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toria cast the only dissentient vote. This colony In regard to Chinese immigration the harmay appoint delegates to the tariff commission, monious action of the colonies is difficult. The but will not be disposed to abandon easily à Government of West Australia issued an order tariff system under which powerful interests encouraging this immigration at the public have grown up.
expense—a step which was condemned by The commercial rivalry between the two the representatives of all the other colonies. older colonies has entered a sharper stage since Queensland and South Australia, which also the completion, in the early part of 1881, of possess territory within the torrid zone, favor the railroad from Sydney to the Murray River, limited immigration, while in New South Wales where it meets the railroad from Melbourne. and Victoria intense hostility to the Chinese The New South Wales ministry have fixed the prevails. The conference embodied their obfreight rates at a low figure, in order to attract jections to the importation of these laborers the trade of the extensive Riverina district by the Government into the crown colony of away from Melbourne to Sydney. This is a West Australia in a memorial addressed to reversal of free-trade principles which provokes Lord Kimberly, British Secretary for the Colthe sarcasm of the Victorian statesmen; but onies. against its economic effects they can have no The New South Wales Parliament gave their remedy except to conform their tariff to that principal attention, upon convening in the sumof the sister colony.
mer, to an act restricting Chinese immigration. The only actual result of the conference, be- A poll-tax of ten pounds is levied on every sides the majority vote in favor of a tariff com Chinaman upon landing, and ship-masters are mission, and the only unanimously approved forbidden, under a heavy penalty, to bring more proposition, was the decision in favor of the than one to every one hundred tons of ship's establishment of an Australian Court of Appeal. burden. The Government is also empowered A project was drawn up and adopted for a law to quarantine, indefinitely, any vessel carrying to be brought before each of the colonial Parlia- Chinese passengers—a provision intended as a ments, and then submitted for ratification to menace to deter the importation of these unthe Imperial Government. Fugitives from ar- welcome producers. rest on criminal charges, or men who have By the returns of the late census it appears abandoned wife or child, may be apprehended, that the area of wheat cultivation in Australia according to one of the provisions of the pro- has doubled in ten years. South Australia posed legal convention, upon warrants taken leads in this product. The Australian crop is out in any one of the colonies, or upon tele- only one third as great as that of the British graphic notification that the warrants have Islands, although the area sown is nearly the been issued.
Only about one half of the crop is The intercolonial conference in discussing available for export, and the prices must be plans looking to confederation did not commit high enough to amply remunerate the British themselves to the conjugate principle of self- wheat-grower before the Australians can exmaintenance, for, on adopting a resolution rec- port wheat to Europe with a protit. The prosommending the increase of the naval squadron, pects of gold-mining in all of the colonies are they rejected a proposal that the colonies should better than they have been for years. New bear half the cost. With reference to out- fields have been opened on the northern coast rages committed by islanders in the South of Australia. In New South Wales new digSeas, the conference proposed that the High gings of remarkable richness have been disCommissioner who has jurisdiction in such covered. The opening of gold and tin mines cases should be granted extended powers, but in Tasmania has given that colony a commerthat in felony cases appeal should lie to the cial impulse, and produced an influx of capital Supreme Court of one of the colonies against and immigration such as never were known his decisions. The murders of Bishop Patter- before. son and Commodore Goodenough, and more The revenues of New South Wales continue recent outrages committed by the natives of to increase beyond current wants from the sales the Solomon, New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, and of land. The revenue for the year ending March New Ireland groups, were probably reprisals 1, 1881, exceeded that of the preceding year provoked by the atrocities of the cruisers for by £1,080,000. The revenue for the fiscal year laborers to supply the sugar-plantations of 1880 was £4,912,000. The Treasurer's estimate Queensland and other demands for “ Karnack- for 1881 was £5,440,000, which was consideries.” The practice of kidnapping, and other ably exceeded in the receipts for the first half cruelties of this form of slave-traffic, have con of the year, and promised to reach £6,000,000. tinued to the most recent years, if they do not still take place.*
outrages committed by the crews of labor-vessels, notably the brig Carl, were made the subject of a Parliamentary investigation eight years ago, and measures were taken by the
British Government to suppress the evil. The employers of governed from Downing Street. For the three classes of Polynesian coolies in Queensland are obliged, under a law of British colonies see * Annual Cyclopædia" for 1879, under the colony, to return them, on the expiration of their term of Great BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
service, to their native islands. The familiar term for the * During the year 1991 natives of the Pacific islands have South Sea coolies among Australians, Karnackie, is a cortaken reprisals on one British labor-ship and on a French ves ruption of Kanaka, the native name for the Sandwich Islandsel which was probably mistaken for a labor-cruiser. The
remains under the control of the British Parliament and is
The population was found by the census to ex- lic, and pressed it in the Legislature. The ceed 750,000, showing an increase of 250,000 Liberal party made it their sole issue, and were in the ten years. Owing to its vast area of supported by a great popular majority. The attractive land, it has gained upon the much Legislative Council and their electors were smaller but still more populous colony of Vice naturally loath to abandon the only conservatoria, the difference between their populations tive safeguard—the right of those who hold a having fallen in the ten years from 250,000 stake in the country to control the will of the to 100,000. The debt of New South Wales absolute numerical majority. amounts to about £15,000,000; but of this at For four years the ministry were supported least £12,000,000 is invested in railroads. by the people in demanding a reform, until all
The enormous railroad construction which grew tired of the fruitless agitation. An aphas been carried out by the Government in peal had even been made to the Imperial GovNew South Wales received its first impetus ernment. In March Mr. Berry introduced into from the circumstance that the Government the Assembly a final compromise measure, refound coming into its hands large sums of sur- ducing the tenure of seats in the Council, one plus revenue derived from the sales of public third of which should be refilled every three lands which the prosperous sheep-graziers, who years, from ten to six years, and lowering the had rented them of the Government at jd. an limitations of the franchise. The bill passed acre, commenced to buy in vast blocks at the the Legislative Assembly but was rejected by upset price of £1 per acre. The railroad sys- the Council, March 25th, on the ground that a tem, well started with these means, has been bill affecting the powers and composition of extended by loans raised in London. At the that House should originate there. The Counbeginning of the year, 679 miles of new road cil had itself passed a reform bill of its own. were under construction, and surveys for The subject was next discussed in a joint comfurther extensions had been made.
mittee, but without result. The Berry bill The railroad earnings in 1880 were £1,594,- was finally, considerably altered by the amend000, being £89,000 more than the Treasurer's ments, passed by the Council in the middle of estimate, and yielding 44 per cent on the capi- May. The measure reduces the property qualital invested. A still larger profit was expect- tication for Councilors to £100, and fixes the ed in 1881.
qualification for freehold electors at £10, and Victoria has for the last four years been pass- for occupiers at £25 annual rental. The qualiing through a constitutional crisis. Conflicts fications for electors and candidates under the between the two Hlouses of the Legislature mark old law were respectively a freehold of £50 the advances in popular self-government made and one of £250 annual value. The number in the British colonies. In the transition from of electors is increased by this sweeping reform crown administration to autonomy, the Council, from 32,000 to 108,000, and the number of composed of appointees of the crown, is the members from thirty to forty-two. There are vehicle through which the Government re- supposed to be only about 80,000 citizens, who fuses the popular demands emanating from the vote for members of the Lower House, that are representative hall. Under responsible govern- not possessed of sufficient property to qualify ment the Legislative Council is balanced against them as electors of members of the Council. the popular Assembly as the representatives of The reform act which was the final outcome the property-holding class, the conservators of of the long struggle was not satisfactory to the the interests of wealth, and the only repository people. The Legislative Council had given up of the veto-power and check upon immature the limited franchise to the extent of reconstiand democratic legislation. This branch thus tuting itself on nearly as broad a basis of popurepresents an entirely different constituency lar representation as the Lower Chamber. It from that of the Assembly, which body is elect- had abandoned the controlling voice of propered on the broad basis of universal suffrage. ty; but it had not sacrificed any part of its coParty majorities in the Upper House for this equal legislative authority. The public looked reason, and because the Councilors hold their upon the reform act as an extension rather seats much longer than delegates in the Assem- than a curtailment of the powers of the Counbly, do not change with the transfer of power cil. It was supposed to contain no remedy in the Lower House and the consequent change for the “dead-locks," which were the actual of ministers. Frequent “dead-locks” are the ground and reason for reform. As a result of unavoidable result. The whole political ma the popular disappointment in the measure, the chinery is clogged, useful legislation is ren- Legislative Assembly in the beginning of July dered impossible, and political passions are passed a vote of want of confidence in the minexcited simply through this defect in the Con- istry. The Governor refused to dissolve Parstitution. This unwholesome condition of af- liament, and, upon the resignation of Berry and fairs has become chronic of late years in the his colleagues, called upon Sir Bryan O'Loghprosperous and democratic colony of Victoria. Jen to form a Cabinet, in which, after some difMr. Berry, the Premier and Liberal leader, has ficulty and delay, he succeeded. brought in various bills for the popularization The returns of the decennial census place of the Legislative Council. An active Reform the population of Victoria at 845,977, comLeague has kept the question before the pub- posed of 438,186 males and 407,791 females.
These numbers are exclusive of 11,835 Chinese Tasmania is growing in population, but its and 770 aborigines. Melbourne, the capital, imports from the United Kingdom in 1879 dehas a population of 65,675. The cities or towns creased by £36,416 as compared with 1878. in the colony with a population of over 20,000 They also decreased from the Australian coloare the following: Ballarat, 22,425; Colling- nies. The wool-clip had gained 16 per cent wood, 23,797; Einerald Hill, 25,178; Fitzroy, as compared with the weight in 1874. Gold22,979; Prahran, 20,306; Richmond, 23,294 ; mining was never so productive as in 1879. and Sandhurst, 28,128. In 1836 the popula- The average number of persons employed in tion of the whole colony was 224; in 1838, it was nearly twice the number in 1878; the 3,511; in 1841, 11,738; in 1846, 32,879; in quartz yielded the highest average of the last 1851, 77,345; in 1861, 540,322 ; in 1871, 731,- ten years; and the value of the gold produced, 528; in 1881, 858,582.
£230,895, was more than double the value of The gold-mining industry of Victoria has the previous year. The exports of other prodwithin a year or two begun to show slightly ucts were less than in the two preceding years. increased activity and profits. The quantity Tasmania has still twelve and a half million of gold produced in 1880 was 829,121 ounces, acres of arable public land unsold to distribute 529,195 from quartz-ınines and 299,196 froní among agricultural immigrants; the average of alluvial mines, being 70,173 ounces more than land under cultivation in 1879–’80 was considthe total of 1879. The number of miners em- erably less than half a million acres. ployed was 38,568, an increase of 1,000. The The question of the monopoly of the land number of Chinese employed has diminished by large sleep-raisers is one of exciting moof late years; in 1880 there were 8,486—624 ment in some of the Australian colonies, parless than in 1879. The engines used in quartz ticularly New Zealand. Of a total area in mining give 16,438 horse-power in the aggre- both islands of 64,000,000 acres, there are gate, and those employed in alluvial mining about 44,000,000 acres adapted for tillage or 6,041 horse-power. In the mines at Stawell the pasture, of which 16,000,000 belong to the shafts have reached from 1,220 to 2,410 feet Maoris and their assignees, 14,000,000 have below the surface. The principal improve- been sold to Europeans, and 14,000,000 rement in the returns of 1880 was in the quality main the property of the Government. Nearas well as the quantity of the quartz crushed. ly the whole of the Government land is farmed There are 3,630 auriferous reefs known. Al- out on terminable leases to about nine hunluvial deposits, which are covered over by erup- dred sheep-farmers, who pay for their licenses tive rocks, are located by boring through the an annual sum to the Government of about thick overlying basalts with the diamond drill. £110,000. The terms on which the crown The considerable increase in the product is said lands are open to purchase are not similar in to be due to the use of this tool, which was different land districts, but discouraging in all. first tried in 1880. £16,894 was paid into the In some sections the lands are offered at pubcolonial Treasury for mining privileges in 1880. lic auction, with the limitation of an upset The aggregate production of gold in Victoria price of £1; in others at private sale, but at since the first discovery of the gold-fields has the minimum price of £2. A popular feeling been more than $1,000,000,000.
has naturally arisen against the large sheepThe ministry of South Australia handed in runs whose owners seem to be favored by the their resignations March 19th, and a new Cabi- laws, which is taking political shape in a denet was formed by William Morgan, in which mand that the public lands should be offered J. H.Symon was Attorney-General; G. S. Swan, to settlers on inviting terms. The expectation Treasurer; and Thomas Playford, Commissioner that this would result in a great extension of of Lands and Immigration. This ministry re- agriculture and dependent industries is not signed in June, and were succeeded by John likely to be realized. Wool is destined to reCox Bray, Chief Secretary and Premier; John main for some time the only profitable product, W. Downer, Attorney - General ; Lavington the prices of meat and grain being exceedingly Glyde, Treasurer; Alfred Catt, Commissioner low and wages high. There are in the whole of Crown Lands and Immigration; and John colony not above 800,000 acres sown to crops Langdon Parsons, Minister of Education. The of all kinds. There are about 13,000,000 finances, as in all the Australian colonies, are sheep in New Zealand, chiefly merinos, with a in a prosperous condition. The revenue for mixture in the plains of the standard 'British the year ending June 25th exceeded that of the breeds. The exports of wool, for the year preceding year by £165,000.
ending March 1st, amounted to over £3,500,Queensland has abandoned the policy pur- 000. Among the exports for the same year sued by the other colonies, of building rail- figure six million or more rabbit-skins, valued roads with state means, and adopted the at some £57,000. These animals have so mulAmerican plan of subsidizing private corpo. tiplied in certain districts as to become a source rations with belts of land along the route of of danger to the sheep-growing industry, and lines constructed by them. On such condi- the Government has consequently co-operated tions an English company has undertaken to with the local authorities in a plan for exterbuild a railway across Queensland to the Gulf minating them by poison. A special official of Carpentaria.
employs men to scatter in their way grain
Austria above the Enns..
steeped in phosphorus. The only other risk Dr.Julian Dunajewski, Finance (1880); Florian the sheep-grazer has to encounter is the occa- Ziemialkowski (April, 1873). sional occurrence of inundations. Of the The area of the entire monarchy is 622,837 “squatters " who raise sheep on the public square kilometres; population, according to land some possess flocks numbering 200,000 or the census of 1880, 37,741,413. The area of 300,000, one as many as 500,000, and a con Cisleithan Austria, or Austria proper, is 300,siderable number owning from 50,000 to 100,- 249 square miles; the population, according to 000 sheep.
the census of 1880, was 22,130,684. The popuIn the autumn an outbreak of the Maori lation of the different crown-lands, according population was threatened. The cause of the to the census of 1869 and that of 1880, was as trouble was the survey of territory occupied follows: by natives, preliminary to opening it to white settlement. It was a district in the province of Taranaki which was declared confiscated by Austria below the Enns
1,990,708 2,329,021 the Government after the Waikato war. In the confiscated territory, Te Whiti, a chief who Salzburg..
158, 159 163,566 has been converted to Christianity and passes Carinthia :
848,670 for a prophet among the natives, fixed his
466,334 481,176 residence and gathered the discontented na
127,547 144,437 Goritz and Gradisca.
210,241 tives around him. The same man championed Istria...
295,854 the cause of natives who were expelled from Tyrol,
805,826 their lands two years before, and nearly Bohemia.
6,146,544 5,557,134 brought about a collision between them and Moravia
613,852 the Government. The danger of an outbreak Silesia..
5,414,689 5,953,170 was still more imminent this time, but was
569,599 averted by the prompt capture and arrest of Dalmatia
458,611 474,489 the instigator.
20,296,630 22,180,684 The British possessions in the Pacific have been increased by the annexation of the Island
The population of the principal cities and of Rotuunah, which has been placed under the towns, according to the census of December direction of the Governor of the Feejee Islands. 31, 1880, was as follows: The new dependency has an area of about
Vienna (without suburbs).
707,582 twenty-four square miles, and contained in
Prague 1871 2,680 inhabitants. A massacre was per Lemberg..
108,000 petrated by the Christian natives of Tapitawa, one of the Equator Islands, under the leadership of a convert named Kabu. The victims Pilsen
85,817 were the inhabitants of the southern portion
31,200 of the island, who had renounced Christianity, Reichenberg and refused to submit to the rule of Kabu.
23,064 AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY, an Salzburg
22,825 empire in Central Europe. Emperor, Francis Neustadt (Wiener)
21,565 Joseph I, born August 18, 1830 ; succeeded his
20,124 uncle, the Emperor Ferdinand I, December 2, Goritz 1848. Heir-apparent to the throne, Archduke
Innspruck.. Rudolphus, born August 21, 1858; married on Prossnitz..
19,013 May 10, 1881, to Stéphanie Clotilde, second
16,919 daughter of the King of Belgium, boru May
Aussig. 21, 1864.
17,628 The Ministry for the Common Affairs of the
15,082 Empire consisted, toward the close of the year 1881, of Count Kalnoky, Minister of Foreign In accordance with the political constitution Affairs and of the Imperial House (appointed of the Austrian Empire, there are three dis1881); Joseph von Szlavy, Minister of the tinct budgets: the first, that of the delega. Finances of the Empire (appointed April 8, tions for the whole empire; the second, that 1880); and Count Arthur Bylandt - Rheidt, of the Reichsrath for Austria proper; and the Minister of War (appointed 1876).
third, that of the Hungarian Diet, for the kingThe Ministry of Oisleithan Austria, at the dom of Hungary.. By an agreement, or soclose of 1880, was composed of Count Eduard called “compromise, entered into in FebTaaffe, President (appointed August 14, 1879); ruary, 1868, between the Governments and Baron Pino, Justice (1881); Baron Sigmund Legislatures of Austria and Hungary, the Conrad von Eybesfeldt, Public Worship and former has to pay seventy and the latter thirty Instruction (1880); Count Zeno von Welsers- per cent toward the common expenditures of heimb, Defense of the Country (1880); Count the empire, not including the interest on the Julius von Falkenhayn (August 14, 1879), Ag- national debt. The common budget of the riculture; Dr. Alois Prazak, Commerce (1881); empire for 1880 was as follows:
93,851 91,869 60,679
19,488 19,239 19,183
Florins. proper gave the net revenue at 301,109,093
(1 forin = 48 ets.) Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Horins, and the expenses at 425,551,018 florins.
632.880 of War....
The floating debt of the whole empire on Janof Finance..
1,560 uary 1, 1880, amounted to 411,999,923 florins. Snpreme Court of Accounts.
286 Custoins, net receipts..
The public debt of Austria proper on January Matricular contributions:
1, 1880, was as follows: From Hungarian Treasury.
TITLE OF DEBT.
Consolidated debt.. 2,890,260,487 117,428,351 8,007,688,888 EXPENDITURES.
Floating debt.. 132,998, 107 862,639 183,556,945 Ministry of Foreign Affairs... 4,156,900 Rentes for damages 12.519.208
12,519,208 Ministry of War:
Rentes to Bavaria.. 1,750,000
8,037,552,797 118,291,189 '8,155,843,956 Ministry of Finance..
1,580,850 Supreme Court of Accounts..
The commerce of Austro-Hungary, compris-
ing imports and exports of merchandise and of 12,506,533
bullion, was as follows in each of the years Total......
128,536,216 from 1870 to 1878 (value expressed in Austrian The budget estimates for 1880 for Austria florins):
1867. 1868, 1869 1870. 1871. 1672. 1878. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878. 1679. 1880.
180:14 460-16 781.05 862: 71 1,207.55 1,154.41
885.17 892.98 674.28 443.66 477.94 47.04 77.16 40.13
123.19 878.62 183.29 789.78 921. 32 974.72 868.71 171.92
78.56 217.76 59.78 20.08
303.32 888.78 $64.84 1,602 88 2,128 88 2,129 18 1,703.88 504.86 677.18 727.56 651.51 264.80 186.94 60.21
The army in 1880 consisted, on a peace footing, of 16,635 officers and 275,571 men; and on a war footing, of 29,653 officers and 1,013,953 and the ministry, which had assumed so large
The breach between the Constitutional party men.
The naval force at the end of the year 1879 proportions in 1880, continued during the year was 58 vessels, of 16,086 horse-power, and 320 than in 1880 to look for support from the Right.
1881, and Count Taaffe was forced still more guns. The total length of railways in opera- The first result of this policy was the resignation on January 1, 1880, was: in Austria prop- tion of Baron Streit, the Minister of Justice, er, 11,352 kilometres; in Hungary, 7,029 ; total; and Ritter von Kremer, Minister of Commerce, 18,381. The length of the telegraph wires and who were succeeded, the former by Baron Pipo, lines, and the number of stations, and the mes- and the latter by Dr. Prazak. Count Taaffe sages sent, were in 1878 as follows:
met an unexpected obstacle in his desire to depend upon the Right, in the Herrenhaus, or House of Lords. To overcome this he created twelve new life-members, of whom four were
Poles, two Czechs, and six Clericals or ConserMessages. 5,588,331 2,832,259 8.870,590
vatives, all factions of the Right being repre
sented. The following table shows the length of A new feature in the struggles of the Gerrailroads built during the past fourteen years man and Slavic nationalities was the proposiin kilometres):
tion to transform the old German University of
Lines. Wires Stations
48,932 kil. 138,453