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ligious ministers of its own than the judicial insult to the army. The Deputies elected in bench or the Legislative Chamber. If the Guillery's place Descamps, the first vice-presiparish vicars in the garrison towns refused to dent. extend their spiritual ministrations to the mili The Government carried a measure for the tary, their pay would be stopped. A provision reorganization of secondary schools. A proin the budget cuts off the salary or stipend at- posas brought forward by the advanced Libertached to any place in which a foreign priest als to abolish religious instruction in the midofficiates who has not received the permission dle-class schools was not accepted by the Govof the Government.
ernment, and was defeated in the Chamber. The Government declared, in response to an The motion was to rescind the provision of the interpeliation, in May, that no overtures had law of 1850, according to which the clergy are been made by the Vatican toward the reopen- invited to impart religious instruction in seconding of diplomatic relations. During King Leo- ary schools, and leave religious teaching to the pold's visit to Vienna, on the occasion of his families of pupils. daughter's wedding, he met the former nun The Government has established 12 addicio, Vanutelli, in the presence of his cabinet- tional colleges and 100 intermediate schools, chief, Frère-Orban, but was not approached on 56 for boys and 44 for girls. the subject of resuming diplomatic intercourse. The election registry for 1881 contains about
An angry controversy broke out among the 9,000 names less than in 1879, the number of Clericals between the extreme Ultramontanes, voters in a total population of 5,536,654 souls represented by Professor Périn, of Louvain, being 116,090. A large number of names were and the moderate portion. The former held dropped from the lists in 1880, and an additionpersistently to the doctrine advanced in the al number in 1881, on the ground that the Syllabus of Pius IX, and would not acknowl- omitted persons did not pay the amount of edge the secularized Belgium, in which the taxes which legally qualifies them for the frantherein defined relations to the Church were chise. They were mostly peasants and men in disregarded, to be a legitimately constituted holy orders. At the rate of progression which state. The Clerical representatives in Parlia- took place anterior to this strict construction ment were bitterly assailed for accepting the of the law, the number of voters would be new order of things and seeking a modus vi- 131,000 or over. The lists of communal electvendi with the state. This contest called forth ors have, by a like rigorous application of the a reproof from Pope Leo, who significantly election laws, been reduced from 384,549 admonished the Catholics of Belgium that the names in 1879 to 373,666 in 1881. The fees Church, while maintaining unalloyed its holy for naturalization have been reduced by Parliateachings and principles of jurisprudence, pre- ment from 1,000 and 5,000 francs for the two serves always a “discreet attitude,” has “due grades, to half those amounts. regard for the right mode suited to the time In the summer an agitation was commenced and place,” and often finds itself obliged “to in favor of universal suffrage, or for the estabsubmit to evils which it finds it almost impos- lishment of an educational instead of the tax sible to prevent without exposing itself to still qualification. Mass-meetings were held in worse evils and complications." The bishops Brussels, Antwerp, and elsewhere. The Radifelt impelled by the Pope's letter to remove cal, Janson, demanded in the Chamber that the Périn, the pragmatical upholder of the Sylla- Government show its colors on this question. bus, from the chair of Civil Law in the Univer. For communal and provincial elections to besity of Louvain.
gin with, the abolition of the limitation or the A law has been made providing that the substitution of an intellectual test was asked glebe-lands shall be administered in the same for. The Minister of Finance replied that the manner as the other state demesnes, and may question was not yet ripe, that the Constitution also be alienated by the Government. Clergy prescribed the cense, and that if the matter who have received the revenues of the church were carried before the country the Liberal estates are to be paid entirely out of the pub- party would be divided and the Clerical oppolic treasury. The vicar Yserbyt, and villagers sition would succeed to the helm. The subject of Heale, near Courtrai, who created a disturb- was brought forward again when a law relating ance in the latter part of 1880, were sentenced to the provincial assemblies was under considto prison.
eration. The Prime Minister proposed to dePresident Guillery, of the House of Deputies, fer Janson's proposition, to which the mover was overruled by the vote of his own party on agreed; but the seconder, Dufuisseaux, dea question of order, March 10th, and conceiving serted by his friends, felt called upon to resign the action of the House to be an infraction of his seat. An extension of the franchise would his authority, he resigned. A member of the benefit the Clerical and Social-Democratic parRight had stated that the army had resented ties; for which reason the Liberal ministry, partisan orders of the War Minister. The though not opposed to the reform, will not president accepted as sufficient a declaration of take the step without cautiously measuring the the member, Woeste, that he would retract the effects. The elections of delegates to the muwords, but still held to the opinions; but the nicipal councils in October resulted in a House demanded a completer apology for the marked victory for the Liberals.
Stéphanie, daughter of the King of the Bel- surplus stock of silver; and the United States, gians, was married, May 10th, to the Crown- which had resumed the coinage of legal-tender Prince Rudolph of Austria. (See Austria.) silver dollars, was apprehensive of derange
The Minister-President, Bounder de Mals. ment of her financial system by a further debroek, was transferred in January from Copen- cline in the value of silver. France and the bagen and Stockholm to Washington. United States were disposed to adhere to bi
The German commercial treaty of 1865 was metallism, but it was generally recognized that renewed, and is to continue in force until one some broader international agreement was decyear after one of the contracting powers has essary in order to maintain the relative value given notice of dissolving it.
of the metals and give it stability. Great Count Auguste Van der Straaten-Ponthoz Britain showed no disposition to yield its sinwas transferred from his post at the Hague to gle-standard policy, but was interested in sussucceed the venerable Baron Nothomb (see taining the value of silver on account of its exOBITUARIES) at Berlin. Baron d’Anethan, for- tensive use as currency in her Eastern colonies. mer Belgian representative at the Vatican, was Germany had given no evidence of a desire to appointed minister to the Hague.
recede from its action of 1873, but was apparThe latest law for military organization pro- ently willing to discuss the subject, and to subvides for an army of 46,277 men, including mit her sales of silver to restrictions. Austria all officers, police, and non-combatants, with was inclined to a cautious policy, dependent 10,014 horses and 204 guns, in time of peace; on the future action of Germany and Great and for a war force, of 103,683 men, not count- Britain. ing officers, gendarmery, etc., with 13,800 An effort was made in 1880 by France to horses and 240 guns. The army comprises 18 secure a monetary conference at Paris in Noline regiments of infantry, with 3 line and i vember of that year. This effort failed, but reserve battalion each, and 1 rifle regiment the co-operation of the United States was obwith 4 line and 2 reserve battalions, every bat- tained, and on the 8th of February the Foreign talion consisting of 4 companies, and the com- Secretary was able to announce, in a council of pany of 100 men in peace and 225 in war, ex- ministers, that the Government of the United clusive of officers. The cavalry consists of 8 States had agreed to the proposition of France regiments, of 4 line and 1 reserve squadron for an International Monetary Conference to each, the squadron having 120 horses in time consider the question of a more general adopof peace and 154 in war. The field-artillery tion of the double standard of gold and silver. consists of 2 regiments with and 2 without Invitations would be addressed to the other mounted batteries, each regiment containing 10 powers, and the question then was whether batteries of 6 guns, with 94 men and 64 horses it should be in the name of France alone or in time of peace and 155 men and 152 horses France and the United States jointly. Subseon a war-footing. There are 3 regiments of quently, early in March, a joint note of the standing artillery of 18 batteries, each battery two Governments was addressed in identical being manned with 78 men in peace and 176 terms to their ministers in other countries, to in war; 1 engineer regiment of 3 battalions be by them communicated to the several govwith 10 companies each, 85 men strong in ernments to which they were accredited. The peace and 300 strong in war. The Belgian note was as follows: Citizens' Guard, or militia, has 120,000 men enrolled, of which 30,000 are active. The King, Government of the United States, having exchanged
The Government of the Republic of France and the in an address on the occasion of the opening of views upon the subject of a conference between the the new dock at Ghent, declared that the se powers principally interested in the question of estabcure establishment of national military de- lishing internationally the use of gold and silver as bifenses ought to keep even pace with the ad- metallic money and securing fixity of relative value be
tween those metals, and finding themselves in accord as vancement in material prosperity, referring to to the usefulness and importance of such a conference, the development of a strong military reserve, and as to the time and place at which the same should which has been the aim of the Belgian Govern- be held, have the honor now to invite the Goverment for many years.
to take part in a conference by such BI-METALLIO STANDARD. The Inter- at Paris on Tuesday, the 19th of April next, to con
delegates as each government may appoint, to be held national Monetary Congress, which was held sider and adopt for presentation to the governments in connection with the Paris Exposition of so represented for their acceptance a plan and system 1878, having produced no practical result, the for the establishment by international convention of Government of France endeavored during the the use of gold and silver as bi-metallic money at a
fixed relative value between those two metals. two years following to initiate a movement for bringing the nations together for some more Messrs. William M. Evarts, Allen G. Thurformal action. France and other members of man, and Timothy 0. Howe were promptly the Latin Union still maintained the double, appointed as delegates on behalf of the United or bi-metallic, monetary standard; Great Brit- States, and Mr. š. Dana Horton was subseain persisted in the single gold standard, ex., quently added. The French Government apcept for India, where silver constituted the pointed M. Magnin, the Minister of Finance; currency; Germany, having recently adopted M. Dumas, Secretary of the Academy of Scithe gold standard, continued to dispose of her erces, and President of the Mint Commission;
M. Denomandie, Senator and head of the Bank He dwelt on the recommendation in favor of of France; and M. Cernuschi, the well-known bi-metallism by the committee of the United advocate of the bi-metallic standard. Ger States Congress in 1876. He explained the many accepted the invitation, with the reser causes of the non-success of the Monetary vation that would not be bound by any de Conference in 1878. As regarded the objects cisions of the conference, and selected Baron of the present conference, it was indispensable, Thielmann as its delegate. Austro-Hungary in order that silver shall regain its former named three delegates : Count Kuefstein, Coun- value, that it should again be freely coined cilor of Legation; Ministerial Councilor Ni side by side with gold. A committee of fifteen, bauer; and Herr Hegudus, of the Reichsrath. one for each state represented, was appointed Their instructions indicated a leaning toward to draw up and report a list of questions to be bi-metallism, but practically required them to considered. Dr. J. C. Kern, of Switzerland, hold a neutral position. There was much dis was made president of the committee as the cussion in Great Britain regarding the pro senior member, and Herr Vrolik, of Holland, priety of sending representatives. There were was chosen to act as chairman at its sittings. memorials in favor of appointing delegates ad There were several meetings of the conference dressed to the Government by the Liverpool and of the committees prior to May 5th, when Chamber of Commerce, the merchants and the following questions, prepared by the Dutch bankers of London, and some others, and re- delegate, M. Vrolik, were submitted as the remonstrances against it from Manchester and port of the committee: other quarters. The Government assumed that 1. Have the diminution and great oscillations in the the terms of the invitation were such that it value of silver, which have occurred especially in lato could not be accepted without committing those years, been injurious to commerce and consequently.to participating in the conference to a support of the general prosperity? Is it desirable for the ratio of
value between the two metals to have a great fixity ? its conclusions. On the 7th of April Sir
2. Are the phenomena indicated in the first part of Charles Dilke, in the House of Commons, the foregoing question to be attributed to the increase stated that England could not consent to dis- in the production of silver or to legislative measures ? cuss the principle of bi-metallisın, and had de 3. Is it probable or not that if a large group of clined to take part in the conference; but the
states accords free and unlimited coinage of legal
pieces of both metals, having full paying power in a Indian Government would send a delegate, who
uniform proportion for the gold and silver contained would not, however, participate in the discus- in the monetary unit of each metal, a stability, if not sion. The other colonies might also be repre- absolute, at least very substantial, will be obtained in sented.
the relative value of those metals? When the conference met, on the 19th of atively, what measures should be taken for reducing
4. In case the preceding question is answered affirmApril, fourteen governments were represented; to a minimum the oscillations in the ratio of value beviz., those of France, the United States, Ger tween the two metals? For instance, would it be many, Austro-Hungary, Italy, Spain, Portugal,
desirable to impose on chartered banks of issue the Holland, Belgium, Russia, Norway and Sweden, gold and silver offered them by the public? Could
obligation of always accepting at a fixed price ingots of Denmark, Switzerland, and Greece. Several the public be insured the same privileges in counof them had but one delegate. Sir Louis Mal tries where there is no chartered bank of issue? let and Lord Reay, the delegates for India, had
Should the mintage be gratuitous, or at least uniform, not arrived, and it was understood that Sir A. in all countries for the two metals ? Should there be T. Galt would appear in the interest of Canada, national commerce in the preceding metals ?
an understanding to leave free of all obstruction interand that Mr. O. W. Fremantle, deputy-master 5. In adopting bi-metallism, what should be the ratio of the British Mint, would be present during between the weight of pure gold and silver contained some part of the proceedings. The delegates in the monetary units ? were welcomed by M. Barthélemy St.-Hilaire, After this programme had been submitted to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, who the conference, Baron Thielmann made the folsaid that the object of the conference was to lowing statement on behalf of the German establish a normal monetary standard instead Government: “We admit unreservedly that a of the shattered equilibrium of the past, and to rehabilitation of silver is to be desired, and consider the best means for preventing a recur- that it might be realized by the establishment rence of the disastrous crises. He concluded of the free coinage of silver in a certain numby declaring that, if the conference did not ber of the most populous states represented achieve immediate success, it would, at least, in this conference, which, with that view, have raised controversies which are indispensa- would adopt as a basis a fixed ratio between ble to the discovery of truth, and established gold and silver. Nevertheless, Germany, whose principles which will bear fruit in the future. monetary reform is so far advanced, and whose On motion of Mr. Evarts, delegate from the general monetary situation does not seem to United States, M. Magnin, French Minister of demand so radical a change of system, does not Finances, was elected president of the con see that it is possible to consent, so far as she ference. M. Magnin reviewed the different is concerned, to the free coinage of silver. Her phases of the question, and showed the incon- delegates can not, therefore, subscribe to such veniences which the system established in 1867 a proposal. The Imperial Government is, howof a gold standard, with silver as a transitory ever, quite disposed to second, so far as it is companion, had brought about in Germany. able, the efforts of other powers, which might
be disposed to unite to bring about a rehabili- tives of various governments explaining their tation of silver by means of the free coinage of position. The German delegate stated that that metal. For that purpose, and to guarantee Germany adhered to the single gold standard, those powers against the influx of German sil- but was prepared to suspend its sales of silver, ver, which they appear to apprehend, the Im- and might increase the number of marks in perial Government would impose on itself the circulation, and possibly increase the amount following restrictions: During a period of of silver per mark, and withdraw the five-mark sume years it would abstain from all sales of gold-piece. The delegates of Russia, Norway silver, and during another period of a certain and Sweden, Switzerland, and Greece, spoke duration it would engage to sell annually only with reservation in regard to the acceptance a limited quantity, so small that the general of the bi-metallic standard. The Spanish market would not be encumbered by it. The delegate proposed an adjournment, to secure duration of those periods, and the quantity of fuller instructions, and reserved entire freedom silver to be sold annually during the second, of action. On the 7th of May Mr. Piersen, of would form the subject of subsequent negotia- Holland, made a speech advocating bi-metallism, tions."
and M. Pirmez, of Belgium, replied. M. SeismitThe delegates for India, who appeared at Doda, the leading delegate of Italy, declared in this stage of the proceedings, acted under the the course of the proceedings that Italy was following instructions: “You will explain that, there "to sustain the principle of bi-metalin sending a delegate to the conference, the lism." On another occasion he thought the Government of India must not be held to com conference would not know how to separate mit itself to the adoption of the principle of without having voted a motion affirming the the bi-metallic system in India, and that you necessity of doing something in the interest of are not authorized, without further instruc- the rehabilitation of silver, with the proportions, to vote on any question raised at the tion of 1 to 154.” It was noted, however, as a conference. You will, however, add that, significant circumstance that, in passing the while the Secretary of State in Council is un- act for the resumption of specie payments, the willing to encourage an expectation of any ma Italian Chamber had declared that "it can not terial change at present in the monetary policy be obligatory on private individuals to receive of India, he would be ready to consider any silver money which does not bear the mint. measures which might be suggested for adop- mark of the country." This was taken as an tion in India as being calculated to promote indication of a disposition to be free from the the re-establishment of the value of silver. It stipulations on which the Latin Union is based, is desirable that you should, so far as possible, one of which recognizes the international charavoid giving any pledge on the part of the acter of the money coined by its members. Government of India which would in any man. Among the propositions advanced was one ner interfere with its future liberty of action; by the German delegate, suggesting that if but in the event of your being pressed on the the United States, France, Italy, and Holland subject, or your seeing reason to think it de- agreed to an unlimited coinage of silver at the sirable that such a declaration should be made, ratio of 154 to 1 of gold, the other states might you are authorized to agree, on the part of the observe certain conditions, such as not coining Government of India, that for some definite gold in denominations lower than ten francs, term of years, not exceeding ten, it will under- and improving the fineness of silver coins. On take not to depart in any direction calculated the 19th of May the following order of the to lower the value of silver, from the existing day was adopted : “After having heard the practice of coining silver freely in the Indian general discussion and examining the monetary mints as legal tender throughout the Indian situation from an international point of view, dominions of her Majesty. Such a declaration and having regard to declarations made in the must, however, be conditional on the accept- name of certain governments, and in consideraance by a number of the principal states of an tion of the fact that several delegates desire agreement binding them, in some manner or a temporary suspension of the sittings in order other, to open their mints for a similar time to to refer to their governments, the conference the coinage of silver as full legal tender in the decides to adjourn until June 30th." proportion of 154 of silver to 1 of gold, and Before the adjournment, Sir Louis Mallet the engagement on the part of India would be made a statement of the views of the Indian obligatory only so long as that agreement re- Government. It would engage, he said, not to mained in force."
change the system of free mintage of silver durMr. Fremantle and Sir A. T. Galt, as well ing a period to be settled by ulterior negotiaas Sir L. Mallet and Lord Reay, were present tions, provided a certain number of the princiafter the plenary sitting of May 5th, but pal states undertook to maintain such free stated that the English Government was thus mintage for the same period at the ratio of represented out of deference to the inviting 15%. He claimed for India that she had done powers, and that its delegates, while willing to more than any other country to prevent an furnish information, would not vote on any aggravation of the depreciation of silver; for proposition. The discussions were kept up the Calcutta and Bombay mints coined silver in from time to time until May 19th, representa- 1879, the date of the last return, to the amount
of seven millions. India, moreover, was in condition of coining silver to a restricted no way responsible for the depreciation, but had amount. In view of the attitude of various been a victim of the action of others, so that other governments, Mr. Thurman, of the United she not only had a right to offer to co-operate States delegation, expressed the conviction that in efforts for maintaining the value of silver, the offers of England and Germany would not but had in a certain sense a right to call for such warrant the United States in allowing the coinefforts. Reviewing the monetary conferences age of silver. The United States, he said, did of 1869 and 1878, Sir Louis remarked that the not insist on immediate and unqualified bilatter, while reversing the decision of the metallism, but were ready to accept approaches former against silver, left it to the discretion thereto, believing it would eventually prevail; of each state to use either metal or both; but a but they could not incur the risk of altering better solution was required. The loss by ex the standard through the conflicting or inchange of the Indian Treasury last year was harmonious action of other states. estimated at two millions; the greater part of The position of the Bank of England was the remittances to England was obligatory and stated by Mr. Fremantle. In reply to an inpermanent, and an increase of the revenue quiry from Lord Granville as to the terms on was difficult; the land-tax being assessed in which the bank would be willing to resort to perpetuity in Bengal, and for terms of years the practice of holding silver bullion in the elsewhere. He dwelt on the inconveniences to issue department, it had been explained that commerce of an uncertainty in the value of the the possibility of doing so “depended entirely rupee, and urged that a stable international on the return of the mints of other countries money was imperatively preferred, and insisted to such rules as would insure the certainty of that if law was entitled to impose a single the conversion of silver into gold and gold metal as money, it had an equal right to im- into silver. These rules need not be identical pose two metals at a fixed ratio. The impossi- with those formerly in force." It was needbility of England joining in the scheme should ful, however, that they should be such as not be considered fatal to its success; while the would secure the facility of exchange, indisfailure of the conference might involve, not pensable to the resumption of silver purchases the maintenance of the status quo, but the ex- by the Bank of England, whose responsibilities tension of the gold standard. If the fall of are contracted in gold. silver continued, India, on the discovery of The general position of the British Governfresh gold-mines or some other opportunity, ment was stated in the House of Commons by might reluctantly enter into the struggle for Mr. Gladstone in the following terms: the possession of the only metal having a firm international basis. The difficulties on the and no authority conferred on the British representa
No engagement has been made by the Government, side of England and Germany must have been tive at the Paris Conference, to alter the limits now foreseen, and he exhorted France and America imposed by law upon the use of silver as currency. not to be thereby deterred from persevering in The Government were informed that an agreement an effort which, like all great reforms, might might be possible between the silver-using powers, it;
among other matters, the Bank of England would require time, patience, courage, and faith. hold in the issue department part of its reserve in
Before the separation of the delegates, they silver; and they communicated their information to were presented with samples of a five-franc the bank, inviting the Bank Court to state its opinion piece composed of gold and silver in equal pro- the bank by the act of 1844. The Court replied that
upon such an exercise of the discretion intrusted to portions, and struck by the French Govern- it saw no reason why an assurance should not be conment as a suggestion in regard to international veyed to the Monetary Conference if the Treasury bi-metallic money.
thought it desirable; that the bank, agreeably with The conference reassembled on the 30th of
the act of 1844, will be always open to the purchase
of silver, provided that mints of other countries return June, but after a brief sitting adjourned to
to such rules as would insure the conversion of gold July 2d. The Austrian delegates returned into silver and silver into gold. The Treasury, notwith fresh instructions to maintain a friendly ing the statement of the bank that it saw no danger attitude in regard to bi-metallism, but not to
to the principle of the act of 1844 in such an assurance, depart from the reserve previously displayed. caused the delegate of the United Kingdom at the
conference to be instructed to convey the assurance M. Thorrner, the Russian delegate, had made
to the conference. Mr. Fremantle informed the cona report to his government, in which he said ference accordingly, at its meeting of yesterday (July that Russia should prepare for the resumption Sth). The Secretary of State for India will state of specie payments by permitting the circula- whether he has authorized the delegate of India to
There is tion of silver and gold at a premium, and that, convey any assurance to the conference.
no intention on the part of the Government to alter when resumption becomes possible, silver the present currency law. should be the standard, gold being permitted to circulate at a premium corresponding with
Lord Hartington made the following stateits market price in silver. The premium
ment: should be fixed from time to time by the Gov. The only engagement which the representatives of ernment, and not follow the minor course of the Government of India at the Monetary Conference fluctuations. The Italian delegate reported have been authorized to make on behalf of that Gove that his government would enter the proposed undertake not to depart in any direction calculated union for sustaining the double standard, on to lower the value of silver from the existing practice