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by the same court to have been illegally issued. growth of excellent black-walnut will doubtless The vote on the Fishback amendment, which come into requisition as the supplies of that repudiates the bulk of the debt of Arkansas, valuable wood fail in Indiana, Upper Canada, was about 61,000 for, to 41,000 against. It was and other northern districts, while the demand declared not carried, because it lacked 4,000 of still increases. There are seventy varieties of a majority of all the votes cast. The liabilities, useful timber in Arkansas. Besides black-walconsidered not binding by so large a proportion nut, there are numerous other highly-prized of the citizens of the State, consist of about timber-trees, which attain large proportions, $2,000,000 of levee bonds, $5,000,000 of rail- and grow in abundance. There are several way-aid bonds, and other disputed liabilities, varieties of the oak. The cherry, the boisaggregating about $4,000,000. There is an d'arc, the holly, and the maple furnish choice admitted debt amounting to some $5,000,000, qualities of timber. The cedar, the beech, the over half of which is funded. The ground on poplar, the cypress, the hickory, and the ash which the levee and railroad subsidy were out are common. The yellow pine grows to large lawed by the courts, and on which they are size, and its forests take up one tenth of the disclaimed by the people, is principally that area of the State. With 2,500 iniles of navithe acts authorizing their issue were not passed gable rivers, with a greater length of running in the manner provided by the State Consti- water than any other inland State, the facilities tution. The other class of bonds wbich it is for driving logs render the wealth of valuable sought to exclude, known as the Holford bonds, lumber, which clothes a greater part of the were a part of the whole series issued under State's surface, easily accessible. Walnut logs the funding act in 1870–71. They are objected have already been shipped in large quantities to on the ground of general fraud. The other to Eastern manufactories and to England. The funded bonds of the State are recognized as price of this favorite wood is constantly rising. valid by all parties. The Legislature in the The lumber was at first floated in rafts, buoyed early part of the session of 1881 passed an act up by intermingled cypress logs, to New Ordirecting the Auditor and Treasurer to drop leans, and thence shipped on cars to the East, from their books the levee, railroad-aid, and but is now transported directly by rail. Holford bonds.
Arkansas is also a State of extraordinary The settlement of the debt question in a way though undeveloped mineral wealth. The coalwhich shall be understood to be final, whether fields, covering 12,000 square miles, and conby the acknowledgment of the entire debt, or taining more than those of Great Britain, the repudiation of a portion of it, would prob- afford anthracite and cannel as well as bitumiably promote the commercial progress of Ar- nous coal, deposited in strata of four to nine feet kansas. The cessation of lawless license and in thickness. The semi-anthracite quality charthe universal observance of legal methods would acteristic of these beds renders the coal excellent have a much more powerful effect in attracting for smelting and manufacturing purposes. The capital and immigration. The recent extension iron-ores are as rich as those of Missouri, and of railroads is already leading to the establish- nearly as abundant. Specular and hematite ment of new industries, and the enlargement ores both abound. The lead-ores of Arkansas of the agricultural area. Although its develop- are of remarkable richness, containing, not only ment has been slower than that of any other a large percentage of lead, but a considerable State, the natural resources of Arkansas are proportion of silver associated with it. Veins scarcely excelled. Nearly the entire area of the have been found yielding 70 per cent of pure State is cultivable land of high average quality. lead and 200 ounces of silver per ton ; and The soil is seven to ten feet in depth, and con assays of 6 per cent of silver have been known. tains potash, soda, magnesia, ferrous oxide, Perhaps the largest zinc deposits on the conlime, and phosphoric acid in favorable quanti- tinent are found in this state, and stores of ties. The greater part of the 10,000,000 acres manganese unexcelled in any part of the world. donated by Congress as “swamp-lands," need Among the other prospectively valuable mineral no reclamation whatever. Timber-land in this resources are mines of salt, antimony in abunState is easily brought under cultivation, as dance, gypsum in greater quantities than the stumps rot thoroughly in three years. The other States contain together, and, in Pike crops of the prairie States and of the Gulf County, near the Little Missouri River, a whole States thrive equally. The yield of cotton is mountain of fine alabaster. Silver-mining as large in proportion to the labor applied as operations are being started in the Mount Ida in any part of America. It is a surer crop in district, in Montgomery County. The ores are Southern Arkansas, probably, than in any other as rich as many which are profitably worked district. Sugar-cane, tobacco, and all the cereals in districts where the business has been long are cultivated with profit. The planting-season established, but where the facilities are far inlasts from February till August, so that, if a ferior. In Pulaski County, just out of Little crop does not promise well, a second one can Rock, there are other ledges of ore which assay be planted and harvested the same season. from 50 to 1,200 ounces a ton. Zino is found
Arkansas is one of the richest timber States in vast, easily accessible beds of calamine, or in the Union, though this source of wealth has carbonate, which is the most easily worked of been as yet but little developed. The abundant the zinc-ores, and also in the form of the
VOL. XXI.-3 A
sulphuret or blende. Works established in COUNTIES. Population. COUNTIES.
Population, Lawrence County for converting the calamine Calhoun
12,146 into metallic zinc have been abandoned, prob- Chicot.
11,455 10,117 Marion.
7,907 ably from want of capital. In the northern Clark.
15,771 ' Miller.
Clay.. counties there are vast quantities of marble of
7,882 Columbia. 14,050 Monroe
9,574 many varieties, and of admirable texture for Conway.
5,729 building and monumental purposes.
6,120 The great extension of railroad facilities, Crittenden
11,758 which is in prospect, will contribute largely to
Dallas. the material development of Arkansas. Rail
21,262 Desha 8,973 Pike.
6,345 road companies contemplate the building of Dorsey
2,192 some 2,000 miles of new railroad within tbe
14,822 State lines. They do not expect any assistance Franklin.
8,435 from the State, since the constitutional limit of Fulton..
82,616 850 miles of railway altogether for which the Grant..
6,185 St. Francis.. State, county, and city credit may be pledged, Greene
7,481 Saline.. was reached several years ago, the aid award. Hempstead.. 19,015 Scott
9,174 7,775 Searcy.
7,278 ed amounting to $9,900,000 in all. The Iron lloward.
19,560 Mountain Company, which has already done Independence.. 18,086 Sevier
6,192 much to build up the State, contemplates build
5,089 ing 900 miles of branch lines. One will reach Jefferson..
18,419 from near the Missouri line to Vidalia, opposite La Fayette.
11,565 Van Buren,
9.565 6,780 Washington.
28,844 Natchez. The second will run from about 30 Lawrence.
17,794 miles south of the north line of Arkansas Lee..
9,255 Yell straight west 150 miles. Another will extend Little River.
6,404 from Little Rock southeast to the Louisiana Logan...
Total... 802,525 line. The fourth will extend from 85 miles southeast of Little Rock to Alexandria, Louisi- State was
The result of the presidential election in the
-Hancock, Democrat, 60,775 ; Garana, on the Red River. The extension of the field, Republican, 42,436; Weaver, Greenback, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé to the Missis- 4,079: total vote, 107,290. Hancock's majorsippi will enter Arkansas at Fort Smith, and ity over Garfield, 14,260. pass across the State from side to side, 200 miles.
The vote for State officers was as follows: The St. Louis and San Francisco is completing the section from the north State line to Texar
FOR SECRETARY OF STATE, kana, 200 miles long, whence it will follow the Jacob Frolich, Democrat.
86,782 (. E. Tobey, Greenback..
27,680 course of the Red River to a point opposite Natchez, 150 miles farther. The Memphis and Charleston intends crossing the State from
W. E. Woodruff, Jr., Democrat..
86,937 the east. The line being built by the Texas
W. A. Watson, Greenback.
26,443 and St. Louis Company intersects the State diagonally from the southwest to the north John Crawford, Democrat
86,997 east corner, 300 miles. The same railroad
C. E. Cunningham, Greenback company is adding a branch, 120 miles long, running from Little Rock to Shreveport. The C. B. Moore, Democrat.
87.206 Fort Scott, Southeastern and Memphis Railroad
G. Sibley, Greenback..
24,370 is building a line from Springfield, Missouri,
FOR LAND COMMISSIONER. to the Mississippi, opposite Memphis, traversing D. W. Lear, Democrat.
88,251 the State for 200 miles. Besides these, various
W. Riley, Greenback
...... 27,116 shorter lines and branches have been surveyed, FOR SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. and some are under construction. The pro J. L. Denton, Democrat .......
90,329 jected railroad of the Georgia syndicate from Atlanta to the Mississippi River, opposite Ar
E. H. English. Democrat...
87,051 kansas City, will furnish direct connection J. C. Davis, Greenback.
27,857 between Arkansas towns and the Southern sea-ports on the Atlantic, making a continuous
D. W. Carroll, Democrat........
68,462 line from Fort Smith, on the border of the Indian nation, to Atlanta, and thence to The vote for members of Congress was as Charleston and Richmond.
follows: The compilation of the census of Arkansas District, has been only partially completed at the Census
10,407 Office, so as to be available for this volume.
16.517 The following is the population of the State II. Williams, Republican.
4,513 Garland, Greenback
8,920 by counties :
15,781 Cravens, Democrat
11,532 Arkansas.. 8,038 Benton...
Gunter, Democrat Ashley.. 10,156 | Boone.. 12,146 IV. Murphy, Republican..
4.125 Baxter.. 6,004 Bradley
FOR CHIEF JUSTICE.
80 10 3
The State Legislature was divided as follows: Apaches are held as prisoners for trial. Some
have escaped into Mexico, while the greater part of the tribe remains on their reservation
at San Carlos, under their proper civil agent. Republican...
The actual expenditures under the War DeGreenback.
partment for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1881, were $42,122,201.39. ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. The The appropriations for 1882 were $44,889,military divisions and their departments, with 725.42. the names of the cominanding generals, are as The estimates for 1883 are $44,541,276.91. follows:
The estimates presented to the Secretary for Military Division of the Missouri, Lieuten- revision included ant-General Sheridan.
For armament of fortifications....
$720,000 A. Department of Dakota, Brigadier-Gen- Fortifications and other works of defense. 4,186,500
Improving rivers and harbors...
29,101,800 eral Terry.
Improving Mississippi River, by commission.. 4,323,000 B. Department of the Platte, Brigadier-Gen- Public buildings and grounds in and near Washeral Crook.
749,000 Surveys of lakes.
20,000 C. Department of the Missouri, BrigadierGeneral Pope.
$89,099,800 D. Department of Texas, Brigadier-General This amount was reduced, on his revision, to Augur.
aggregate $10,689,000. Military Division of the Atlantic, Major-Gen The remainder of the estimates includes eral Hancock.
salaries and expenses of the departmental civil A. Department of the East, Major-General establishment and amounts for the support of Hancock.
the army, for armories and arsenals, and for B. Department of the South, Colonel and miscellaneous objects. For these purposes the Brevet Brigadier-General Hunt.
estimates for 1883 were $33,852,276.91, being Military Division of the Pacific and Depart. $296,321.37 in excess of the estimates for 1882, ment of California, Major-General McDowell. and $2,082,851.49 more than the appropriations
A. Department of the Columbia: 1. Colonel for the current fiscal year. While the estimates and Brevet Brigadier-General Wheaton; and, of expenses for this class show an increase, 2. Brigadier-General Miles.
there is in the estimates of expenses for imB. Department of Arizona, Colonel and provements, including rivers and harbors, a Brevet Brigadier-General Willcox.
decrease which overbalances the difference, The Department of West Point is under Gen- and makes the estimates for 1883 $348,448.51 eral 0. 0. Howard, and the artillery-school at less than the appropriations for 1882. Fort Monroe, Virginia, is under command of The report of the General of the Army calls Brevet Major-General Getty.
attention to the public necessity of legislation The total enlisted force of the army in Oc- authorizing the army to be recruited to a tober, 1881, was 23,596 men. There were 120 strength of thirty thousand enlisted men. There companies of cavalry, 60 of artillery, and 250 are in the army four hundred and thirty comof infantry.
panies, which are necessarily widely scattered For a short time, viz., from January 31, 1881, over the vast domain, to guard property and to May 9, 1881, a Military Division of the to prevent, as far as foresight can, complicaGulf” was constituted by President Hayes, tions and troubles of every variety and kind; embracing Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and the at one time protecting the settlers against InIndian Territory, with Major-General Scho- dians, and again Indians against the settlers. field in command; but, as this division was When these occur, re-enforcements have to be found to fulfill no useful military end, it was hurried forward from great distances, and aldiscontinued by President Garfield, leaving ways at heavy cost for transportation of men, boundaries as they existed before.
horses, wagons, and supplies. This cost in the While the troops have been kept very busy aggregate is estimated more than sufficient to during the past year, no serious Indian or other supply an increase of twenty per cent of priwar has occurred, but great progress has been vate soldiers. made in collecting and locating Indians, hith The number of deaths of soldiers was 130 erto hostile, on their proper reservations. Sit- from disease and 67 from wounds and injuries, ting Bull and his adherents, who had fled into being 9 per 1,000 of mean strength, the fatal British territory, are now held at Fort Ran- results in cases treated being as 1 to 190. dall, Dakota, as prisoners of war, and the Utes The number of new official demands upon have been moved to a new reservation in Utah. the record and pension division during the fisA sudden outbreak of a part of the Apaches cal year, for information as to the cause of occurred in Arizona. In this case it was found death in the case of deceased soldiers and the necessary to re-enforce for a short time the hospital record of invalids, was 55,040. The usual garrisons in Arizona by a strong detach- average number of such demands, during the ment from New Mexico under Colonel Macken- previous ten years, had been 22,245 annually, zie of the Fourth Cavalry. Some of the guilty and the number during the fiscal year termi
nating June 30, 1880, was 39,241; the number having been pastor of Calvary Baptist Church received during the fiscal year ending June 30, in New York city from 1855 to 1863, and was 1881, being an increase of 40 per cent over the the author of a work on "Family Names," previous fiscal year, and of 147 per cent over which displayed great erudition of a peculiar the annual average of the previous ten years. kind. He died in Newtonville, near Albany,
At the commencement of the fiscal year 6,964 New York, October 27, 1875. The President's cases remained unanswered, making 62,004 early education was acquired in the schools of cases to be disposed of during the year. Search Vermont, and at the age of fifteen he entered was made and replies furnished to the proper Union College at Schenectady, New York, authorities in 40,596 of these cases, leaving graduating high in his class in 1849. During 21,408 unanswered cases on hand on the 1st of his college course he supported himself in part July, 1881.
by teaching, and after his graduation he conARNIM, Count HARRY von, ex-embassa- tinued in that occupation for about two years, dor of Prussia at Paris, died at Nice, May being for a time Principal of the Pownal 19th. He was born of an influential family Academy in Vermont. Meantime he had also of the Prussian aristocracy in Pomerania, in devoted himself to the study of the law, and, 1824. His uncle, who had adopted him, was having saved a few hundred dollars from his Minister for Foreign Affairs. He embarked in earnings as a teacher, he set out for New a diplomatic career at an early age. In 1864 York, where he entered the office of ex-Judge be first won celebrity as envoy to Rome, E. D. Culver. Having been admitted to the gaining special credit by his attitude toward bar, he formed a partnership with his intimate the Ecumenical Council. He was summoned friend Henry D. Gardiner, and the two set out to Versailles in 1871 to aid in settling terms with a view to settling in the West. After of peace with the French, and took a leading searching about for some time, they returned part in the negotiations which resulted in the to New York, and settled down to practice Treaty of Frankfort. In June, 1872, he was there, rapidly acquiring a good degree of sucappointed embassador to Paris. Differences Early in his professional career Mr. of opinion, which had long existed between Arthur married a daughter of Lieutenant him and the German Chancellor, led to his re- Herndon, of the United States Navy, an officer call and assignment to Constantinople in April, who had gone down with his ship at sea, and 1874. The publication of his Roman dis- whose widow was the recipient of a gold medal, patches caused his dismissal from the service. voted by Congress, in recognition of his bravery. The polemical discussion to which he chal- Mrs. Arthur died in 1880. lenged Prince Bismarck was answered by his In the latter part of 1852 one Jonathan prosecution and sentence to imprisonment on Lemmons, of Virginia, on his way to Texas the charge of baving filched state documents with eight slaves, was awaiting the sailing of from the archives of the German embassy at the steamer in New York, when a writ of Paris. He had previously removed himselt habeas corpus was obtained on behalf of the beyond the jurisdiction of the German courts. slaves. It was held by Judge Paine that they A pamphlet published anonymously, in which could not be held to servitude in the State of he sought to trace evidences of the personal New York, nor returned to it in the South, spite of the Chancellor in his former prosecu- under the provisions of the fugitive-slave law. tion, led to a new indictment, and his sentence Their liberation was accordingly ordered. to five years of penal servitude for leze-majesty The Legislature of Virginia took up the case, and insults to the Chancellor and the Foreign and authorized the Attorney-General of the Office. In pamphlets published in 1878 he State to take action for the recovery of the criticised in a calm and dignified tone the ag- slaves. Mr. Arthur was associated with Mr. gressive policy of the German Government William M. Evarts on the other side, and they against the Catholic Church, arguing that Prus- won the case both before the court of first insia should have aimed to establish a national stance and in the Supreme Court of the United Catholic Church in Germany. In later years States, where it was carried on appeal, and he desired to return to Germany and stand his where Mr. Charles O'Conor argued the claims trial for high-treason, the sentence for which of the slaveholder. In 1856 Mr. Arthur took crime hung suspended over him; but the up the case of Lizzie Jennings, a colored girl, authorities refused to appoint a new trial. who had been forcibly ejected from a street
ARTHUR, CHESTER Allan, elected Vice- car in New York city, after paying her fare. President of the United States in 1880 ; suc- He brought suit for damages before Judge ceeded to the presidency on the death of James Rockwell in Brooklyn, and recovered $500 for A. Garfield, September 19th. He was born in the girl. The result was, the abrogation of the Fairfield, Franklin County, Vermont, October rule of the street railroad companies which 5, 1830, and was the eldest of a family of two had previously forbidden colored persons to sons and three daughters. His father, the ride in the same cars with other passengers. Rev. William Arthur, was a Baptist clergy Mr. Arthur early took an active interest in man, who had emigrated at the age of eighteen politics as a Henry Clay Whig, and was a delfrom the county of Antrim, Ireland. He was a égate to the convention, at Saratoga, which man of some prominence in his denomination, founded the Republican party of New York.