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ELEMENTS.

1822 III.

1880 III,

219° 58' 18"

97 51 23 142 16 56

0.8461

97 7 29 140 16 9

0.6838

of 1807, and its period exceeds two thousand its descending node, so that the comet is occayears.

sionally liable to considerable disturbance. The third comet of the year was detected on On the evening of November 16th, Dr. Swift, the morning of June 14th, by Dr. J. M. Schæ- of the Warner Observatory, Rochester, New berle, at Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was observed York, discovered a faint comet in Cassiopeiatelescopically more than three months, one the second detected by him since May 1st. third of which time it was visible to the naked The Meteors of August and November.—The eye. The striking resemblance of its elements number of meteors seen about the 9th and 10th to those of the third comet of 1822 is seen by of August, 1881, was less than usual—a fact the following comparison :

partly due to the brightness of the moonlight. The shower of November 14th-15th also failed,

no Leonids having been seen in certain places Perihelion passage.. 1922, July 16. 1881, Aug. 22,

where looked for. According to the “National Longitude of perihelion.

219° 13' 33" Republican" of November 15th, a meteor of Longitude of ascending node. Inclination...

great brilliance was seen at Washington, D. O., Perihelion distance.

about five o'clock on the morning of the 14th. Calculator ..

Heiligenstein.

A betti.

It was described as a broad band of meteoric On the night of July 6th a great outburst of light starting from a point a little west of the comet was observed at Cincinnati, Ohio, by north, and about 60° above the horizon. This Mr. Wilson and Professor Stone. The former meteor, which was visible at least ten seconds, first noticed a peculiar glare on the side toward

was probably a member of the Leonid stream. the tail. The appearance was that of a large notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for

Motions of the Fixed Stars.—The monthly jet of matter, of a red or exceedingly bright color, shooting out from the comet.

The phe

January, 1881, contain a fourth paper by Sir nomenon was so striking as to suggest the in- George B. Airy on spectroscopic results for the cipient separation of the comet into parts.

motions of stars in the line of sight, observed Encke's comet was detected on August 20th, at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. Acby Dr. Hartwig and Professor Winnecke, with cording to this table, the following are the rates the six-inch comet-seeker of the Strasburg Ob- of motion of certain well-known stars: Of servatory. This was its twenty-ninth return

the two pointers in the Dipper, Dubhe, that since its first appearance in 1786. The posi- the rate of twenty-seven miles per second,

nearer tlie pole-star, is approaching the sun at tions of this body are observed and discussed while Merak is receding with nearly equal vewith a lively interest at each successive return, locity. In the same asterism, Phekda, Migrez, as Encke's celebrated theory of a resisting medium must stand or fall by the evidence de- Alioth, and Mizar, are all receding at the averrived from its motion.

age rate of sixteen miles per second, while The fifth comet of 1881 was discovered on

Benetnash is approaching the solar system the morning of September 19th, by Professor E.

with a velocity of eight miles a second. In the Barnard, of Nashville, Tennessee. Its ele: Square of Pegasus, Alpheratz, Algenib, and ments are somewhat like those of the comet of Markab, are approaching at the rates of thirty1698, as is shown by the following comparison: three, forty-six, and thirty-four miles per sec

ond, respectively, while Scheat is approaching at the rate of nineteen. The distance of Cas

tor is increasing twenty-five miles per second, Perihelion passage...

1698, Oct. 18. 1881, Sept. 15. Longitude of perihelion..

and that of Pollux decreasing at the rate of Longitude of ascending node.

twenty-six. The distances of Aldebaran and Inclination.....

Regulus are both increasing ; the former twenty Authority..

Halley.

miles per second, the latter twenty-six.

The Distribution of the Variable Stars.-In Another comet, the sixth of the year, was “The Observatory” for September, 1881, Mr. T. discovered October 4th, by Mr. W. F. Denning, E. Espin gives the following results of a careful of England. Its appearance was that of a small, study of the distribution of the variable stars : round nebula with a bright, central nucleus. "1. The variable stars show a decidedly Herr Palisa has computed the following ele- well-marked zone inclined 15° or 20° to the ments :

equator. Perihelion passage.

.1891, Sept. 12. "2. This zone crosses the preceding side Longitude of perihelion..

of the galactic circle north of the equator, and Longitude of ascending node.

the following south of it.

"3. In crossing the preceding side of the Elements have also been computed by M. galactic circle, the zone is not many degrees Schulhof, of Paris, and Professor S. C. Chand- broad, and is very clearly marked; where it ler, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. The period, crosses the following side it is broken up into according to the former, is seven years and two streams. nine months; according to the latter, eight "64. The division into two streams occurs years and four months. The orbit makes a where the galaxy is also divided into two rather close approach to that of Jupiter, near streams.

ELEMENTS.

1698.

1881 V.

270° 51' 267 44 101 46 0.6912

271° 22'
260 43
107 27

0.5076
S. C. Chandler.

Perihelion distance.

Inclination..
Perihelion distance

22° 18' 5"
72 6 17
7 35 57

0.725

“5. In this part the variable stars are in- which depend upon the density, and their comtimately connected with the galaxy, often fall- bining numbers in compounds with other eleing in the gaps, and constautly on the edges ments, each follow a certain progressive order of the gaps, but rarely in the center of the in successive groups of the elements. Similar star-sprays from the galaxy. Where the zone properties recur with complete regularity, and crosses the preceding part of the galaxy, it is follow the same order of progression in the sucmarked sharply and clearly, and seems uncon- cessive series. The properties are modified as nected with the galaxy.

the atomic weights increase ; but the modifica“6. It is a remarkable thing that all the tions affect entire groups, and do not interrupt temporary stars with one or two exceptions the gradual progression within the periods. The have appeared in the region where the galaxy elements of the different periods in which the and the variable star zone are both broken into same or similar properties are repeated constitwo streams.

tute the natural families already established by "7. The exceptions to the zone are chiefly other chemists upon the ground of their idenfound in the bright and short period variables. tical combining numbers. The atomic weights

“8. The addition to the chart of the stars of contiguous elements usually differ by only a more strongly suspected variable, and that on few units. In cases where there is a considercompetent authority, strengthens the zone very able hiatus there is also found a gap in one or much indeed, and but very slightly the number more of the natural orders, which should be of exceptions."

represented here by members of intermediate The fact that nearly all variable stars of short atomic weights between those of the preceding period are found in a particular zone has also and the following periods. Some of the gaps been remarked by Professor E. O. Pickering, in Mendelejeft's scheme have already been filled of the Harvard College Observatory. Pro- by subsequently discovered elements. Gallium fessor Pickering describes this zone as extend- corresponds in atomic weight and in properties ing 16° on each side of a great circle whose to one of the predicted elements, as do also the pole is in right ascension 195o and north decli- descriptions of scandium and ytterbium. Mennation 20°. The average distance of thirty-one delejeff's periodic law is expressed in general well-known variables of short period from this terms in the following predicate: All the propgreat circle is 5° 30', while a random distri- erties of elements, and consequently of the bution would give an average distance of 30°. compounds which they form, are functions of

Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical So- their atomic weights, to which they stand in ciety. At the annual meeting of the Royal periodic relations. In the following table all the Astronomical Society of London, in February, known elements are arranged in the order of 1881, the gold medal of the society was award- their atomic weights. The horizontal series ed to Professor Axel Möller, for his researches gives the successive cycles in which the period on Faye's comet.

of progressive development is completed; and ATLANTA EXPOSITION. (See Exposi- the vertical series, the natural or homologous TION, ATLANTA.)

orders of elements in which the same properties ATOMIC THEORY. There have been many reappear. attempts to establish a law of numerical rela In the following table, it will be seen, telluritions between the atomic weights of the ele- um is the only substance which is out of place. ments. The discovery of definite ratios between Possibly a redetermination of its atonic weight the atomic weights and other quantitative at- will give it in this respect the position between tributes, the division of the elements into spe- antimony and iodine which its intermediate cific groups distinguished by well-marked prop- properties indicate. Iron, manganese, and erties, and the tendency to doubt their primary chromium, which differ very slightly in atomic character and to regard them as derivative weight, do not exhibit the close resemblance combinations of simpler bodies, give a fresh in behavior and properties which the theory impetus to speculation in this direction. requires; and cobalt and nickel, which have

Mendelejeff's periodic law, confirmed as it almost identical atomic weights and densities, has been by the discovery of gallium and other possess, in some respects, quite dissimilar predicted elements, and by the agreement of properties. Other differences as remarkable many established facts with his scheme of pe- are shown by potassium and calcium, and other riodic functions, which more exact quantitative proximate elements. Copper, which has wany determinations have rendered more complete, analogies with mercury, here falls in a different has been elevated into the rank of an accepted group. The gradations of properties are certheory.

tainly not uniform and proportionate to the The Russian chemist has correlated the ele- atomic weights in the different series, being ments according to a synthetic law wbich is excessive, for example, between carbon, nitrothe most comprehensive yet established in gen, oxygen, and fluorine. chemistry, co-ordinating all the physical prop Besides the density, the malleability, ducerties and the chemical affinities of the whole tility, fusibility, volatility, and conductivity to list of simple bodies. Arranging the elements heat and electricity of elements seem, in the in the order of their atomic weights, their den- same manner, to be subject to periodic variasities, and consequently their atomic volumes, tions following the increasing order of their

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atomic weights. Lothar Meyer has constructed heat are found also to depend upon atomic a graphic representation exhibiting the rela- weight, according to the same law of periotion of the physical properties of the elements dicity. Fizeau's experiments have proved that to their atomic weights and volumes. The the co-efficient of expansion rises and sinks regelements are arranged at distances from the ularly as the atomic weight increases. Duorigin along the axis of abscissæ proportional long's law of relativity between atomic weights to their atomic weights. The ordinates of the and specific heats, probably for lack of exact curve indicate their atomic volumes, and the measurements, can only be determined in cases curve the variations of these in their successive where atomic weights and atomic volume are order. From the portions of this curve which both low. Dulong's law is not periodic, the have been determined, it appears that it repre- specific heat being uniformly inversely proporsents also variations in the above-inentioned tional to the atomic weight. Lecoq de Boisphysical properties. It is seen that the posi- baudran has proved that, in the homologous tion of the elements on the ascending or de- series of elements, the wave-lengths of the luscending portions of the curve determines their minous rays which they emit are proportional properties, which may thus be very different to their atomic weights. The electro-chemical for bodies possessing nearly the same atomic character of the elements follows the law of weight, and yet harmonize in a remarkable periodic variations, the passage from the elecmanner with the other terms of the theory. tro-positive to the electro-negative character The light metals which occupy the summits taking place in certain groups twice in the and contiguous descending parts of the curve same period of density variation. The elecare ductile ; and the heavy metals at the bottom tro-chemical condition governs the power of and lower part of the ascending curve are par- combination, to a certain extent; the stable tially ductile. In the fourth group the ductil- protoxides, for example, being formed with ity is seen to increase and diminish twice in one electro-positive metals, and powerful acids rich period of the tions of density. Fusibil. in oxygen with electro-negative elements. ity and conductivity, with increasing atomic Electro-negative hydrogen, on the contrary, weights, exhibit the same principle of variabil- forms its most stable simple compounds with ity. Crystalline form and expansibility by electro-positive elements.

In each of the periodical series the capacity mercury, chromium, vanadium, and gold, new of combining with oxygen seems to increase up determinations are wanted; and the remaining to a certain point, and then to decrease. The 8 are still subject to slight revision. Professor series headed by silver may be taken as a type Clarke concludes, then, that as three fourths of of the oxygen compounds formed by the ele- the well-determined atomic weights agree with ments in the other periods, the formulæ being Prout's hypothesis, the seeming exceptions here doubled for the sake of uniformity: may be due to undetected constant errors, such

Ag,0; 0d,02; Ing0s; Sn,0.; Sb2O.; Teg- as bave been brought recently to light in some 00; 1,0; ; Os0,; Ir0, ; Pt02.

of the most familiar bodies in the entire list of The first five members of every period but elements. one follow these types exactly. The variations Maximilien Gerber has sought to determine of affinities for chlorine and hydrogen within common factors in the atomic weights of the the groups are made evident by the following component members of each of the elemental formulæ, combinations with hydrogen being groups, and has determined empirically certain confined to the last four terms of the groups: common divisors in the several groups whose Li Cl; G Cl.; B Cls; C Cl.

multiples vary but slightly from the experiNa Cl; Mg Cl.; Al Cls; Si Cl.. mentally-determined atomic weights. In the C H.; N H3; O H.; FH.

group of mono-atomic elements the common Si H4; PH3; S H; CI H.

factor is 0.769. The alkaline metals, lithium, Dumas, to whom the merit of grouping the sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cæsium, elements into natural families belongs, called which combine with oxygen after the type attention again to Prout's neglected hypothe- R,O, and with chlorine according to the forsis in 1879. The French chemist discovered mula R CI, have, excepting the last named, the simple numerical relations between the metal- additional common factor 3. The non-metallic loids and some of the families of metals be- halogens, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iolonging to each group. In the sulphur group, dine, are another division of this class, and are for instance, at the head of which oxygen is likewise multiples of 0.769. now placed, there is a progression representing The atomic weight of hydrogen is related to additions to the atomic weight of the initial this number in the ratio 10:13, and that of body of multiples of a common difference. silver is an exact multiple. The di- and tetraStarting with oxygen, whose atomic weight is atomic elements have the common divisor 1.995. 8, the next member, sulphur, has the atomic Oxygen has an atomic weight equal to eight weight 16, formed by the addition of the in- times this number, and the weights of sulphur, crement 8; selenium has 40, corresponding to selenium, and tellurium are multiples of that the addition of four times this difference to the of oxygen. weight of oxygen ; and tellurium 64, an incre The alkaline-earthy metals, magnesium, calment of seven times the difference. In the cium, and strontium, which have the combinlithium and magnesium groups there are like ing formula RO, have the quadruple of the simple progressions. In the families of fluorine original factor for a divisor; but barium, which and nitrogen he has established arithmetical belongs to the same group, does not. Carbon, relations of a more complex order.

silicon, titanium, zirconium, and tin, have only A recalculation of atomic weights, based on the one common factor. Mercury, molybdethe determinations of Stas and other data, has num, tungsten, and uranium, are also multiples impelled Professor F. W. Clarke, following of this number. The tri-and penta-valent eleMallet and Dumas, to revive the abandoned ments, the group of nitrogen, boron, etc., which hypothesis of Prout, according to which the form a stable oxide of the type R,Os, and atomic weights of all the elements are multi-chlorides of the types RCl, or RCls, have ples of the atomic weight of hydrogen. Among most of them the common factor 1.559 in their the 65 determined elements when their atomic atomic weights. The fourth and most numerweights are referred to that of oxygen, in order ous class, combining into the oxides RO and to avoid the multiplication of the variation of R203, have atomic weights which are approxioxygen from Prout's hypothetical law, it is mate multiples of 1.245. Gerber's provisional found that 39, as calculated by Clarke, do not determination of common divisors is found to vary more than 0:1 from exact multiples of the agree with two recent corrections of atomic atomic weight of hydrogen; and of the re- weights: that of tellurium, which, as redetermaining 26, 3 are almost exact half-multiples; mined by Will, is 127.8, a number which ac5 are rare or vaguely determined elements; 2 cords better with Mendelejeft's scheme; and are subject to the constant error from the oc that of glucinum, which, according to the findclusion of oxygen, detected by Dumas in the ings of Nilson and Petterson, should not be 'case of silver, potassium, and iodine; 1, thal- classed among the diatomic' alkaline-earthy lium, is brought within the limit by a correc- metals, as its oxide is of the type R90s, as tion of Crookes's calculation ; 2, glucinum and originally established by Berzelius, and its ytterbium, can also be brought by a recalcula- atomic weight must therefore be taken as tion within the limit; and 1, antimony, is al 13.65. most an exact multiple of hydrogen, according AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. I. Gerto a recent analysis of the bromide; for 4, ERAL STATISTICS.—The area in square kilo

DIVISIONS.

Area,

500.000

Area.

26.215

COLONIES.

Births.

metres; 1 square kilometre = 0.386 English An intercolonial conference of statesmen square mile) and population of the principal convened in Sydney, in January, to consider in divisions of Australia and Polynesia are given what particulars and by what methods federal as follows in the new volume of the “ Bevölker- action would at the present time be desirable. ung der Erde" (sixth volume, Gotha, 1880): It was the continuation of a conference which

was held in Melbourne in the latter part of Population.

1880, which discussed an arrangement regardAustralia...

7,696,598 2,173.868 ing the border customs between New South New Zealand and adjacent islands. 272,989 477,814 New Guinea and islands.

807,956

Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. Those Oceanic islands...

176,184 879,850 three colonies alone participated in the former

conference. In the present one all the colonies Total..

8,953,727 4,081,000

were represented, informally, by pro:pinent adII. British PoSSESSIONS.—The following ta- ministrative officials. It was composed of the ble exhibits the area (in English square miles) following members: Henry Parks, Colonial and population on December 31, 1879, of the Secretary of New South Wales, chairman of Australasian colonies of Great Britain, accord- Conference; Grahain Berry, Chief Secretary, ing to a statistical abstract prepared by the and William M. K. Vale, Attorney-General, Registrar-General of New South Wales : Victoria; James Watson, Colonial Treasurer,

New South Wales; Thomas Dick, Colonial COLONIES.

Population. Secretary, New Zealand; William Morgan, New South Wales....

810,938 784,282 Chief Secretary, and O. Mann, Treasurer, Victoria..

88,198 899,333

South Australia; A. H. Palmer, Colonial SecSouth Australia.

380,070 259,287 Queensland..

660,520 217,851 retary, and Boyd D, Morehead, PostmasterTasmania. .

112,469 General, Queensland; W. R. Giblin, Colonial Western Australia.

1,000,000

28,668

Treasurer, and W. Moore, Colonial Secretary, Total.

2,474,941 2,251,890 Tasmania; Chief-Justice Wrenfordsley, WestNew Zealand.

105,842
463,729

ern Australia. Total for Australasian Continent 2,550,283 2,715,619

The final federal union of the Australasian

colonies has been looked forward to since the The movement of population in the several release of the principal colonies from crown colonies was as follows in 1878:

administration alike by British and colonial

statesmen, Confederation might have been acDeaths. Marriages.

complished with less difficulty at the time when Victoria 26,581

the right of self-government was first con

12,702 5,092 42,263 New South Wales. 25,828 10,768 5,817 89,879 ferred, and before the development of diverQueensland.

7,397 4,220 1,444 16,189 gent policies. The conflict of policies and South Australia

9,282 3,749 2,299 14,572 Western Australia. 871

diversity of laws since the growth of popula

tion and material prosperity has brought the Total. 69,459 81,828 14,334 118,180

colonies into closer contact afford the real inTasmania..

3,502 1,700

861

9,568 centive, while constituting a serious practical New Zealand.

17,770 4,642 8,385 16,263 difficulty, to the movement, which has been Grand total. 90,781 88,170 43,583 189,011

begun, toward conformity and federation.

The greatest actual obstacle in the way of a The financial condition of the colonies in federal union is the opposite commercial poli1879 was as follows:

cies pursued by the two leading and contiguous colonies, Victoria and New South Wales. Vic

toria has lived ten years under a tariff framed New South Wales..

for the encouragement of domestic industries,

£4,475,059 £14,937,419 Victoria..

4,621,520 20,050,753

and her people tenaciously adhere to the proSouth Australia.

1,662,498 6,605, 750 tective idea. Her neighbor and rival, New Queensland.

1,461,824 10,196,150 Tasmanis

South Wales, is equally attached to her revenue

375,367 1,786,800 Western Australia.

193,315 361,000 tariff, and the people are thoroughly devoted New Zealand..

3,134,905 23,958,311 to free-trade principles. The less populous Total.. £15,927,485 £77,896,183

colonies incline to the British doctrine, and

have constructed tariffs which do not differ The commercial statistics for 1879 were as greatly from that of New South Wales, and

can, without friction, be brought into exact

conformity. The Intercolonial Conference did Imports. Exports.

not hesitate to attack the vital subject of a cusNew South Wales.

£14,198,847 £18,086,819 toms union, although an immediate agreement 15,035,588 12,454,170

is out of the question. Amid the protests of 0,014,150 4,762,727 3,050,889 3,434,034 Mr. Berry at the proposed “insulation” of 1,267,475 1,301,097 Victoria, the conference voted tha à joint

407,299 494,888 8,374,585 6,743,126

commission be appointed by the autonomous

colonies to construct a common tariff.* Vic£47,378,788 41,276,856

* West Australia is the only Australasian colony which

Immigrants,

894

182

822

COLONIES.

R.venue of

1879.

Public debt on
Dec. 31, 1879.

follows:

COLONIES.

Victoria
South Australia.
Queensland
Tasmania...
Western Australia.
New Zealand..

Total

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