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Prague, one of the earliest in Germany, into a belief, but that the conscientious fulfillment of bilingual establishment; or, leaving the Univer- duty did not insure success. He did not think sity of Prague in its old position, to establish that he could interpret the events that had a new Czech university. The efforts of the taken place in the House of late, otherwise Czech party were directed in 1880 to getting than by concluding from them that he no longer its teachers gradually introduced, and a resolu- possessed the confidence of the House. He had tion was passed by the House authorizing the become painfully aware that, in these circumGovernment to ask from it the grant of money stances, he could no longer be of service to the necessary for this purpose. In the estimates House, and he had, therefore, decided to give presented for 1881 no such grant was asked up his position. As the rules of the House did for. Upon the demands of the Czech party, not allow of his resignation, and as he was not the Government appointed a commission to in- certain that the House would accede to his revestigate the feasibility of the plan. The mat- quest to relieve him from the office, he had ter was settled by an imperial order in April, chosen the only course open and had resigned providing that henceforth two separate univer- his seat. His seat was filled by the election of sities should exist under the common name of Dr. Smolka, the First Vice-President, while “ Carolo-Ferdinandea,” in one of which the Prince Lobkowitz was elected to fill the latter medium of instruction shall be the German, post, so that the presidency, as well as both and in the other the Czech language. The vice-presidencies, had now passed into the two faculties of Philosophy and Law were to be hands of the majority. in readiness by October 1st. On May 15th the The session of the Reichstag was closed by Government presented to the Chamber two the Government in June. bills relating to this matter. One related to The continual anti-German policy of the the legal status and the coarse of study, while Government brought about a union of the two the other provided for the necessary credits factions of the Liberal and Constitutional parfor creating the two Czech faculties. The sum ties into a German party, a union which was necessary for this purpose was set down at heartily approved by Dr. Herbst, the leader of 23,000 florins for the current year. The first the Constitutional party. bill provided, among other matters, that all In April the Emperor sanctioned a measure property belonging to the university, or to any empowering the Cisleithan ministry to raise of the faculties, should in future be regarded a 5 per cent loan of 50,000,000 florins, which as the common property of both universities, amount was required to make up the deficit in or of the respective faculties. A student can the last budget of this half of the empire. not be immatriculated in both universities, but The loan was at once subscribed, and twentya student of one shall be at liberty to attend five times over, the amount actually offered bethe lectures of the other, and these lectures are ing upward of 1,250,000,000 florins. The real to be credited to him as if he had attended amount of the issue was 54,347,800 florins, the them in his own university. The bill was price being at 92. passed on May 31st, after a motion making it The foreign relations of the empire during compulsory upon every student at the new the year were of the most friendly character. Czech university, who should intend entering In August the Emperor met Emperor William a public profession, to have a perfect knowledge of Germany at Gastein, and the usual demonof the German language, had been rejected. strations of friendship were made, while the

In the early part of the year a bill was intro- meeting was said to be without any political duced in the Lower House by Herr Lienbacher significance. of the Clerical party, providing that in future On October 27th, King Humbert and Queen any provincial Diet should have the power of Margharita of Italy arrived in Vienna on a visdecreasing the term of compulsory school at- it to the imperial family. It did not transpire tendance, which heretofore had been eight what occurred at this meeting, but it was genyears. The bill was supported by the Auton- erally agreed that the greatest political signifiomist party, who thought in this way to in- cance was to be attached to it. "It was regardcrease the autonomy of the several crown-lands, ed as marking the admission of Italy to the and was strongly opposed by the Constitutional Austro-German alliance, while it was thought party. It passed the Lower House with a ma that at the same time questions relating to the jority of 13, but was rejected by the Herren- estates of the deposed princes of Naples and baus by the decisive vote of 74 to 32, a vote Parma, who were closely related to the impewhich was entirely unexpected, as it was rial family of Austria, were definitely settled. thought that the recent creation of new life- They were received with great demonstrations members had given the ministry who support- of friendship, and on their return the Emperor ed the bill a majority in this House.

accompanied them as far as Venice. On March 11th Count Coronini, the Presi The era of good feeling between the empire dent of the Lower House of the Reichsrath, and Italy, which seemed to have been brought resigned his seat in that House. In his letter about by the visit of King Humbert, was threatof resignation, Count Coronini, who belongs to ened by some remarks made during a debate the Constitutional party, declared that he had in the #ungarian delegation. At a committeeendeavored to do his duty according to his best meeting, which was held with closed doors,


after Baron von Kallay, a chief of department He succeeded Count Andrassy as Minister of in the ministry of foreign affairs, had stated Foreign Affairs in 1879, and had continued to that, in spite of the Irredenta movement, Aus- hold the office. This vacancy was filled by tria entertained the most cordial relations to- the appointment of Count Kalnoky, the former ward Italy, Count Andrassy, who was at the embassador to Russia. time looked upon as the probable successor of The victory of the Czechs in the university Baron Haymerle, was thereupon reported to question was followed by excesses in Prague. have stated, in the course of a speech, that he Attacks were made on several occasions by the no longer feared the Irredenta movement, since Bohemian students upon the Germans, and it the bond between the monarchy and Germany was necessary for the authorities to interfere had become so strong. If the movement should in behalf of the latter. The Ministry of Edulead to a war between Austria and Italy, and cation, upon the recommendation of the senate the latter country should be defeated, it might of the university, ordered a suspension of the bring about serious consequences for the royal lectures for the summer, and a strict investihouse of Italy. These remarks caused consid- gation. A number of Czech journals, which erable excitement, and it was even stated that attempted to continue the agitation, were conthe Italian embassador was about to ask for fiscated. Other excesses took place later in the kis passports. In the full meeting of the Hun- year, in consequence of which the administragarian delegation of November 8th, Baron von tion of the crown-land was placed in the hands Kallay declared the report of the meeting with of Field-Marshal Kraus, who had been up to these remarks to be incomplete, and added that that time the military governor. he had laid particular stress upon the friendly The Czech excesses in Prague called forth relations brought about by the late visit of the greatest indignation among the German King Humbert, which seemed to have been re- population of the empire, notably in Vienna, ceived with satisfaction by all classes of the where the Common Council passed resolutions Italian population. Count Andrassy called to condemning those excesses, while the language mind the fact that he had accompanied the Em- employed by the Liberal journals of that city peror to Venice, and that during his term of was so strong as to cause the suspension of the office he had kept up friendly relations with latter. Italy.

A demand was made by the Czechs, that as The meeting of the Emperors of Germany Vienna was the capital of a state containing and Russia at Dantzic, in September, called many different nationalities, of whom the forth considerable surprise in Austria. But Czechs formed a large part, that Czech teachthe prevailing feeling was that it would tend ers be employed in the public and industo strengthen the Austro-German alliance, and trial schools of that city. This demand was the Government hastened to give expression to promptly met and denied by the Town Counthis feeling in a dispatch to the Emperors at cil. Dantzic, declaring its satisfaction at the meet The City Council of Prague, which is entireing.

ly in the hands of the Czechs, ordered that the The assassination of the Emperor of Russia children of Bohemian parents who were atcalled forth expressions of sympathy from the tending German schools should be removed Emperor. In the Upper House of the Reichs- from them. The councils of other communities rath, the President gave expression at its first passed similar resolutions, and, in consequence session to the feelings of abhorrence of the of the troubles arising therefrom, the matter House at the crime. He said the event was the was brought before the Provincial School Counmore painful, on account of the indication it cil. This body annulled the order of the city gave of the existence of a dark but wide-spread councils, and declared that it rested entirely conspiracy, threatening to undermine the prin- with the parents to which school they wished ciples of society, which the Upper House was to send their children. bound to stand in the front rank to defend. On August 12th the Czech National Theatre The President, in conclusion, called upon the in Prague was completely destroyed by fire a members present to rise from their seats in few days before it was to be opened. This order to testify to the sorrow they experienced conflagration called forth the deepest sympathy at this event, as well as to the sympathy they in all parts of the monarchy, and the Germans felt with the grief which filled the heart of the particularly tried to show, by their sympathy Austrian monarch, who in the Emperor Alex- and their contributions to the collection which ander II had lost a true friend. The Presi- was taken up for its restoration, that they bore dent's remarks were warmly applanded. In no ill-will to their Bohemian neighbors, and the Lower House, however, the Poles declared that it was their earnest desire to do away that they could not vote for any resolutions of with the struggle between the different nationregret, and the new President, Smolka, a mem- alities. ber of the Polish party, refused to permit any The marriage of the Crown Prince Rudolph resolution of the kind to be discussed.

to Stéphanie, the second daughter of the King The monarchy suffered a severe loss in the of the Belgians, took place on May 10th, in Videath of Baron Haymerle, who died suddenly enna. The ceremony was performed by Caron October 10th, of apoplexy (see HAYMERLE). dinal-Prince Schwarzenberg, Archbishop of

Prague, in the chapel in the Burg, the Imperial Hungary, was born at Laeken, Brussels, on Palace, in the presence of the King and Queen May 21, 1864. of the Belgians, the Prince of Wales, the Prince Vienna was visited on December 8th by one and Princess of Prussia, and many others of of the most disastrous conflagrations on record. high rank. The day was given up to public The Ring Theatre was completely destroyed festivities, and the wedding called forth the by fire, during which nearly one thousand pergreatest demonstrations of joy, not only on the sons were supposed to have lost their lives. part of the Viennese, but throughout the em- The fire broke out at ten minutes before seven, pire. After the ceremony, the bridal pair set when the theatre was already comfortably out on a tour of the provinces, and were every- filled, and spread rapidly. In the rush for where received with demonstrations of affec- escape which ensued, the passages and doors tion.

became blocked, making exit an impossibilThe Archduke Rudolph Francis Charles Jo- ity, especially from the galleries, and when the seph, Crown Prince Imperial of Austria, Crown firemen entered the building they found heaps Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, was of dead bodies everywhere. born August 21, 1858. He is the son and sec The Austrian census is taken at irregular ond child of the Emperor Francis Joseph and intervals. The last census was taken on Deof the Empress Elizabeth, who was a daughter cember 31, 1880, the one previous to that in of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria.

1869. It contains, as in almost all other EuPrincess Stéphanie Clotilde Louise Marie ropean countries, only statistics of population. Charlotte, second daughter of King Leopold II The population of Vienna, according to the of the Belgians, and Queen Marie, a daughter last census, was 707,532, an increase of about of the Archduke John of Austria, Palatine of 100,000 upon the population of 1869.


BACON, LEONARD, D. D., a distinguished scandal, well known throughout all the counAmerican Congregationalist clergyman, born try. Dr. Bacon was an active worker in periin Detroit, Michigan, February 19, 1802; died odical literature as well as in the special duties in New Haven, Connecticut, December 24, of his profession. From 1826 to 1838 he was 1881, having nearly completed his eightieth one of the editors of " The Christian Spectayear. His father was a missionary to the In- tor,” a religious magazine published in New dians in the then “great West," and died in Haven. In 1843 he aided in establishing “The 1817, leaving three sons and four daughters. New-Englander,” a bi-monthly, and kept up Leonard's preparatory education was at the his connection with it to the end of his life. Hartford school, and in 1817 he entered the lIe was also one of the founders of “ The InSophomore class in Yale College. Among his dependent," in 1847, in company with Drs. classmates was Theodore D. Woolsey, after- Storrs and Thompson. For sixteen years he ward President of Yale, and a life-long friend was one of the regular working editors, but in and fellow-worker. Having been designated '1863 he retired from the active management of for a minister from the first, he entered An- this journal, though frequently contributing to dover Seminary in 1820, where he prosecuted its columns. Besides his industrious labors in bis theological studies for four years. In connection with journalism, Dr. Bacon pubMarch, 1825, he was ordained after the Con- lished a number of books: “Life of Richard gregational pattern, and invited to the pasto- Baxter" (1830); “Manual for Young Church rate of the First Congregational Church of Members” (1833); “Thirteen Historical DisNew Haven, the oldest society of this denomi- courses, on the Completion of Two Hundred pation in that city. Among his predecessors Years from the Beginning of the First Church had been Moses Stuart, professor at Andover, in New Haven” (1839); “Slavery discussed in and Dr. Taylor, professor in the theological Occasional Essays from 1833 to 1838" (1846); seminary at New Haven. The position thus “Christian Self-Culture" (1863); “Introducentered upon by the young and ardent minis- tory Essay" to Cony beare and Howson's St. ter was retained by him for forty-one years, Paul (1868); and a large number of addresses, when (in 1866) he was made Professor of The- etc., before colleges, which have been sepaology in Yale College. He was also appointed rately published. Dr. Bacon was an admirable lecturer on ecclesiastical history and American type of the American Congregationalist in both Church history. In March, 1874, he was mod- theory and practice. He was a man thorougherator of the council which met in Brooklyn, ly in earnest, and entirely settled and certain New York, and took part in pronouncing á in his convictions. Consequently, he was at rebuke to Henry Ward Beecher's society for times rather dogmatic, and very severe upon expelling Theodore Tilton without a formal his opponents, especially “prelatical" folks, trial. In February, 1876, he was moderator whether Episcopal or Presbyterian. There of the advisory council called by the Plymouth was an inherent love of polemics in him, and society in regard to the not altogether savory he enjoyed hugely the giving some people a

good hammering with his pen. Few topics caucus by a single vote. In 1855 he was marescaped his attention, and he took an active in- ried to Frances E. Newberry, daughter of a terest in political and social questions, quite as pioneer missionary, who, with six children, much so, in fact, as in those usually considered survives him. Governor Bagley was a liberalto belong to the ministerial profession. This ist in religion, and was actively identified with was shown in his opposition to the early aboli- the Unitarian Church at Detroit. tionists of the Lloyd Garrison type, his ear. BANK SHARES, NATIONAL, SALE AND Taxnest advocacy of the colonization scheme, his ATION OF. A provision of the National Bankjoining the Free-Soil party, his strong siding ing Act makes it unlawful for a national bankwith the Union cause when secession became ing association to loan money upon, purchase, decided, his vigorous support of the movement or acquire its own stock, except to prevent loss which secured the repeal of the "omnibus on a debt previously contracted. A shareclause" of the Connecticut divorce law, etc. holder, who has parted with his shares to the Leonard Bacon will hold an honorable place in bank, can in the event of subsequent insolthe records of the nineteenth century, and it vency be proceeded against the same as the may be doubted if there be any one in the other shareholders. The question whether an Congregationalist body who can adequately innocent person who has sold his shares, withsupply his loss.

out suspicion that the bank was the purchaser, BAGLEY, JOHN J., ex-Governor of Michi- is held under that clause of the law, was began, died in San Francisco, California, July 27, fore the courts for two years, and was finally 1881, having gone to the Pacific coast in pur- decided by the Supreme Court at Washington suit of health. He was born in Medina, Or- in May. One Laflin sold shares of the National leans County, New York, July 24, 1832, his Bank of Missouri to a broker, to whom he defather being a native of New Hampshire and livered the certificate with a transfer power his mother of Connecticut. His school educa- signed in blank, as is customary in stock-sales. tion was obtained at Lockport, New York. At The broker was the agent of the president of the age of thirteen he went with his father to the bank, who received the certificate and paid Michigan, settling at Constantine, in St. Joseph for it with his individual check. He was actCounty, where for a brief period his time was ing for the bank, and the shares were entered divided between a clerkship in a village store on the books in the name of a clerk, and paid and farm-work. At the age of fifteen he found for out of the bank's funds. Two months later his way to Detroit, and secured employment in the bank failed. The receiver applied to the a tobacco-factory, and when twenty-one years court to have the sale declared void. It was old engaged in the same line of business for him- argued that, notwithstanding the good faith of self, continuing therein, either as sole propri- the seller, the transfer was void because there etor, partner, or stockholder, until his death, was no legal purchaser, and also that as shareaccumulating a large property. He was alsó holder he had constructive notice of the bank's largely interested in other manufacturing cor- part of the transaction and of its insolvency. porations, and for some years was vice-presi- Justice Field's opinion states that the same rules dent of a national bank. He served Detroit as a hold in the case of national-bank shares which member of the Board of Education, as alderman, govern the sales of other corporation stocks. and as a member and president of the Board of The delivery of the stock certificate, with blank Police Commissioners. In 1868-69 he was transfer power indorsed, and the receipt of the chairman of the Republican State Central Com- price, completed the sale. The transfer on the mittee, gaining great credit in conducting the books was not needful for passing the title. campaign of the former year. In 1872 he was The validity of the sale, without the fraudulent nominated as the Republican candidate for complicity of the seller, was not affected by Governor, and was elected by a large majority, the subsequent illegal transaction. running ahead of the Grant electors. Ile was A number of Federal court decisions have re-elected in 1874. During his administration been made relative to the State taxation of nahe was the firm friend of the charitable and tional-bank shares which favor the State side of educational institutions of the State, and urged the question. In the German National Bank legislation for the promotion of their interests 18. Kimball, in Illinois, the Supreme Court re- which he regarded as the interests of the fused an injunction against the tax, ruling that State—while his words of official commenda- the person who wishes to resist a tax as untion were supplemented by liberal contribu- equal, must first tender so much of the tax as tions, especially to the university and to the is just. In the same State a suit was brought State Public School for Dependent Children. in the Circuit Court, complaining of the law of To his recommendation as Governor the State 1880 under which the assessments were made owes the change in its method of dealing with as granting exemptions to stockholders of corthe liquor-traffic—from a dead-letter constitu- porations other than banks. The court held tional and statutory prohibition to effective that it was not the true effect of the law to taxation and restraining legislation. In Janu- discriminate against bank-shares. In Ohio the ary, 1881, he was a candidate for United States Circuit Court ruled that compulsory process Senator for the term commencing March 4th, may be issued by the State courts, requiring but was defeated in the Republican legislative the officers to make an exhibit of the accounts











2 18 118


4 26 21 71 82 18

14 18

9 39 70 10







77 81

5 23 8


of the bank, in order that the tax-officers may assess the deposits.

BAPTISTS. The “ American Baptist YearBook" gives a summary of the regular Bap


1,684 1,050 164,784 Arizona..


14 tist churches of the world, of which the fol.



616 52,798 lowing are the totals for the several continents: California..


78 6,076 Colorado..


14 1,289 Connecticut..

119 125 21,618 CONTINENTS. Members. Dakota..


781 Delaware.


12 2,004 District of Columbia


23 8,819 North America. 1,152 26,945 17,163 2,388,032 Florida....

827 207

17,997 South America (Brazil).



2,705 1,630 235,881 Europe.

61 8,028 2,111
826.950 Idaho...

43 Asia.. 3 520 288 42,072 Mlinois..

927 707 69,124 Africa..

3,608 Indiana..

557 843 42,029 Australasia

4 143
95 7,918 Indian Territory

98 84 5,915 Iowa...

408 274 24,186 Total.... 1,221 80,099 19,703 2,769,389 Kansas...

441 809 17,648 Kentucky,


1,006 163,696

755 428 The whole number of Baptists in the United Louisiana.


262 176 21,018 States, including all the branches of the Bap- Maryland...


42 8,806 tist family, may be represented, according to


289 828 48,764 Michigan...

852 807 27,285 the most complete accessible statistics, as fol. Minnesota

154 112 7,056 lows:





1,449 889 95,967 Nebraska.


77 4,856 Novada.


110 New Hampshire.

84 90 9,077 New Jersey..

178 200 Anti-mission Baptists.... 40,000

81,936 New Mexico.


20 Baptists (regular).

26,060 16,596 2,296,827
New York.

877 801 Church of God (Winnebrenna


North Carolina. rians). 400

1,905 1,068 172,951 850 80,000 Ohio.

633 469 Free-Win Baptists. 1,471

49,950 1,294 79,851

50 Mennonites.

Oregon. 120

2,957 90 20,000 Pennsylvania

547 463 Seventh-day Baptists. 84

83,585 So 8,548 Rhode Island.


77 Six-principle Baptists. 20

10.821 12 2,000 South Carolina.

1,126 642 Tunkers. 500

140,442 1,200 50,000 Tennessee...

1,817 806 110,847


20,022 2,526,732

1,111 107,678 Utah.


16 Vermont





1,846 718 207,559 Washington


424 -The statistics of the regular Baptist churches West Virginia

881 203 25,239 in the United States, as given by the “ Amer


181 185 11,881 Wyoming..


101 ican Baptist Year-Book " for 1881, will be found in the table at the head of the next column.


1,180 26,060 16,596 | 2,296,827 The number of additions during the year by baptism were 102,724; number of Sunday. logue 1,326. Arrangements were in progress schools, 13,492, with 116,355 officers and for the preparation of a series of commentateachers, and 926,979 scholars. Total amount ries on the New Testament under the superof benevolent contributions, $4,389,752. vision of Professor Alvah Hovey, D. D., of

The “ Year-Book” gives lists of seven theo- Newton Theological Seminary. In the mislogical institutions, with 37 instructors and 430 sionary department, thirty-seven colporteurs students for the ministry ; thirty-one colleges and thirty-two State Sunday-school missionand universities, with 280 instructors and 4,609 aries had been at work in forty-three States students ; forty-eight academies, seminaries, and Territories. Increased attention had been institntes, and female colleges, with 350 in- paid to the circulation of the Scriptures, of structors and 5,522 students in the United which 13,481 copies had been given away and States; and sixty-eight weekly, semi-monthly, many thousand copies sold. The German monthly, and quarterly periodicals in the Unit- Baptist Publication House employed, with the ed States and Canada.

aid of the National Bible Society of Scotland, The anniversaries of the Northern Baptist twenty-two colporteurs, and bad circulated societies of the United States were held at In- 37,000 Bibles and Testaments, besides large dianapolis, Indiana, beginning with the meet- quantities of tracts and other publications, in ing of the American Baptist Publication So- Germany. A Sunday-school Institute was held ciety, May 19th. The receipts of this society in connection with the anniversary of the sofor the year had been $326,820 in the busi- ciety, at which efforts were resolved upon for ness department and $94,317 in the mission- establishing Sunday-schools among the colored ary department, making a total of $421,137, people of the Baptist churches. and showing an increase in both departments The forty-ninth annual meeting of the Amer. of $71,573 over the receipts of the previous ican Baptist_Home Mission Society was held year. Fifty-seven new publications bad been May 24th. The total amount of the receipts issued during the year, making the present for the year bad been $235,032, or $69,580 number of publications on the society's cata more than had been received in the previous


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