest is solely in view of our actual and The first three clauses were declaratory of the expected participation in the commerce of the world. importance of a fixed relation in value between shall be upon the basis which leaves commerce in such
We desire that the money of international commerce gold and silver, of the opinion that a powerful a position that it shall not be embarrassed by the two combination of states might, by agreement bases--silver and gold-interfering with one another. among themselves, maintain such a relation, In other words, we desire to make the two metals inand that the proportion of 15} to 1 was the
ternational money. desirable one to adopt. The fourth clause was In regard to the adjournment, Mr. Evarts as follows: “Without considering the effect said: which might be produced by a lesser combi In adjourning to another time instead of terminatnation of states, a combination which should ing our deliberations we generally agreed in feeling include England, France, Germany, and the that a stage had been reached in exciting the attention United States, with the concurrence of other of the different nations, furnishing them the means of
debating the question which, in the interval, might states both in Europe and on the American be occupied by them either in direct diplomatic corContinent, which this combination would in- respondence on the subject or in such discussion in sure, would be adequate to produce and main- Congress or in Parliament, or in general channels of tain throughout the commercial world the re- public opinion, as each nation should think advisable lation between the two metals that such a
and useful. We also thought it would be felt and
understood everywhere that so great a question and combination should adopt."
transaction as the establishment of an international The proposition for adjourning was put up- money, of both metals, was a task that should not, on the ground that “there is reason for be- and could not, be completed in any brief consideralieving that an understanding might be estab- tion of the subject. lished between the states which have taken The coinage of silver dollars was continued part in the conference, that the monetary during the year in the United States in accordsituation of several states may call for the in ance with the provisions of the law of 1878, tervention of legislation, and may give rise to the total number issued being 27,637,955, or diplomatic negotiations."
about 2,300,000 per month. The Director of Ex-Senator Howe returned to the United the Mint, in his annual report, makes the folStates in July. He explained the attitude of lowing suggestions in regard to a continuance the different governments represented at the of this coinage, in view of the action of the conference as follows:
Monetary Conference: The Belgian representative was there as a strong The International Monetary Conference which met monometallist; so also were the representatives of at Paris in April last instructively discussed the subSweden, Norway, and Switzerland. The commis- ject of a common ratio in the coinage of gold and silver, sioners representing Russia, Austria, Italy, and Spain but no practical conclusion was reached. Delegates inclined strongly to bi-metallism. The 'attitude of from several European countries gave little encourGreat Britain was the principal obstacle we had to agement for the expectation of any effective aid from contend with. Her representatives were in favor of the their governments in the effort to restore silver to its double standard, but were prohibited from commit- former place in the monetary circulation. The hope, ting the nation to it. The ministry opposed bi-met- however, seems to have been entertained that further allism, and they did it, not because they do not favor deliberation, and a consideration of the inevitable comthe double standard, or because they want to keep sil- plications and disturbances to commercial exchanges ver out of the coinage, but because they have other im- between Asiatic countries and the Western world, to portant business before them, and feel that they can be feared from the exclusion of silver from coinage, put the coinage question off to some future day. The will enlist the co-operation of those nations in this, matter, however, has been the subject of discussion possibly the final, effort to retain silver conjointly in financial and commercial circles in Great Britain, with gold as a measure of values. In view, however, and a strong sentiment has been found in favor of bi- of the failure of the conference to agree upon any metallism. With regard to Germany, her represen- practical measure, and while awaiting its future action, tatives pointed to the action taken by her in 1873 in it is a question for our serious and early consideration adopting the single gold standard, and said they did whether it is not desirable to suspend the further not see any necessity for impeaching the propriety of coinage of silver until, by international agreement that move. Still, they are not opposed to silver, and and effective legislation, the unlimited coinage of silare only waiting for England. It the latter country ver and gold at a common fixed ratio shall have been comes to adopt the double standard, they will join authorized by the principal commercial nations of with her willingly and gladly.
Europe and America. The United States has done
its part toward retaining silver as a monetary agent France, he had a sentimental horror of bloodfor measuring and exchanging values. For three shed; and though always foremost in revoluyears it has appropriated to coinage purposes one third of the world's production of silver, and main- tionary and socialistic disturbances, he fretained its average bullion price nearly to the average quently expressed the conviction that strong of 1878. As was said in my first report, "should the government was necessary to prevent anarchy, $650,000,000 of silver coin, now full legal tender in and that the economic problem could not be Europe, be demonetized, the United States could not, solved perhaps in centuries. The Commu: European co-operation or allies, sustain the value of Dards of Paris converted the funeral of Blanqui silver from the inevitable tall. With that danger into a celebration of the amnesty. menacing us, we can not, without serious embarrass BLUNTSCHLI, Professor JEAN GASPARD, ment, continue such coinage unless other commercial jurist and writer on international law, born at nations will agree upon the general use of silver as Zürich in March, 1808, died October 21st. He ment be secured, neither our ratio of comparative was educated for the law in his own country, valuation nor even one based upon the present ex and afterward went to Germany, where he changeable value of gold and silver will probably be adopted. The ratio of 151 to 1, already approved work on "Succession according to the Roman
as a pupil of Savigny and Niebuhr. His Union, would doubtless be chosen. This would, if Law” gained him the doctor's degree at Berlin. the coinage of silver as well as gold at all the mints Upon his return to Switzerland, he engaged of the world were made free, as bi-metallism implies, actively in the political conflicts of the time, and cause the voluntary withdrawal from circulation of contributed frequently to the Liberal press. the standard dollars, and their recoinage. In such He became a member of the State Council, and case the further coinage of silver dollars of the present weight, unless needed for circulation, is a useless ex
was a member of the Ministry before the rependiture.”
turn of the Conservatives to power. In 1838
he published the “Political and Juridical HisThe Secretary of the Treasury, in his an- tory of Zürich.” He assisted the brothers nual report, and the President in his message, Grimm in their researches into German analso recommended a suspension of the coinage tiquities, and wrote several works on of silver dollars, and a future restriction, not to tional history. His work on "General Politan arbitrary limit, but to a limit determined ical Law” (Munich, 1850) established his repuby the actual demand for circulation. They tation as an historian and jurist. When the also recommended a cessation of the issue of University of Zürich was founded, in 1833, silver certificates, and advocated a policy in' Bluntscbli was appointed a titular professor. future in regard to bi-metallism dependent on In 1861 he went to Heidelberg as Professor of a substantial concert of commercial nations. Public Law. In recent years he has published
BLANQUI, AUGUSTE, a French Democrat several works on the history and theory of law, and Socialist, died January 2d, at the age of which are studied with great attention in Euseventy-six. Without ever having formulated rope. In the early part of 1881 he was proany definite objects to which his extraor- voked into an amicable controversy with Gendinary political activity was directed, he has eral von Moltke by the latter's strictures on appeared in the character of a leader in every the reform in the laws of war proposed by the revolutionary movement of the century. When Institut de Droit International, and his defense a student in Paris, his intellectual gifts were of war as an agency in higher civilization. widely remarked. He commenced life as a BRAHMO SOMAJ, THE. The division in private tutor. A mutual attachment sprang the Brahmo Somaj of India, which took place up between him and his second pupil, the in 1878 (an account of which is given in daughter of a Paris banker, which was con the “ Annual Cyclopædia” for 1879, article cealed for years, and then resulted in their BRAHMO SomaJ), bas been made wider in conmarriage. After seven years of happy wedded sequence of a new departure that the wing of life, Blanqui embarked in his career of a po- the church of which Keshub Chunder Sen is litical conspirator. His condemnation to life- regarded as the leader has taken. The new long imprisonment so wrought upon his wife's movement assamed a definite form at the close mind that she died within a year. Since then of the celebration of the fifty-first anniversary Blanqui has passed thirty-seven years of his of the Brahmo Somaj, when Mr. Sen's party life in prison. He founded numerous secret assumed the name of the “Church of the New societies, and was the chief organizer of nearly Dispensation," and the “Flag of the New every democratic outbreak. Lamartine says Dispensation," intended to denote the church that after the Revolution of 1848 he invited militant developing into the church triumphant, Blanqui to forsake destructive criticism, and was formally inaugurated, with the Arati ceredevote his talents to the diplomatic service of mony, or the waving of lights and the chanthis country, offering him a foreign mission. ing of hymns. The “New Dispensation" is Blanqui was small and insignificant in appear- believed by Mr. Sen to afford a scheme for ance. He lived like an ascetic, using no wine effecting the unity and harmony of all other or coffee, eating vegetable food only, dispens- dispensations, all of which-Hindooism, Buding with fire in all weathers, and leaving his dhism, Islamism, and Christianity—are conchamber-windows always open. Though the nected as parts of the divine scheme, and really most active instigator of violent uprisings in exhibit order and continuity where confusion
VOL. XX1,25 A
and anomaly only are commonly perceived. are substituted for the ordinary bread and The new order is the happy welding of these wine. The “vow of self-surrender" is taken together, and in it the fulfillment of Christ's by persons who enroll themselves in the order prophecy of the coming of the Comforter is to of "Grihastha Vairagi,” or ascetic householdbe sought. Christ is not held to be divine, as ers--men of the world who, following secular in the orthodox churches of Christianity, but employments, give all they make to the church. is regarded with great reverence and devotion The singing of hymns from door to door, for as a prophet, and is allowed a subjective not the benefit of the worldly-minded, which was an objective divinity. God is believed in as formerly confined to the lower classes of peoan objective reality, a supreme Father, whose ple, has been commended under the New Discharacter of divine holiness worshipers aim to pensation to the middle and upper classes as assimilate and realize in their hearts. Com- an “exalted work." munion is sought to be promoted with proph The fifty-first anniversary of the Brahmo ets and departed saints, who are supposed to Somaj was celebrated by the adherents of the be real persons and children of God, by the New Dispensation in a series of meditative and 80-called pilgrimages, in which a particular mystic ceremonies, which, with the days of room represents the bistorical site, and con- preparation, occupied most of the month of versations are carried on, by the aid of a vivid January. A portrait of Ram Mohun Roy was imagination, with the person invoked, whose unveiled. Five missionaries were consecrated utterances of centuries ago, says Dr. William to a life in which they were told they would Knighton, in the “ Contemporary Review," be wholly under the guidance of Heaven, and “ are applied, more or less skillfully, to the would find themselves always in a state of comexigencies of the present time, or the difficulties plete harmony with each other, drawing their of existing theological speculation.” The spirits inspiration from the Almighty alone, who are not supposed to be materialized or actually would speak to and through them. The report present, but to be spiritually drawn into the for the past year mentioned as its peculiar, sife and character of the devotee; the pilgrim- pre-eminent feature, the communion with ages being explained to be simply practical ap- saints,” which was observed by eight pilgrimplications of “the philosophy of subjectivity." ages of the missionaries and other Brahmos to The believer may be aided by the perusal of the house of the minister (Mr. Sen), with honthe sacred books of the several religions, by ors to the following saints: Moses, February studying the precepts and examples, and ab- 22d; Socrates, March 7th; Sakya, March 14th; sorbing the spirit of which he is believed to be Mohammed, September 19th; Chaitanya, Sepbrought into communion with the authors of tember 26th; scientific men, October 3d. An those religions, or to have" conferences" with average of one hundred students had attended them. The immortality of the soul is taught, the theological institution. Fifteen missionwith the idea that the future life is a continu- aries had been employed in Calcutta and six in ation and development of the present life. The Dacca, besides fourteen secular missionaries. incarnation of Deity is denied, but all the great Thirteen somajes had been established, and this teachers of religion, from Moses to Mohammed, flag of the New Dispensation had been carriel are recognized as God's servants and as useful all around India. A letter was read from th: teachers. A violation of duty is sin, and every Prarthana Somaj, of Bombay, expressing th: sinner must suffer the consequences of his own hope that all schism might be healed, and that sinfulness, in this world or the next. Holiness there might be a united theistic church il may be attained, however, and sinfulness ex. India, which was suitably responded to. Step tirpated by the worship of God, by self-control were taken to publish a reply to misrepresen · and self-denial, by repentance, by the study of tations which, it was alleged, had been mad God in nature and in good books, by good of the Brahmo Somaj in India and England company, and by solitary contemplation; and The missionaries were given the distinctiv by these means salvation is attained. No me- title of Sraddheya Bhai, or Reverend Brother diation between God and man is suggested. A sacramental ceremony was celebrated o Salvation brings with it a perpetual growth in the 6th of March. On the 7th of June “a ner purity, which goes on for all eternity. The Hom ceremony," or fire-sacrifice, was cele New Dispensation is openly and fearlessly de- brated as the ceremony of overthrowin clared to be the work of God and not of man, temptation,” and was followed on the 12th b a beautiful symmetrical plan of providence in a "new baptismal ceremony,” in which it wa a course of daily development, which provides claimed that “the rite was administered b an infallible remedy for human wants and John the Baptist himself, who was present i short-comings; a “system of Divine eclecti- spirit.” cism, absorbing all religions, incorporating in A considerable majority of the Brahm itself all the prophets of God."
Somajes, including one hundred and fort Among the peculiarities of ritual of the New churches in different parts of India, from Assa Dispensation are the Arati ceremony, with to Sinde, and from Lahore to Madras, adhe which the flag was inaugurated, and which has to the old order, and either oppose the Ne been criticised as savoring of idolatry; and the Dispensation or hold aloof from it. The chi sacramental ceremony, in which rice and water of these societies is the Sadharan (or Unive
sal) Brahmo Somaj of Calcutta, which has also The Emperor is Dom Pedro II, born Demany members among the provincial somajes, cember 2, 1825; proclaimed April 7, 1831; reand has regular agents in various parts of India. gency until July 23, 1840 ; crowned July 18, Its aims are stated in its annual report to be, 1841; married September 4, 1843, to Theresa first, “ to develop within itself and encourage Christina Maria, daughter of the late King in others a life of piety, based upon direct and Francis I of the Two Sicilies. immediate communion with the living God; to The Cabinet in 1881 was composed of the promote absolute spiritual freedom by combat- following ministers: Interior, Baron Homem ing all doctrines of incarnation, mediation, or de Mello; Justice, Councilor M. P. S. Dantas, prophetship; to build morality and piety on Senator; Foreign Affairs, Councilor P. L. Pefoundations of reason and conscience, illumined reira de Souza, Deputy; Finance, Councilor by the light of divine intercourse; and to strive J. A. Saraiva, Senator, and President of the for a life in which devotion and earnest work Council of State; War, Councilor Franklin will commingle"; and, secondly, to introduce Doria, Deputy; Navy, Councilor J. R. Lima a constitutional and representative mode of Duarte, Deputy; Public Works, Commerce, church government. The declaration of prin- and Agriculture, Councilor M. Buarque de ciples, read at the dedication of the church in Macedo,* Deputy. Calcutta in January, enforced the worship of The Council of State was composed of the the One True God, to the exclusion of every following members in ordinary: The Princess created person or thing, and of divine honors Imperial, Donna Isabel; Prince Gaston d'Or“to any man or woman as God, or equal to léans, Count d'Eu; the Senators Viscount de God, or an incarnation of God, or as appointed Abaeté, Viscount de Muritiba, Viscount de of God"; the renunciation of distinctions of Bom Retiro, Viscount de Jaguary, Viscount caste or social position; the catholicity of de Nictheroy, Viscount de Araxá, J. P. Diaz Brahmoism (“no book or man shall be acknowl- de Carvacho, and J. J. Teixeira, Vice-Admiral edged as infallible, and the only way to sal- J. R. de Lamare; Dr. P. J. Soares de Souza; vation; but, nevertheless, due respect shall be and of members extraordinary: Senators J. L. paid to all scriptures, and the good and great 0. Paranaguá and M. P. S. Dantas; Counof all ages and countries "); and the main- cilors Martin Francisco, B. A. de M. Taques, tenance of spirituality of doctrine. “Flowers, and J. C. de Andrade ; and Viscount de Praspices, burnt-offerings, candles, and other ma- dos. terial accompaniments of worship," it said, The President of the Senate, which com“shall never be used, and care shall be taken to prises 58 members elected for life, was Visavoid everything tending to reduce religion to count de Jaguary; and the Vice-President, mere parade and lifeless forms. ... Anything Count de Baependy. that will directly or indirectly encourage idola The President of the Chamber of Deputies, try, engender superstition, take away spiritual with 122 members elected for four years, was freedom, lower conscience, or corrupt morals, Viscount de Prados; and the Vice-President, shall never be countenanced.” The Sadharan F. de Almeida. Brahmo Somaj sends missionaries over India, The Presidents of the several provinces were sustains societies for religious culture among as follows: the students of Calcutta, and maintains a Alagoas..
Dr. J. E. Ferreira Jacobina. theistic library and a school for the higher edu
Senator J. L. C. Paranaguá. cation of boys, with twenty teachers and 389
Senator P. Leão Velloso. pupils, and labors by itself, and through asso- Espirito Santo.. ciated societies of women, for the improvement Goyanh
Dr. J. A. Leite de Moraes. of women. Among the reforms advocated by Matto-Grosso. the theists of India, of whom both of these Minas-Geraes Senator J. F. Meirade Vasconcellos.
Pará. societies are branches, are the complete aboli
Parahyba. tion of all caste restrictions; the abolition of Paraná the worship of deceased ancestors; a reform
Dr. J. A. de Azevedo Lima.
Dr. S. Q. de Moura. of the ceremonies usual at births, and at cre Rio Grande do Norte... Dr. A. D. Satyro. mation ; reform of marriage customs (which is
Dr. Martinho A. S. Campos. pronounced equivalent to the reconstruction of Hindoo society); the promotion of fe São Pedro (Rio Grande male education and emancipation; the liinita
Dr. H. M. Inglez de Sousa. tion of men to one wife; the removal of the prohibition against the marriage of widows, dos Santos (1880), is Primate of all Brazil;
The Archbishop of Bahia, the Rt. Rev. L. A. and social reform; the suppression of intemperance of all kinds; the promotion of educa- and there are eleven bishops: those of Pará, tion among the people; and the social and São Luiz, Fortaleza, Olinda, Rio de Janeiro, moral regeneration of India.
São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Marianna, DiamanBRAZIL (IMPERIO DO BRAZIL). (For details tina, Goyaz, and Cuyabá. relating to area, territorial divisions, popula
The Brazilian Minister Plenipotentiary and tion, etc., reference may be made to the An. Envoy Extraordinary to the United States is nual Cyclopædia" for 1878.)
* Died August 29, 1881. (See OBITUARIES, FOREIGN.)
Dr. A. J. Furtado.
Dr. M. A. Tostes.
Dr. P. S. Cincinato.
Dr. M. P. Souza Dantas Filho.
Rio de Janeiro...
Dr. J. R. Chaves.
Dr. F. P. Soares Brandão.
Councilor Lopes Netto (transferred from Monte- vette and two smaller craft); with an aggrevideo in July, 1881); and the Brazilian Consul- gate of 3,758 men, and a total armament of General at Baltimore (for the Union) is Senhor 166 guns. The aggregate steam-power was Salvador de Mendonça.
8,660 horses. Besides the vessels above enuThe United States Minister to Brazil is Hon. merated, there were five iron-clad ships, one James Monroe (1881); and the United States gunboat, one school-ship, and one brig for Consul-General at Rio de Janeiro is Mr. midshipmen, all without armament. The perThomas Adamson. “We learn, with the sonnel of the navy consisted of 14 general staffgreatest pleasure," writes a Rio journalist, re- officers, 340 first-class officers, a sanitary corps ferring to the appointment of Minister Mon- 73 strong, 17 almoners, 88 accountants, 57 roe, and to the continuance of Mr. Adamson guardians, and 185 engineers; an imperial main the consulate-general, “that the Honorable rine corps, 2,695 strong, a naval battalion of James Monroe has been nominated by the 286 men, and 1,229 apprentices; total, 4,984 President of the United States as representa- men. An additional gunboat has been reporttive of that great republic at the court of ed “in course of construction " for some years Brazil. Mr. Monroe will be no stranger in past; but mention must here be made of two Brazil; he is already known here as a consul important craft, officially described as follows: who discharged his important duties with zeal One of these, an ironclad of novel construcand integrity; and his precedents here afford tion, contracted for in London in 1881, is to the certainty that the United States will find be 300 feet in length with 52 feet beam, and in him a resident Minister in Brazil who will to carry four Armstrong twenty-ton, new patreflect honor on his native country. As re- tern, breech-loading guns, mounted on two gards the present United States consulate- turrets arranged en échelon, and sufficiently general at Rio de Janeiro, we are rejoiced to far apart to avoid injury to one turret by the find that no change is contemplated in its oc- flash of the guns in the other. The lighter cupancy by the gentleman who has so wor armament is to consist of six 44-inch guns and thily discharged the duties thereof, and re a signal-gun. The armor is to be steel-faced formed it. As the New York correspondence throughout; the armor-belt, of two strakes, 7 says, Mr. Adamson is not popular among a feet deep and varying in thickness from 10 to certain class of American citizens here; but 11 inches; and the breast work and turrets each consuls, like ministers of state, who initiate 10 inches thick. The main-deck will be faced and enforce necessary reforms, must count on with 11-inch compound armor on a steel backhaving to endure much obloquy from the small ing 1 inch thick. The stem, stern, rudder, but noisy class whose interests the reforms brackets, and tubes will be constructed of brass, traverse. Still, every important American and while the hull will be double sheathed with other house, having business with the United wood and covered with Muntz-metal. PromiStates consulate-general here, will freely ac- nent among the advantages anticipated in this knowledge that, in Mr. Adamson, we have had ironclad are: the protection of the magazines the best American Consul-General Rio has and the spaces beneath the breastwork, fore seen since the days of “Honest James Mon- and aft of which the armor-belt will pass inside roe.'
and take the form of oblique armor; the dimiThe actual strength of the army in 1880 was nution of weight consequent upon that arrange15,304, of whom 1,743 were officers. The dis- ment, and the security against water lodging tribution of the several arms was as follows: upon the inner protective deck in the event of Infantry-twenty-one battalions, eight garrison piercing of the thin ends of the armor; and companies, and one depot company for drill- the use of the forced blast, with a horse-power service; cavalry-five regiments, one squad- readily increased from 6,000 to 8,000, and a ron, and five garrison companies; artillery- speed of not less than 15 bnt susceptible of bethree mounted regiments and five foot-battal- ing accelerated to 164 knots an hour. Should ions; sappers and miners, one battalion ; gen- the ship, on trial, fail by one quarter of a knot darmes, 8,340, of whom 931 were at Rio de to make 15 knots, the builders will, by the Janeiro. The National Guard had been dis- terms of their contract, be held to forfeit banded, with a view to reorganization after the £2,000; if by one half knot, £4,000; if by taking of the new census. Pursuant to the law three fourths, £8,000; if by one knot, £16,000 ; of February 27, 1875, military service is obli- if by 17 knot, £32,000: and should the speed gatory for all Brazilian citizens; but numerous fall short of 13} knots, the whole of the final exemptions are admitted, and substitution is al. installment, amounting to one sixth of the enlowable. The period of service in the regular tire price, will be forfeited. Should the exarmy is six years, and in the reserve three treme dranght of the ship, with 400 tons of years. The regulation war strength was to be coal and sea-going stores on board, exceed 20 fixed at 32,000; and the strength in time of feet, the forfeitures will be as follows: for an peace, although fixed at 13,000, is commonly excess of 1 inch, £1,000; of 2 inches, £2,000; in excess of that number. The navy, in 1880, of 3 inches, £4,000; of 4 inches, £8,000; of 5 consisted of nine steam ironclads, six steam inches, £16,000; of 6 inches, £25,000; and of corvettes, sixteen steam gunboats, six steam more than 6 incbes, the entire final installtransports, and three sail of the line (one cor- ment. Likewise, for an excess of one tenth