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ghans. His yoke was hard on the country miles nearer Candahar, encamped in a strong around Herat. Treasure could only be raised position on ascending ground. "Gholam Hyder by harsh exactions, and Ayoob's own imperi- attacked him vigorously, and gained some adous, jealous, and vindictive character was calcu- vantage at first; but the desertion of a regilated to raise up many enemies. In March, an ment of Ghilzais and his own bad generalship insurrection of the neighboring tribes, joined lost him the day. The Cabooli troops took to by mutineers from the army, Candahari and flight, and many of them came in and surrenHerati soldiery, nearly put an end to his am dered to Ayoob. The battle, which was fought bitious plans. His position in the country July 27th, lasted only an hour; eighteen guns at large seemed, nevertheless, to be growing and a considerable treasure fell into the hands stronger. The prolonged occupation of Can- of Ayoob's general. The Ameer's Governor of dahar by the British visibly injured the pros- Candahar and his staff fled, and Ayoob's forces pects of Abdurrahman by ranging the patri- quietly took possession of the city on the 30th. otic and religious sentiment of the country on Gholam Hyder Khan retreated with the remAyoob's side. The Ameer's rule extended only nant of his army to Kelat-i-Ghilzai. Here, over Caboolistan, Balkh, and Badakshan, and finding re-enforcements from Cabool, he made a was not exercised farther west than Gbazni. stand. The Ameer's position improved from

After waiting until April for Abdurrah- week to week. Dissensions broke out in Ayoob man to become strong enough to hold Canda- Khan's army, and many of the Cabooli soldiers har, the British authorities sent word to him who had joined him after the battle at Karez-ito bring a force to succeed them. A deputa- Atta redeserted to Gholam Hyder. The Ameer tion from Ayoob Khan asking that the city be issued a proclamation to the people of Northern resigned to him and his pretensions recognized, Afghanistan, announcing that he would take on the ground that the people were attached to the field in person. Mahomed Jan, his former his cause, was dismissed with a refusal. The general-in-chief, whom he had long feared and Ameer dispatched a body of troops, who mistrusted, he cast ioto prison with other susslowly made their way from Cabool through the pected individuals. Both he and Ayoob Khan unfriendly Darani country. On the 21st, after had been hampered in their movements by furnishing the Afghan troops with some artil- signs of treachery and disaffection in their lery and small-arms, the last detachment of capitals and among their troops. British soldiers marched out of Candahar, leav The Duranis did not flock to Ayoob Khan's ing the deputed governor of Abdurrahman in standard, as he had hoped, upon his appearance command.

in Southern Afghanistan. Before the capture The British did not, however, withdraw to of Candahar had made him master of the countheir former boundary, but only to the valley try, but few partisans joined bis ranks. Here, of Pishin, where they remained, gnarding the as at Herat, his rule was felt to be oppressive. Khojak pass and garrisoning the city of Quetta, His financial straits and military necessities quietly looking on during the ensuing struggle compelled him to make requisitions for arms between the two claimants for the Afghan and supplies and to exact transport service, and throne. The Indian official world insisted upon his extortions of treasure acted like a blight on holding on to this last, poor trophy of the con commercial traffic. The murder of a popular quest; and the army clique and Russophobists chief, and other events which excited tribal Qever ceased to cry for a return to the “ for- hatred and revenge, had estranged the Herati ward” policy, for interference between the more than all his exactions, and were among combatants, and the establishment of a British the main causes of his future disasters. Raco protectorate in Afghanistan.

feeling, which is one of the deepest passions After the evacuation of Candahar the Ameer of the Afghan breast, was aroused in his favor increased his fighting strength, and posted among the Southern Afghans by the appeals troops on the Helmand to defend his acquisi- made by Abdurrahman to the race pride of tion. Three of Ayoob's cousins and generals the Ghilzai nation in his energetic preparations advanced with a small force, hoping to incite for a final struggle with the Ghilzai leader of a the Durani chiefs to rise, but with little suc- Durani horde who disputed his throne. The cess. A skirmish near Girishk opened hos- Duranis of the south, who had held back apatilities on the 30th of June. On the 11th an- thetically at Ayoob Khan's first coming, passionother engagement took place, resulting in the ately filled with the traditional jealousy of the dispersion of Ayoob's force. In July Ayoob ad- Ghilzai race, now rallied vigorously around the vanced from Herat to the Helmand River with banner of their national chief. Abdurrahman all his forces. Several days were gained by during his struggle with Ayoob Khan was freehim in pretended negotiations for peace. Gho- ly provided with British silver. The liberal use lam Hyder, the commander of the Ameer's of his abundant cash gave him a great advanforce on the Helmand, finally crossed the river tage over Ayoob. Instead of drying up the to attack Ayoob Khan, but only to find that the fountains of commerce, and spreading distress wily prince had himself forded the Helmand and poverty in his path, his approach brought and slipped in between him and Candahar. unexampled prosperity and comfort to every Gholam Hyder recrossed the river at Girishk, community which he visited. and caught up with Ayoob at Karez-i-Atta, sis Abdurrahman reached Kelat-i-Ghilzai on the

1st of August. Definite proposals for peace from After several severe repulses of the British, Ayoob Khan were rejected, and the Ameer ad- public opinion in England became outspoken vanced to join battle with his rival on the against the further continuance of the war, and road to Candahar. For many days the armies negotiations were entered into by the Liberal lay encamped opposite each other; and Abdur- Government with the Boers, which resulted in rahman offered battle daily, but could not draw the restoration of virtual independence. (See out the enemy. The Ameer was then obliged Cape Colony.) to change his camp to a position nine miles to At the biennial election held in Liberia on the west, in order to be near flour-mills. Ayoob May 3d, Anthony W. Gardner was elected took a position opposite in the village of Chil- President, and Rev. A. F. Russell, Vice-Presizina. Îlere the decisive battle was finally dent of the republic, the successful candidates fought on the 22d of September, and was lost receiving a majority in every county. This through the treachery and desertion of the Ca- will be Mr. Gardner's third term. The contest boolis, who had gone over to Ayoob after the is described as independent of party lines. The defeat of Gholam Hyder, and of the disaffected successful candidates have pledged themselves Herati soldiery. The encounter with Abdur- to the education of the masses, the incorporarahman, for wbich Ayoob Khan bad been so tion of the native tribes into the body-politic, long preparing, would probably have resulted in favor of temperance, the honest settlement otherwise in the overthrow of the Ameer. In of foreign indebtedness, and the frugal adthe battle of Chilzina Ayoob Khan occupied a ministration of the Government. position of superior strength, behind the ram A small native war arose for the British on parts, ditch, and buildings of the old city of the West Coast of Africa. A native, who Candabar, protected on the right by a rocky styled himself King of the Denkera tribe, bad ridge. Ayoob's army was also more numerous. taken refuge within the limits of the British After three hours or so of fighting, the Ca- protectorate of the Fantee and other tribes; booli and Ilerati regiments, which Ayoob Khan but King Koffee, of Ashantee, claimed that probably mistrusted and therefore kept in the the Denkeras were subjects of the Ashantees, rear, commenced to fire upon the Ghazi and and demanded that he be given up. As the Candahari men who formed the pretender's British refused to comply with this request, battle-front. This treacherous act broke the King Koffee declared war in February. The line, and soon the army was in full rout. affair was settled in May, after a short and deAyoob Khan and his confederate chiefs escaped cisive campaign, by the payment of a penalty to Herat, leaving his artillery, consisting of of 2,000 ounces of gold, and an apology from twenty-two guns, in the hands of the enemy. King Koffee to Queen Victoria. At the final

Abdurrahman did not follow up his victory, interview of the Ashantee embassadors with but returned to Cabool after sacking Candabar, Sir Samuel Rowe, the Governor, the latter inwhich opened its gates to him without resist- structed them to inform the King that the ance, and pillaging the surrounding country, in British would not consent to the conclusion of revenge for their adherence to Ayoob's cause. any treaty with him so long as he permitted Abdurrahman leisurely made his preparations the practice of human sacrifice to continue. to advance on Herat. Meanwhile Abdul Ku The German traveler, Nachtigal, has made dus Khan had set out with a small force from a computation of the surface and population Cabool and was making his way toward Herat of the countries and districts of the Continent through Northern Afghanistan and Turkestan. of Africa, as follows in kilometres (23 kiloHe was joined by a large force of auxiliary vol- metres = 1 square mile): unteers from the local tribesmen, who were hostile to Ayoob. This formidable force menaced

Population. Herat from behind at the same time that Ayoob Morocco.

812,882 7,829,000 was obliged to draw his forces from the city to Algeria..

667,665 2,867,626

2,100,000 meet the army of Abdurrahman. After three

Tripoli..

1,083,849 1,010,000 engagements, the last one fought at Shaflan, Desert of Sahara.

6,180,426 2,850,000 thirty miles east of Herat, October 2, in all of Egypt..

2,986,915 17,420,000 Soodan, Central.

81,770,000 which Abdul Kudus and his local allies were Soodan, Western, and Upper Guinea. 1,993,046 43,600,000 successful, Herat surrendered without further Harar,

1,897,038 15,500,000 Central Africa north of the equator...

27,000,000 resistance on the 4th. Ayoob Khan, after the Central Africa south of the equator... 1,717.900 20,000,000 capture of his stronghold and capital, and his Portuguese possessions, eastern..

1,000,000 sole military base, prudently made his escape Orange Free State..

Portuguese possessions, western.

9,000,000

968,416 75,000 to Persia.

968,418 1,966,000 AFRICA. An important change in the map

626,054 8,952,400 of Africa occurred during 1881. The Trans Total, .....

29,283,890 205,166,976 vaal Republic, which had been annexed by the British in 1877, regained its independence and AKKAS, a dwarf race dwelling in the valassumed the name of the South African Repub- ley of the White Nile, in about the third delic. A strong agitation against British rule was gree of north latitude. Reports of dwarf peokept up in the annexed district, which finally ples in equatorial Africa have been made by resulted in a declaration of war by the Boers. travelers in all ages. The pygmies of the an

COUNTRY

Arent.

Tunis

111,848

1.714.983

2.254.950

111.497
76.470

British South Africa.
Islands..

cients were located by tradition in the distant and freights, on the payment of just compenparts of Upper Ethiopia. The Dokkos, another sation to the owner of the railroad for such tribe of people of low stature, living in the transportation; and any person or corporation southern part of Abyssinia, may be related to engaged in the business of transporting passenthe Akkas. These are described by Schwein- gers or freights over any railroad in this State, furth as a race which never attain a greater who shall exact and receive for any such transheight than five feet. Their lower face pro- portation more than just compensation for the trudes to a remarkable degree. Their hands services rendered, or demands more than the and feet are small. They are very active in rates specified in any bill of lading issued by their habits, and use the bow and the lance such person or corporation, or who for his or its with great skill in hunting the elephant. advantage or for the advantage of any connectThe country of the Akkas lies south of the ing line, or of any person or locality, shall Welle River, beyond Monbuttu-land and the make any unjust discrimination in transportacountry of the Niam-Niams (see " Geographi- tion against any individual, locality, or corporacal Progress and Discovery "). From recent tion, shall be guilty of extortion; and in every accounts it appears that the stature of the Ak case it shall be for the jury to determine, from kas bas been somewhat understated, and that all the evidence, whether more than just comtheir average height is greater than that of pensation was exacted and received, or whether the Hottentots. They are not warlike, and any such discrimination in transportation which are in danger of extinction from the aggres- may be established by the evidence against the sions of their neighbors. Two Akka children individual, locality, or corporation, as the case who were brought to Europe by Miani have may be, was made for the benefit or advantage displayed a fair degree of intelligence.

of the person or corporation operating such ALABAMA. Some important measures railroad, or of any person or locality : provided, were passed at the session of the Legislature that nothing in this act shall be construed to held at the beginning of the year. A colored prevent contracts for special rates for the purnormal school was established at Tuskeegee. pose of developing any industrial enterprise, or An act was passed providing for the incorpora- to prevent the execution of any such contract tion of banks of discount and deposit. They now existing.” are authorized to carry on the business of In all suits for extortion, the plaintiff may banking, by discounting bills and notes, re recover twice the amount of damages sustained, ceiving and paying out deposits, buying and and also a reasonable fee for his counsel. The selling gold and silver bullion, foreign coins party proved guilty of the extortion inay be and foreign and domestic bills of exchange and fined not less than ten or more than five huncommercial securities, bonds and stocks, by dred dollars. It was also provided that a lending money upon bonds, stocks, and person- board of railroad commissioners should be esal security, and upon unincumbered real prop- tablished, whose duty it should be to consider erty, and by exercising such incidental powers, and carefully revise all tariffs of charges for not in conflict with the laws of the State or of transportation submitted to the commission by the United States, as are necessary to carry on any person or corporation owning or operating its business. Tho capital stock may be any a railroad in this State ; and if, in the judgsum not less than fifty thousand or more than ment of the commission, any such charge is five hundred thousand dollars.

more than just compensation for the service Any one who carries about his person à for which it is proposed to be made, or if any bowie-knife, or any other knife or instrument such charges amount to unjust discrimination of like kind or description, or a pistol, or fire. against any person, locality, or corporation, the arms of any other kind or description, or any commission shall notify the party submitting air-gun, must be fined on conviction not less the same of the changes necessary to reduce than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars, the rate of charges to just compensation, and and may also be imprisoned in the county jail, to avoid unjust discrimination; when such or sentenced to hard labor for the county for changes are made by the party submitting the not more than six months: provided, that tariff, or when none are deemed proper and evidence that the defendant has good reason to expedient, the members of the commission apprehend an attack may be admitted in the shall append a certificate of its approval to mitigation of the punishment or in justification such tariff of charges. of the offense.

It was further made the duty of the commisThe sum of one hundred thousand dollars sioners to hear all complaints made by any was appropriated for the construction of an person against any such tariff of rates so apadditional building for the accommodation of proved, on the ground that the same, in any the insane at Tuscaloosa.

respect, is for more than just compensation, or The rate of the State tax was fixed at six and that such charges, or any of them, amount to, one half tenths of one per centum.

or operate so as to effect unjust discrimination; It was declared by the Legislature that “the such complaint must be in writing, and specify main track of every railroad in this State is a the items in the tariff against which complaint public high way, over which all persons have is made; and if it appears to the commission equal rights of transportation for passengers that there may be justice in the complaint, or

that the matter ought to be investigated, the trouble is, to determine what is just compencommission shall forth with furnish to the person sation or unjust discrimination. or corporation operating the railroad a copy The Legislature has the power to determine of the complaint, together with notice that, at this matter by positive statute, as is done in a time and place stated in the notice, the tariff the case of mills grinding for toll, ferries, tollas to said items will be revised by the commis- bridges, turnpikes, and the like; but the variasion; and at such time and place it shall be the tions in the measure of just compensation, and duty of the commission to hear the parties to not unjust discrimination, in railroad transporthe controversy or by counsel, and such evi- tation, render the exercise of this power of dence as may be offered, oral or in writing, fixing rates by positive statute impracticable. and may examine witnesses on oath, conform It was made the duty of county health ing to the mode of proceedings, as nearly as boards to supervise the public health, and may be convenient, required of arbitrators, through their health officer to collect full vital giving such time and latitude to each side, statistics of their county. and regulating the opening and conclusion of A tramp was defined to be any person who any argument, as the commission may con- goes from place to place or house to house, sider best adapted to arrive at the truth; and begging or demanding food, raiment, lodging, when the hearing is concluded, the commission or other thing of value, without employment shall give notice of any changes deemed proper or other visible means of support. It was by them to be made, to the person or corpora- further provided that the act of begging, or tion operating the railroad.

vagrancy, by any person having no known The serious nature of the litigation against residence within this state, shall be prima railroads, under a complaint of extortion, is facie evidence that the person committing the such that those best informed on the subject same is a tramp. admit that, if the roads were subject to it unre As a punishment, or rather to exclude them strained, it would effectually destroy the value from the State, it was provided that any perof their property. The act, therefore, seeks to son convicted of being a tramp shall be fined provide a proper measure of protection to the for the first offense not less than fifty nor more railroads by authorizing them to submit their than two hundred dollars, and shall be sentenced tariffs to the commission, and when such tar- to bard labor for the county for not less than iffs have been conformed to what, in the judg- six nor more than twelve months, and, on a ment of the commission, is the measure of just second conviction for such offense, shall be compensation, without unjust discrimination, fined not less than one hundred nor more than the commission shall approve them. This ap- five hundred dollars, and sentenced to hard proval by the commission does not make the labor for the county not less than one nor more tariff thus approved absolutely binding, either than two years; and for each subsequent conon the public or the railroads; but it so far viction shall be fined and sentenced as for the protects the railroads as to relieve them while second conviction. acting under such approved tariff from all The act for the apportionment of representaliability except for actual damage, and gives tives made a small change in only four counthem the right, if successful in a suit for extor- ties, which merely gained or lost a member. tion in respect to such charges, to recover a The number of representatives is one hunlawyer's fee from the plaintiff, and the ap- dred. proval of the commission is prima facie evidence There were 996 bills introduced in the in behalf of the railroad that the tariff is not House, of which 221 became laws, and one was extortionate.

vetoed by the Governor. The object and effect of these provisions are In the Senate there were about 460 bills and to leave it to a jury to determine in the last petitions introduced, 129 of which became resort what is just between the people and the laws. railroads. The railroads, in so far as they are It will be seen that there were some 1,456 private property, are entitled to the same meas- bills introduced, and only 350, or not quite ure of protection precisely as other property; one fourth, were enacted into laws. Some and, in so far as they are public highways, the failed for want of time to consider them, while right of the public to use them is equally sacred. others were defeated in one branch or the These respective rights, of the success of the other of the Legislature. railroad on the one hand, and of the public on Of the laws passed, forty-four are general, the other, meet at just compensation, without fifty-four are amendments of the Code of 1876, unjust discrimination, for the service rendered and the remainder are local or special in their in transportation. Whenever the railroads are nature, including sixty acts for the prevention required to transfer freight or passengers for or regulation of the sale of spirituous liquors. less than just compensation, the rights of the The adjournment took place early in the month owners of the railroads are violated; and, on of March. the other hand, when the railroads charge The latest report of the condition of the more than just compensation, or make any Educational Department is for 1880. The total unjust discrimination in transportation, they revenue for the year was $397,465.35—the trespass upon the rights of the public. The largest items being the annual appropriation of

$130,000, the poll-tax retained by the counties general average for white and black combined for the townships and race paying it, $124,597.- being 80 days. 08, and interest on the sixteenth-section fund, The State Penitentiary, at the latest report, $105,082.66. The principal apportionments of contained 540 convicts, of whom only 44 are the fund were, for the normal schools, $13,500; kept within the walls. to school districts, $258,099.52, and of course The convicts for the most part are hired to the net poll-tax, as above indicated. Teachers miners and farmers, most of them at $5 per of white schools got $203,681.46; of colored month. These are the first-class hands. There schools, $158,911.13; and county superintend- is a second class that bring only $2.50, and a few ents got $11,871.92. The white Normal who are let for their “victuals and clothes." School at Florence received $7,500; the col- The report shows, however, that as fast as the ored Normal at Marion, $4,000; and the col- $5 contracts expire new ones are made at $8 ored Normal at Huntsville, $2,000. Each one per month. It is worth noting here that the of those schools is represented as doing well, sum of $45,000 has been paid into the State having made considerable improvements over Treasury during the two years. Within the former years. The white Normal at Florence five years, under the present system, $81,000 reports on its catalogue for the year 201 pupils, have been paid into the Treasury, $36,000 of and there has not been a case of serious sick- State bonds canceled, besides building the ness during the entire year, which closed un Wetumpka Branch Railroad, worth $12,921.20, der circumstances gratifying to the friends of and making repairs and improvements on buildthe institution. Indeed, such a degree of pros- ings and grounds worth $12,200. Under the perity and popularity has it attained that it new contracts, the income to the State will be was found necessary to enlarge the accommo- largely increased. Under the old law, it cost dations for an increased number of pupils. per capita about $59 for transporting conConnected with the institution, eight teachers victs to the penitentiary; now it costs about are reported. While music is taught as in other $1.70. institutions, to those who desire to take lessons, Out of the 540 convicts, there is but one the whole school is required to join the vocal solitary white woman. This lone one is thirtymusic class, and the board expresses satisfaction five years old, and was sentenced to a term of at the pleasing effect of this feature of the insti- three years, for adultery. tution. The Florence Normal School, present The number of white male convicts is only and prospective, has never been in so prosper. 69. The colored male convicts are 450, and ous and pleasant estate. There are 100 of its colored females 20. There are some children old pupils engaged in teaching in the State, and among the colored convicts, the youngest bemany more are ready and waiting.

ing ten years, and is sentenced to seven years The Lincoln Normal University, at Marion, for manslaughter. There is one twelve, one is reported to be in a flourishing condition. thirteen, one fourteen, and quite a number The number of pupils was 140—76 females ranging from fourteen to twenty. The oldest and 64 males. Such has been the increase in convict is seventy-five; he is in for manthe number of pupils, that an enlargement of slaughter, for five years. There is one seventythe building has become an absolute necessity. two years old, and is in for two years for assault The report shows five teachers connected with with intent to murder. The life-sentences are the school.

51. The table of previous occupations of conThe Huntsville Normal School (colored) is victs shows 489 laborers, 9 cooks, 8 carpenters, also reported in a flourishing condition, the av- 7 house-servants, 6 farmers, 3 blacksmiths, 2 erage attendance of pupils being larger than that engineers, 2 shoemakers, 1 hotel-keeper, 1 of any previous year. Professor William H. baker, 1 machinist, 1 jeweler, 1 brick-mason, Conncil, one of the most intelligent men of his 1 teamster, 1 sailor, 1 musician, 1 dentist, 1 race in the State, is the principal of this school. painter, 1 school-master, 1 horse-trainer, 1 He has three assistant teachers. The average timber-worker, and only 1 doctor. The docpaid teachers, per month, was—white, $20.96; tor is in for life, for murder. The table of nacolored, $23.62; the average of pupils to teacher tivity shows: Alabama, 338; Georgia, 44; and was-whites, 33; colored, 46. The number of the balance scattered, 3 being put down to white schools was 3,085, colored 1,512—total, England, 2 to Germany, and 1 each to Ireland, 4,597. Number of white male teachers, 1,864; Switzerland, and Canada. The crime which is number of white female, 1,230_total, 3,094. most largely represented is burglary. There Colored teachers, male, 1,080; colored female, are 170 burglars. Grand larceny and murder 441-total colored, 1,521. The total number stand next on the list, there being 106 names of teachers was 4,615. Reading, writing, and under each of these heads. In former times spelling were the principal branches taught. horse-stealing showed the largest number of

The total school population was, white, 217,- convicts, but that does not seem so popular a 320; colored, 170,449-total, 387,769. Number business as formerly, there being only one of enrolled whites, 107,483 ; colored, 72,007— horse-thief. There are quite a number for total, 179,490. Average attendance of white rape, and a few for arson, and nearly every was 67,794; colored, 50,184. Average length other crime has one or more representatives. of white schools in days, 83; colored, 67; the In the tables touching the conduct of the sev

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