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He also had a taste for the administration of the session of the Senate, but the appointment military affairs, and before the civil war was was not confirmed. The successor appointed Judge-Advocate of the Second Brigade of the after his suspension in July was confirmed in State militia. When Edwin D. Morgan became office at the following session of the Senate. Governor of New York, at the beginning of Two special committees investigated Mr. Ar1860, he appointed Mr. Arthur to the position thur's administration of the Collector's office, of engineer-in-chief on his staff, and he was and reported nothing on which a charge of afterward made Inspector-General, and then official dereliction could be based. Both the Quartermaster-General of the military forces President and the Secretary of the Treasury, in of the State, an office which he held until the connection with his suspension, acknowledged end of Governor Morgan's term, at the close of the purity of his official acts. A petition for 1863. He conducted the duties of his office his retention in office, signed by all the judges in equipping, supplying, and forwarding the of the New York courts, most of the promiimmense number of troops furnished by his nent members of the bar, and nearly all the State, with such success that his accounts were importing merchants of the city, was supaudited and allowed at Washington without pressed by Mr. Arthur himself. The only acdeduction, while those of some of the States cusation made against him was that of diswere reduced by millions of dollars. It has regarding the President's order in respect to also been said that while he had the giving of active participation in political management. many large and profitable contracts, and the In a letter to Secretary Sherman, he produced control of enormous purchases, with opportuni- figures showing that in the six years of his adties for making gains, which most men would ministration as Collector of New York, rohave regarded as legitimate, he never profited movals from subordinate offices amounted to a penny from the business under his charge, only 24 per cent of the whole number, and left the office of Quartermaster-General against an average of 28 per cent under his poorer than when he took it. Presents offered three immediate predecessors, and that all to him were promptly rejected, and, if sent, but two appointments in one hundred to imreturned. In 1862 there was a secret meeting portant positions, commanding a salary of of " loyal Governors,” to discuss measures for $2,000 and more, had been made by promoproviding troops, at which Mr. Arthur was tion from the lower grades of the service, on present by invitation, being the only person recommendation of the heads of bureaus. His taking part who was not the Governor of a reforms in the methods of conducting the busiState. Many instances are related of the ness of the office were generally acknowledged. notably vigorous administration of his military On retiring from the office of Collector of office.

the Port of New York, Mr. Arthur returned In 1865 General Arthur returned to the prac- to the practice of law in that city, and contice of law, and built up a large business in tinued to take an active part in politics, concollecting claims against the Government. He tributing materially to the nomination and also drafted many important measures of election of Mr. Cornell to the governorship of legislation, and promoted their adoption both the State. He was a zealous supporter of the at Washington and at Albany. For a short claims of General Grant to the Republican time he was counsel of the New York Board nomination for the presidency in the Chicago of Tax Commissioners. Meantime he took an Convention of 1880, being closely associated active part in local politics, and became known with Senator Conkling in the effort to secure for his skill as an organizer and manager. On that result, as he had previously been in the the 20th of November, 1871, he was appointed political affairs of the State of New York. by President Grant Collector of Customs at When the movement to nominate General the port of New York, an office to which he Grant was defeated, and Mr. Garfield was made was reappointed in 1875. His second appoint- the candidate, Mr. Arthur was nominated for ment was promptly confirmed by the Senate the vice-presidency by acclamation, for the withont a usual reference to a committee. purpose of enlisting the hearty support of the President Hayes, after his accession to office in Grant Republicans for the ticket, and securing, 1877, promulgated an order forbidding persons if possible, the vote of New York. He took an in the civil service of the Government from active part in the management of the canvass taking an active part in political management. which followed, especially in his own State, Mr. Arthur was at that time chairman of the acting as chairman of the Republican Central Republican Central Committee of New York Committee. He presided in the Senate during city, and Mr. A. B. Cornell, who held the the special session, which began on the 4th of position of Naval Officer, was chairman of the March, with dignity and general acceptance, State Central Committee, of the same party. In the contest between the President and Both gentlemen neglected to comply with the Senator Conkling, in regard to appointments in President's order by resigning their party the State of New York, the Vice-President positions, and were suspended from office in took no part, but, after the resignation of the July, 1878. An attempt had previously been New York Senators, he went to Albany and made to supersede General Arthur by remov- actively participated in the effort to secure ing him, and appointing his successor during their re-election. It was during this contest

that President Garfield received the shot that ima are accidental, or whether their occurrence subsequently proved fatal, and it put an end to is in accordance with an undiscovered law, is a Mr. Arthur's electioneering efforts in behalf of question to be decided by future observations. Mr. Conkling. While the President lingered The dates of these periods are: January 17-21, between life and death from July 2d to Sep- March 9-20, April 2-9, April 16-25, May 5-9, tember 19th, the Vice-President refrained from May 23–31, June 12-18, June 25-July 10, and all part in public affairs and the controversies July 24-August M. Tacchini observes that of the time, only expressing on fitting oc- these epochs are frequently separated by half a casions bis own sincere share in the common solar rotation. grief and anxiety.

New Minor Planet.—On the night of May The death of President Garfield was an. 18th, Dr. Palisa detected a new minor planet, nounced to him in New York by a telegraphic the 220th of the group. This is the only plandispatch from the members of the Cabinet, etoid discovered during the year. Its light at who expressed the wish that he would repair the time of discovery was extremely feeble, to Long Branch the following morning. In the apparent magnitude being 13.5. accordance with the advice of his friends, he Jupiter's Spots.— Within the past year Protook the oath of office at his own house in fessor Hough, Director of the Dearborn ObservNew York before one of the judges of the atory, Chicago, Illinois, has given special study State Supreme Court, at about two o'clock in and attention to the spots of Jupiter. A discusthe morning of September 20th. After visiting sion of all the measures of the great red spot, Long Branch and accompanying the remains of commenced in the autumn of 1879 and continued the dead President to Washington, Mr. Arthur through 490 days, gives a mean rotation period was sworn into office in a more formal manner of gh. 55m. 35.2. But individual observations before the Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court seem to indicate a motion of oscillation of the on the 22d, and delivered a brief address in spot itself; the displacement in longitude which he expressed his sense of the grave re. amounting to 3,200 miles. The observations sponsibilities devolved upon him. The same of small spots during two months indicated an day, as his first official act, he proclaimed a average drift in longitude of about three miles general day of mourning for his predecessor. per hour. The rotation period derived from A special session of the Senate was called, to observations of a small white spot almost exbegin on the 10th of October, for the purpose actly on the equator was 9h. 50+ 0.56". If the of choosing a presiding officer and confirming great red spot, therefore, be regarded as fixed, such appointments as might be submitted. the mean drift of the equatorial parts will be The members of the Cabinet were requested to 265 miles per hour in the direction of the planretain their places until the regular meeting of et's rotation. The true diameter of the equaCongress in December. Only Secretary Win- torial white spot measured about 2,800 miles. dom, of the Treasury Department, who de- These observations, it must be confessed, leave sired to become a candidate for the Senate the true rotation period of the planet somefrom Minnesota, insisted on his resignation. what uncertain. As they indicate, however, Chief-Judge Folger, of the New York Court of but slight deviations from permanency in the Appeals, was chosen as his successor, after position, form, and dimensions of the red ex-Governor E. D. Morgan, of the same State, spot, the period can differ but little from gk. had declined the appointment, though it had 55m. 356. been submitted to the Senate and promptly Comets.—The sixth comet of 1880 was disconfirmed. The new President took a proini- covered December 16th, by Dr. Pechüle, of Conent part officially in the Yorktown celebration penhagen. Its motion is direct, and the eleon the 19th of October, delivering an appro- ments of its orbit resemble those of the comets priate address.

of 1807 and 1881 6. ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND The first comet of 1881 was discovered May PROGRESS. The Sun. — The “ American 1st, by Dr. Lewis Swift, Director of the WarJournal of Science" for June, 1881, contains ner Observatory, Rochester, New York. Its a discussion of the American photographs of elements have no marked resemblance to those the transit of Venus in 1874, by Professor D. of any known comet. P. Todd. The mean equatorial, horizontal On the night of May 22d, Mr. John Tebbutt, parallax of the sun derived from these photo- of Windsor, New South Wales, discovered a graphs is 8•883", corresponding to a distance of comet which proved to be one of more than 92,028,000 miles.

ordinary interest. The same body was indeSolar Activity. The “Comptes Rendus," pendently detected a few days later by Dr. vol. xciii, No. 8, gives the result of M. Tac- B. A. Gould, at Cordoba, South America. It chini's solar observations up to August 1st. The was observed at many places in Europe and number of spots and prominences continues to America on the morning of June 23d, and was increase. At no time between January 1st and conspicuously visible to the naked eye from July 31st was the sun's disk found free from June 23d to August 1st. Its tail could be traced spots. The daily record of their numbers has to a distance of 12° or 13° from the nucleus, indicated several well-marked epochs of special the true length being nine or ten millions of solar activity. Whether these secondary max- miles. Its orbit resembles that of the comet

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