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dent, and he is well seconded in his efforts by agencies, $70,007.12; bills receivable, $1,202,the enlightened zeal of the present Minister of 825.90; various debtors, $233,510.63; shares Public Instruction, Don Deltino Sanchez. The of the Bank of Salvador, $70,000; United “Institutos” of Guatemala and Quezaltenango, States bonds, $57,612.50, etc. Bills of the and the colleges for females in both towns, are bank circulated to the amount of $276,652. establishments worthy of a progressive govern- The reserve has been increased to $64,000, and ment and country. “Belen," with its efficient the dividend-tund is $20,686.74. Discounts staff of lady professors, principally foreigners, during the six months footed up to $2,063,excites universal admiration for its excellent 224.70. The exchange business during the six management and the rapid progress of its pu- months was profitable, and promises to be still pils. This is the favorite educational establish- more favorable on account of special advanment, and here the daughters of the leading tages obtained for the bank in Europe, by Mr. members of society receive their education, J. F. Medina, the former manager. The net side by side with many who are maintained at profits of the concern were $66,050.52 for the the public expense, with the expectation that six months, out of which a dividend of $500 they will afterward devote part of their time per share was paid, or at the rate of over 14 to the education of their less fortunate sisters, per cent per annum on the paid-up capital of as teachers in the public schools that now ex- the bank. ist throughout the republic.
The exports and imports, with the destinaThe national revenue and expenditures for tions and sources thereof respectively, were as the year 1879 were as exhibited in the sub- follows for 1880: joined tables :
Values. Balance from preceding year
$885,000 Customs receipts..
1,776,000 Taxes, etc..
860,000 Reimbursements, interest, etc
$4,425,000 National Bank Sundries Total.. $1,684,757
$1,037.000 l'nited States.
036,000 National debt.
416,789 Arrears.... 151,761
$3,035,000 International Bank.. Sundries...
27,887 The quantity and destinations of the coffee Total..
exported in 1880 were as below:
5.083,884 The national debt was officially reported as
5,822,202 follows on January 1, 1880 :
New York... 8,192,185
246,895 Foreign debt.. $3,304,966
850, 858 Home debt..
12,522 This total shows an increase of $1,964,829 as
28,976,267 compared with the showing for January 1, 1879.
The imports from the United States were as In the annual report of the Corporation of follows in 1880: from New York, $141,591.43; Foreign Bondholders, published in 1881, the from California, $502.995.26; from New Orstatement concerning the Guatemala indebt- leans, $11,367.12; total, $156,913.81. The exedment growing out of British loans figured as ports to the United States, in the same year, follows: approximate principal unredeemed, were of the total value of $1,776,214.70. £542,200 ($2,711,005); total, with overdue in The work on the branch of the railway from terest, £712,392 ($3,561,960).
Escuintla to the capital had been commenced ; We transcribe the following extract from the and a concession for the construction of a line semi-annual returns of the International Bank from Santo Tomás, on the Atlantic coast, had of Guatemala for the period ending June 30, been granted to Larrondo Brothers; distance, 1881; the situation described therein being as 240 miles; estimated cost, $14,000,000. This satisfactory as the showing of other prosperous new line, if built, will materially facilitate our banks in larger commercial centers: There trade with Guatemala, there being already a are ninety-one subscribers to its funds, who, line of steamers plying between New Orleans on a nominal capital of $910,000, have paid up and Livingston, near Santo Tomás. $637,000. Cash in hand, $379,831.17; cash in Guatemala is now in the Postal Union.
All other destinations
GUITEAU'S TRIAL. Within a few days 1881. On the following Wednesday I was in bed. I after the death of President Garfield proceed- think I retired about eight o'clock. I felt depressed ings were begun in the District of Columbia and perplexed on account of the political situation, and
I retired much earlier than usual. I felt wearied in for bringing bis assailant to trial on a charge mind and body, and I was in my bed about nine of murder. At first a question of jurisdiction o'clock, and I was thinking over the policical situawas raised, the death of the victim having tion, and the idea flashed through my brain that if occurred in the State of New Jersey. The the President was out of the way everything would go opinion was expressed that the rule of the common law prevailed in the District, and that He then proceeded to give a detailed account its courts could not have jurisdiction in a case of his preparation for the crime and of its exeof murder unless the death as well as the crimi-cution, claiming that he was under a divine nal act occurred within its boundaries. There pressure which he could not resist. In regard was no doubt that the courts of New Jersey to the legal aspect of the case and his defense, would have jurisdiction, inasmuch as the stat- he said: ute law of that State provided that both in the I shot the President without malice or murderous case of death within its limits from criminal intent. I deny any legal liability in this case. In injury caused elsewhere, and injury within its order to constitute the crime of murder two elements limits resulting in death elsewhere, indictment must co-exist. First, an actual homicide ; second, malcould be found and tried in the county within ice malice in law or malice in fact. The law presumes which either the death or the injury took place. malice depends upon the condition of the man's mind
malice from the fact of the homicide; the degree of At the request of Judge E. W. Scudder, of the at the time of the homicide. If two men quarrel and Supreme Court of New Jersey, Attorney-Gen- one shoots the other in heat or passion, the law says eral Stockton considered the question of the that is manslaughter. The remoteness of the shooting proper action to be taken in that State. He of the malice. The further you go from the concepwrote to District - Attorney Corkhill, of the tion to the shooting the greater the malice, because District of Columbia, stating that he should the law says that in shooting a man a few hours or a not advise any legal proceedings to be taken in few days after the conception the mind has a chance New Jersey with a view to the punishment of to cool, and therefore the act is deliberate. Malice the crime of Guiteau, unless he should be in- homicide. Malice in law is liquidated in this case by formed that it could not be punished under the the facts and circumstances, as set forth in these pages, jnrisdiction of the courts of the Federal Dis- attending the removal of the President. I had none trict. The District Attorney replied that he but the best of feelings, personally, toward the Presihad no doubt that the law in force there would dent. I always thought of him and spoke of him as be found adequate to meet the case. Judge Scudder accordingly, on the 4th of October, At the request of the accused, his brothercharged the Grand Jury of Monmouth County in-law, George M. Scoville, of Chicago, took that it would not be advisable or necessary “ to charge of his defense. Attempts to secure the take any action in this matter at the present aid of prominent lawyers, including R. T. Mertime, unless we shall be notified that the prose- rick, of Washington; Emory A. Storrs, of Chicution and indictment of the offense in this cago; and B. F. Butler, of Massachusetts, were county are required to prevent a failure of jus- unsuccessful, though Mr. Merrick expressed his tice, which does not now appear probable, ac- willingness to argue the question of jurisdiction, cording to the statement made by the proper if it were made an issue in the case. On his legal authority of the city of Washington.' arraignment the prisoner pleaded "Not guilty,"
The case had by this time been already and desired to make a statement, but the privbrought before the Grand Jury of the District ilege was denied, as not appropriate at that of Columbia on the evidence of Surgeon-Gen- time. In arguing for a delay of the trial, Mr. eral Barnes, who testified in relation to the Scoville stated that the defense would consist wound; George W. Adams and Officer Kear- of two points: First, the insanity of the deney, who witnessed the shooting; and Dr. D. fendant; and, second, that the wound was not S. Lamb, who conducted the autopsy of the necessarily mortal, and was not the cause of President's body. The presentment of the death. The time of trial was fixed for Novemjury was made on the 4th of October, the in- ber 7th, and it was intimated that there might dictment was found in due form a few days be a preliminary consideration of the question later, and on the 14th of October the prisoner of jurisdiction. This was not had, however, was arraigned in court to plead to the indict as the plea of "Not guilty " waived for the ment. In the mean time he had caused to be time the objection on this point. Subsequentprinted in one of the public journals a state- ly Judge Cox, of the Criminal Court, assigned ment of facts and an explanation of his motives. Mr. Leigh Robinson to be associate counsel for In this he gave a long account of his career, the defense; and Mr. Walter D. Davidge, of his participation in the political canvass of Washington, and John K. Porter, of New York, 1880, and his efforts to obtain an appoints were employed to assist in the prosecution. A ment at the hands of the new Administration. motion for the postponement of the trial to He said :
November 21st resulted in its being set down My conception of the idea of removing the President peremptorily for the 14th of that month. In was this: Mr. Conkling resigned on Monday, May 16, the mean time an order was obtained from the
court permitting the summoning of twenty merchant; Thomas Heinlein, iron-worker; Jowitnesses for the defense, at the expense of the seph Prather, commission-merchant. Government.
On the day on which the jury was completed On the first day set for the trial, lack of bar- the prisoner, who claimed to be acting as counmony appeared between the counsel for the sel in his own defense, succeeded in having an defense. Mr. Robinson applied for a postpone- appeal for aid" to the legal profession of Amerment, on the ground that he was not fully pre- ica" published, in spite of the objection of Mr. pared, and was endeavoring to obtain additional Scoville. legal aid. Mr. Scoville objected to his proceed The case for the prosecution was opened by ings, declaring that he had not been consulted District Attorney Corkhill, on the 17th of Noin the matter; and the prisoner violently de- vember. He detailed to the jury the facts remanded that Mr. Robinson "get out of the lating to the crime, and endeavored to show case.” The prisoner also attempted to deliver that it was planned and executed as the result an address to the court, but was not permitted of political disappointment, and for the purpose to do so. The address was, however, published, of revenge. In regard to the question of moand contained a reiteration of his motives in tives and purposes, as bearing on the legal as"removing the President," to save the Re- pects of the crime, he said: publican party, and prevent a new civil war; The unlawful killing of any reasonable creature and of his claim that he was inspired by the by a person of sound memory and discretion, with Deity, and compelled to the performance of the malice aforethought, either expressed or implied, is act. No postponement was granted. After murder. The motives and intentions of an individual
who commits a crime are of necessity known to him the jury-panel had been sworn, Judge Cox alone. No human power can penetrate the recesses made the following observations regarding dis of the heart; no eye but the eye of God can discera qualifications for the required service:
the motives for human action. Hence the law wisely
says that a man's motives shall be judged from his Under the Constitution, the prisoner is entitled to acts, so that if one kill another suddenly, without any be tried by an impartial jury. But an idea prevails provocation, the law implies malice. If a man uses a that any impression or opinion, however lightly formed deadly weapon, it is presumed he intended to commit or feebly held, disqualities from serving in the charac- murder, and in general the law presumes a man to inter of an impartial juror. This is an error. As the tend the natural consequences of his act. Were there Supreme Court says: “In these days of newspaper en nothing more against the accused than the occurrences terprise and universal education, cvery case of public of the morning of July 2d, the evidence of his crime interest is almost as a matter of necessity brought to would be complete, and you would be authorized to the attention of all the intelligent people in the vicin- conclude that he feloniously, willfully, and with mality, and scarcely one can be found, among those best ice aforethought, did kill and murder James A. Garfitted for jurors, who has not read or heard of it, and field. But crime is never natural. The man who who has not some impression or some opinion in re attempts to violate the laws of God and society goes spect to its merits.” If the prevalent idea I have men
counter to the ordinary course of human action. He tíoned were correct, it would follow that the most is a world to himself. He is against society, against illiterate and uninformed people in the community organization, and of necessity his action can never be would be the best qualified to discharge duties which measured by the rules governing men in the every; require some intelligence and information. It is now day transactions of life. No criminal ever violated generally, if not universally, agreed that such opinions the laws who did not leave the traces of his crime disor impressions as are merely gathered from newspapers tinct and clear when once discovered. So in this case or public report, and are mere hypothetical or condi we can only add to the enormity of this offense by tional opinións, dependent upon the truth of the re- showing you its origin, its conception, and the plans ports, and not so fixed as to prevent one from giving a adopted for its execution. fair and impartial hearing to the accused, and rendering a verdict according to the evidence, do not dis On the same day Secretary Blaine and Sefior qualify. On the other hand, fixed and decided opin- Simon Comacho, Minister from Venezuela, were ions against the accused, which would have to be examined as witnesses of the act of shooting. overcome before one could feel impartial, and which Mr. Blaine was also examined with reference would resist the force of evidence for the accused, would be inconsistent with the impartiality that the to the prisoner's persistent and unsuccessful law requires. There is a natural reluctance to serve application for office previous to his alleged on a case like this, and a disposition to seek to be ex- conception of the crime. The next day was cused, on the ground of having formed an opinion; occupied with further testimony of eye-witwhen in fact no real disqualification exists. But it is your duty, as good citizens, to assist the court in the
nesses of the shooting, and the examination of administration of justice in just such cases, unless you the private secretary of the late President in are positively disqualified, and I shall expect you on regard to the efforts of the accused to obtain your consciences to answer fairly as to the question of an appointment to office. Several letters reimpartiality, according to the explanation of it which lating to the application were put in evidence. I have given to you.
In some of these the prisoner expressed his Three days were occupied in obtaining the dissatisfaction with the conduct of Mr. Blaine, jury, which was constituted as follows: John accused the latter of working for his own P. "Hamlin, restaurant-keeper; Frederick W. nomination for the presidency in 1884, and Brandenburg, cigar-dealer; Henry J. Bright, promised the President his influence and sopretired merchant; Charles J. Stewart, mer- port for a renomination. He also intimated that chant; Thomas H. Langley, grocer; Michael the course of Mr. Blaine threatened to bring Sheehan, grocer; Samuel F. Hobbs, plasterer; disaster to the Administration. The next two George W. Gates, machinist ; Ralph Wormley days were occupied with medical testimony in (colored), laborer; W. H. Brawner, commission- regard to the President's injury and its treat
ment. The doctors who first examined the were mistaken as to supposed facts. I meant no diswound and attended the President throughout courtesy to them, or to any one. Any fact in my bis illness gave their testimony, and Dr. Bliss Deity or myself, is of vital importance in this case, was closely cross-examined in regard to the and I propose that it go to the jury. Hence my permode of treatment. The joint of the vertebral sonal, political, and theological record may be develcolumn which was perforated by the bullet_oped. I am glad that your Honor and the opposing was exhibited in court, and the character of counsel are disposed to give an historical review of my
life, and I ask the press and the public to do likewise. the wound was fully explained, as well as the All'I want is absolute justice, and I shall not permit details of its treatment by the physicians. The any crooked work. I have no idea my counsel want part of the cross-examination intended to show crooked work. They are often mistaken in supposed inaltreatment was strenuously objected to by facts, and I shall have to correct them. Last spring the prosecution, and by agreement the doctors'
certain newspapers in New York and Washington
were bitterly denouncing the President for breaking record was submitted to the counsel for the up the Republican party by improper appointments. defense. Dr. Bliss's last answer on the wit I would like those newspapers to reprint those ediness-stand was that the wound itself was nec torials now, and see how they would look and sound. essarily mortal. On the 18th of November In attempting to remove the President, I only did there was a somewhat exciting episode in an
what the papers said ought to be done. Since July
2d they have been deifying the President, and deattempt to shoot the prisoner while on his way nouncing me for doing the very thing they said ought from the court to the jail in a van. A man on to be done. I want the newspapers and the doctors, horseback followed the vehicle for some dis- who actually killed the President, to share with me
the odium of his death. I never would have shot tance, and then riding rapidly past fired a pistol him of my own volition, notwithstanding those newsinto it. The bullet grazed the prisoner's wrist, papers, if I had not been commissioned by the Deity but did no serious injury. The assailant es to do the deed. But this fact does not relieve the caped at the time, but a man named William newspapers from the supposed disgrace of the PresiJones was subsequently arrested, indicted for dent's removal. If he had been properly treated, he
would have been alive to-day. It has been published the assault, and released on bail.
that I am in fear of death. It is false. I have always The second week of the trial opened on the been a religious man and an active worker for God. 21st, with a completion of the medical testimony Some people think that I am a murderer, but the Lord in regard to the injuries of the deceased, and does not, for he inspired the act, as in the case of Abrathis concluded the presentation of the case on
ham and a score of other cases in the Bible. behalf of the prosecution. The same day Mr. Several days were occupied with testimony Robinson withdrew from the case, in conse- relating to the family and personal history of quence of discord between himself and the the accused, which was intended to sustain the other counsel, and the opening for the defense theory of an hereditary tendency to insanity was begun. 'An opportunity was first given and the progressive development of mental the prisoner to speak in his own behalf, but he aberration in the prisoner himself.
He was merely made a few remarks, saying that he placed on the witness-stand to testify in his thought the true way for him was to inter- own behalf on the 29th of November, and exject statements as the case proceeds." Mr. amined for four days. Before he began his Scoville's address, which was begun Novem- testimony, several of his letters to different ber 21st, and occupied the whole of the next members of his family were read and put in day and part of that which followed, was de- evidence. The prisoner, in response to quesvoted to setting forth the defense of insanity, tions of his counsel, gave a detailed account of on which alone he relied. He gave an ac- his own recollection of incidents in his past count of the Guiteau family, with a view of life, his early training, religious views, expeshowing an hereditary taint, and detailed the rience as a member of the Oneida Community, career of the prisoner, his early training, pe- which he was induced to join by his father, culiar religious views, experience as a member and his subsequent efforts as a lecturer, a lawof the Oneida Community, efforts as a prac- yer, and a politician. He also gave an account ticing lawyer and a lecturer on theological sub- of bis conception of the idea of removing the jects, his projects for establishing newspapers, President in order to heal the breach in the and his extravagant political aspirations. He Republican party and save the nation from claimed that all this tended to show insanity, peril, claiming to have acted under inspiration and would be duly proved. On the 23d of and divine “pressure." He was subjected to November testimony for the defense began. a severe cross-examination, under which he The proceedings were constantly interrupted was sometimes rather violent in his language by the prisoner, who contradicted the wit- and gesticulations, but generally very skillful nesses and criticised the course of counsel. in adhering to his theory of the crime, and in Intimations of gagging and of removal from meeting the advances of the questioning counthe court-room failed to repress him. On the sel. The purpose of the prosecution was to second day of the examination of witnesses show that his "conception,” as he called it, for the defense he read a statement in which followed closely upon his final disappointment he said:
in his quest for office, and was accompanied by I propose to have all the facts bearing on this case
indications of a desire for revenge; also that a to go to the court and the jury, and to do this I have desire for notoriety entered into his motives. been forced to interrupt counsel and witnesses who The testimony of the accused was concluded
on the 2d of December, and was followed by answer that question I should say he was inevidence intended to show the political situa- sane.” This concluded the medical testimony tion prior to July 20, which was assumed to for the defense, and was followed by the readhave been an exciting cause upon the mind of ing of passages from a book written by the the prisoner to impel him to his act of that prisoner and entitled “Truth.," and by the evidate.
dence of two or three public men who had The fourth week of the trial opened on the been acquainted with the political doings of 5th of December, with the introduction of ex- the accused. The prisoner himself petulantly pert testimony on the part of the defense to criticised the theory and conduct of his counprove insanity. The following hypothetical sel, and desired to have President Arthur, Genquestion, based on the facts which the defense eral Grant, ex-Senator Conkling, and other assumed as having been developed by the pre- prominent public men summoned, as well as vious testimony, was propounded to the wit- the editors of several leading newspapers. At nesses by Mr. Scoville :
the opening of the court on December 7th, he Assuming it to be a fact that there was a strong
made the following statement: hereditary taint of insanity in the blood of the pris May it please your Honor, the American people do oner at the bar; also, that at about the age of thirty- not desire that this case shall be tried again, and I do five years his own mind was so much deranged that not desire it. I say, with the utmost respect to this he was a fit subject to be sent to an insane asylum; court and jury, and my counsel, Mr. Scoville, that I also, that at different times after that date during tho am not satisfied with the political situation as develnext succeeding five years he manifested such decided oped in this case. That is the gist of the alleged ofsymptoms of insanity, without simulation, that many fense. The President of the United States would different persons conversing with him, and observing never have been shot if it had not been for the polithis conduct, believed him to be insane ; also, that in ical situation as it existed last May and June, and I or about the month of June, 1881, at or about the ex- say I have a right, as a matter of law, appearing as piration of said term of five years, he became demented my own counsel, to ask your Honor that General by the idea that he was inspired of God to remove by Grant, Senators Conkling and Platt, and President death the President of the United States; also, that Arthur and those kind of men, who were so down he acted on what he believed to be such inspiration, upon Garfield that they would not speak to him on the and on what he believed to be in accordance with the street, and would not go to the White House--I have divine will in the preparation for and in the accom a right to show that, I have a right to show my perplishment of such a purpose ; also, that he committed sonal relations to those gentlemen; that I was on the act of shooting the President under what he be- friendly terms with them; that I was cordially relieved to be a divine command, which he was not at ceived, well dressed, and well fed at the Fifth Avenue liberty to disobey, and which belief made out a con Hotel by the National Committee. I want to show viction which controlled his conscience and over- my supposed personal relations to those men. I do powered his will as to that act, so that he could not not want to take exception to your Honor's ruling, resist the mental pressure upon him; also, that im- but I shall be obliged to do so. I have no doubt that mediately after the shooting he appeared calm and as the court in banc will give me a new trial. if relieved by the performance of a great duty; also, that there was no other adequate motive for the act
The same day the rebutting testimony of the than the conviction that he was executing the divine prosecution was begun, with the understanding will for the good of his country—assuming all of these that Dr. Spitzka, of New York, who had been propositions to be true, state whether, in your opinion, summoned for the defense as an expert and had the prisoner was sane or insane at the time of shoot- not yet appeared, might be examined at a later ing President Garfield ?
stage of the proceedings. Three days were The first of the expert witnesses, Dr. James occupied with evidence in rebuttal of that G. Kiernan, of Chicago, replied to this ques- which was intended to show insanity in the tion, that, assuming these propositions to be Guiteau family, and in support of the theory true, he had no doubt of the prisoner's insanity. that the prisoner was simply depraved and On cross-examination the witness expressed a wicked, having been addicted to cheating, hy. belief in the existence of moral insanity, and pocrisy, and vice, and possessed with an instated the opinion that about one person in five ordinate vanity and desire for notoriety. in the community was more or less insane. On the opening of the fifth week, December Dr. Charles II. Nichols, of the Bloomingdale 12th, Dr. Spitzka appeared and was examined Asylum, New York, and Dr. Charles F. Fol. for the defense. He testified that he had made som, of Boston, also testified that, assuming a personal examination of the prisoner, and bethe statements in the hypothetical question to lieved him to be insane, “ a moral imbecile, or be true, the person described would, in their rather a moral monstrosity." He was subopinion, be insane. Dr. Samuel Worcester, of jected to a severe cross-examination, intended Salem, Massachusetts, insisting on an explana- to discredit his authority as an expert. On the tion of the question, was set aside as a witness 13th the prosecution began the introduction of for the defense. Dr. W. W. Golding, of Wash- expert testimony in rebuttal of that of the deington; Dr. James H. McBride, of Milwaukee; fense. The first witness of this class was Dr, and Dr. Walter Channing, of Brookline, Mas- Fordyce Barker, of New York, who testified sachusetts, also testified that, assuming the that there was no such thing as hereditary propositions of the question to be all true, insanity, though there might be a transmitthey should regard the prisoner as insane. Dr. ted liability to become insane, and that in his Theodore W. Fisher, of Boston, replied, “I opinion what was termed moral insanity was should dislike very much to be confined to nothing but wickedness. The general purport that statement of facts, but if I am obliged to of his testimony was that in Guiteau's case