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the 9th, issued proclamations appealing to the pire would deprive him of his seat in the patriotism of the inhabitants in terms so earnest Chamber. At the complementary elections of and irresistible as to produce a profound im- July 2d, he was returned by three departments, pression throughout the departments. Com- and gave his option this time for Paris. He bining in his own direction the cumbrous func- took his place at the Extreme Left, became a tions of three ministries—Interior, War, and member, and was chosen President of the Finance-his energy presided in all branches Union Républicaine. During the turbulent of the public service, in the Cabinet and on the period of the Commune, and before the July battle-field; now at Orleans, Lille, or Lyons; elections, M. Gambetta had spent a brief vacaagain at Tours, or, after December 7th, at Bor- tion at San Sebastian, in Spain. After his redeaux-wherever there were measures to be turn he was for a long time seldom seen at the concerted, discouragement to be dispelled, dis- Chamber, the Extreme Right being then in maorders to be repressed, armies to be organized, jority. And later, when he again took part in or even military operations to be planned. the debates, his attitude was uniformly concilThus Gambetta, vigorously seconded by M. iatory, spite of incessant and petulant attacks de Freycinet, maintained his authority for a on the part of his colleagues of September 4th, period of nearly four months, in the midst of and to which he had decided never to reply. the situation here briefly sketched. In a word, On more than one occasion he prevailed upon he was dictator by force of circumstances. his party to sustain the government of Thiers, True, this dictatorship has been rudely criti- notwithstanding the latter had frequently ascised by some, and sneered at as the dictature sailed him in parliamentary discourses; but de l'incapacité; but such harsh reflections on once he left Thiers to support the candidature the “inatility and impotence of the dictator's of M. Barodet against that of M. de Rémusat. impetuous efforts" did not find utterance until In 1871 and 1872 it was usual to see Gambetnear the end. Among the acts and speeches ta’s name associated with the preparation of a pertaining to that period, French biographers government party in the republic, with its cite the decree for the mobilization of the Na- Whigs under Gambetta and its Tories under tional Guards, at the expense of the respective Thiers. The year 1872 was marked by two nodepartments; the proclamation containing the table speeches from the leader of the Left. In announcement to France of the surrender of one of these, on the anniversary of the taking of Metz, and the denunciation of Bazaine as a the Bastile (July 14th), he dwelt on the necessity traitor--the loan of 250,000,000 francs nego- of reconstituting the union of the middle classtiated with British capitalists; the dissolution es, of adopting secular and compulsory instrucof the Councils-General elected under pressure tion, universal military service, and a policy of of the imperial administration; the successive conciliation, crowned by an amnesty without organization of the two Armies of the Loire restriction. In the other, delivered at a priunder Generals Aurelle de Paladines and Chan- vate reunion, he referred to the advent of a zy; the organization of the Army of the North, " new social stratum, by no means inferior to its commanded in turn by Generals Bourbaki and predecessors." The theme of this latter speech Faidherbe; the disastrous issue of the campaign and its tone of hostility to the existing adminof the east (under Bourbaki), bastened by the istration alarmed the public mind in the south, armistice, and the removal from office of such and provoked the open resentment of the Govmembers (even life-members) of the magistracy ernment. His most important speech in 1873 as had taken part in the mixed committees was one against the Septenpate (November in 1852. After the surrender of Paris, which 19th). On June 9, 1874, he interpellated the he spoke of as an act of culpable haste, he is- De Fourtou Ministry concerning Bonapartist sued the convocation of electors for the Na- intrigues, and M. Rouher, in the course of bis tional Assembly, but stipulating the ineligibility reply, having touched upon the revolution of of such persons as had been candidates for or September 4th, Gambetta retorted: “There had held office under the empire. The Central are certain men to whom I deny the right and Government, however, annulled that stipula- privilege to arraign the revolution of Septemtion, and, on Gambetta's refusal to comply, dis- ber 4th -I mean the wretches who have been patched one of its members, Jules Simon, to the ruin of France.” On being called to order, Bordeaux, with orders to execute the decree as he added, “My expression undoubtedly imat first drawn up. On this, M. Gambetta re- plies more than an outrage—it implies a brand signed all his functions, and withdrew from a of dishonor, and I maintain it." government with which he was now in open In the course of the winter of 1874–75, for disagreement. The elections of February 8, the most part occupied in the task of effecting 1871, afforded abundant proof of the contin- a union between the several subdivisions of ued prestige of his name. He was spontane- the Left and the Right Center, with a view ously proposed as candidate in a number of de- to the adoption of the constitutional laws, partments, and elected in nine, among these M. Gambetta delivered one of his most effectbeing that of Bas-Rhin, for which he chose to ive and most finished speeches (February 12, sit, as a protest against all measures entailing 1875). From that day forward the so-called the dismemberment of France, although the policy of " opportunism” has been the discession of that province to the German Em- tinctive policy of the entire Left, save the

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GAMBETTA, LEON MICHEL.

small groups of Intransigeants, then headed there is the enemy!' to-morrow we must be by Louis Blanc and Alfred Naquet. Through- able to say, 'Clericalism-behold the vanout the remainder of 1875, Gambetta was the quished !'" Yet the Premier bad another most formidable adversary of the Buffet Cabi- enemy behind the Churchmen. M. Simon net, though without any departure from those was the genuine representative of Thiers in principles of conciliation embodied in his own the Government, and MacMahon regarded his maxim, “Moderation is the true course in presence in the Council as a check upon his politics.” In the ensuing senatorial elections, own movements, and the Marshal-President his influence preponderated, as usual; and in preferred to be surrounded by men willing to those for the Chamber he busied himself, be- adopt his mode of thinking. More than all sides his own candidatures (Paris, Lille, Mar- this, there existed a strong personal animosity seilles, Bordeaux, and Avignon), in suggesting between the two men, which was not likely or ratifying the choice of other candidates in to be diminished by the recollection of the disthe several departments.

paraging if not contemptuous terms in which In an address to his constituents of Belle- Simon had spoken of MacMahon, when the reville he found occasion to explain the philoso- election of the latter had been proposed. On phy of his political creed: "I deny the abso- May 16th the Premier received a note of dislute in all things, so you may well imagine that nissal from the President, who assigned as the I will not admit it in politics. I am of a school reason for such a sudden determination the atthat believes only in relation, analysis, and ob- titude of the Cabinet in the debate on the press servation, the examination of facts, the com- law the day previous, when, by the immense parison and combination of ideas; a school majority of 398 to 56, the House resolved to that takes into account medinms, races, ten- abrogate the law passed by the reactionary Asdencies, prejudices, and antagonisnis. Politics sembly of 1875. Gambetta protested, and the are not, nor can they be, always the same.” resolution was adopted that “the Chamber, As the acknowledged leader of the Republican considering that it is of importance in the majority in the new Chamber he again essayed, present crisis, and with a view to the fulfillbut in vain, to accomplish the unification of ment of the mission which it has received from the Left; and combated clericalism, denounc- the country, to remember that the prepondering pulpit interference in electoral concerns. ance of the parliamentary power, exercising

The position of President of the Budget itself through the ministerial responsibility, is Committee (April 5, 1876) offered lim an op- the first condition of the government of the portunity for the introduction of needed re- country by the country, declares that confiforms. But the preparation of his vast finan- dence of the majority can not be obtained excial schemes for the future, and in which he cept for a Cabinet free in its action, and rerevealed surprising skill, did not prevent him solved to govern according to those republican from following up the politique opportuniste, on principles which alone can guarantee order and which he had staked his naine and parliament- prosperity at home and peace abroad." ary success. Thus he supported M. Margue's M. Gambetta thenceforward concentrated all proposition of amnesty by categories against his forces on the one grand object of forcing M. Raspail, the advocate of universal amnesty; the Marshal-President to resign, and triumphed adopted the bill for reducing the period of serv- in the end, though he himself did not pass unice in the army to two years; protested en- scathed through the struggle. The time had ergetically against the attacks leveled at him come to precipitate the overthrow of an adminfrom the rostrum and through the press by a istration now grown obnoxious to all parties, certain group of Intransigeants; and reiterated save the two which were themselves most obhis decisions in favor of amnesty by categories, noxious to the majority of the French people stigmatizing “ those disreputable men who had and to republicanism. Division had been exsought to turn the Commune's despair to their tinguished in the republican ranks, and Gamown advantage.” On January 28, 1877, he betta held the command more firmly than ever. was re-elected President of the Budget Com- To add to the unpopularity of the Government, mittee.

Jules Simon and his ministers had been sucM. Jules Simon, appointed Premier and ceeded by the Broglie-De Fourtou Cabinet, Minister of the Interior in December, 1876, called by Gambetta & “ government of priests." was early assailed by the Bonapartists and the In the ensuing electoral campaign, the ubiquiprelates; but Gambetta's preponderant influ- tous orator kept the public mind vividly imence was such that he obtained the passage by pressed with the real interests at stake, rethe Chamber of a resolution requesting the iterating at every stage of the crisis his protest Government “to use all the legal means at its against personal régime. “When France makes disposal to repress the anti-patriotic agitation.” her sovereign voice heard,” he cried, in his Some time afterward, in a famous speech before speech of August 15th, at Lille, and pointedly his Belleville constituents, he exclaimed, at the alluding to the Marshal-President, "he must close of a vehement tirade against the Church quit or submit (il faudra se soumettre ou se party, and referring to the concluding words démettre).” For his temerity he was sentenced of his address to the House in behalf of Jules to three months' imprisonment, and fined two Simon: “ Yesterday we said, “Clericalism- thousand francs; but the event proved the

words to have been prophetic, and showed how place at the head of the Treasury, if he desired well the speaker knew the power behind him. to do so. The President-elect took leave of

Another prosecution incurred by similar his friends and neighbors on the last day of Janguage, in a later speech to the electors of February, and arrived at the capital on the the twentieth arrondissement of Paris, seemed 1st of March. The inauguration on the 4th but to goad him to the attack, which he only was attended with unusual civic, military, relinquished as victor. A brief but fierce con- and social display, and there was a general flict between the President and the Chamber; feeling of hopefulness and confidence in the the downfall of the Broglie-De Fourtou and new Administration. The Senate met in spethe accession of the Dufaure or Parliamentary cial session, and on the 5th the Cabinet appointMinistry (December); Gambetta's visit to Italy ments were submitted and promptly confirmed. and his conferences with Italian statesmen, Mr. Blaine appeared at the head of the list, as keenly piquing public curiosity; his ungry was expected ; Secretary Sherman had preencounter with De Fourtou, and the resulting ferred a re-election to the Senate; and the induel (November 18, 1878), and Gambetta's re- fluence of Mr. Conkling was not noticeable in fusal of a proffered portfolio—such were about the make-up of the Cabinet. The Senate was the only remaining events of importance re- in session until the 20th of May, but the time lating to our subject, until the resignation of was mostly taken up with a controversy over President MacMahon (January 5, 1879). On its organization, and it was not until May 4th January 30th, Gambetta accepted the presiden- that executive sittings were held to act on cy of the Legislative Assembly under the Grévy other nominations. On the 22d of March administration, having been elected by an al- several names were sent in for offices in the most unanimous vote to that position, which he State of New York, including those of district quitted for that of Premier on November 14, attorneys and marshals, and the Collector of the 1881. The history of his public life since Jan: Port of Buffalo. The appointees were supuary, 1878, including his triumphant support posed to be entirely acceptable to the Senators of the plenary amnesty bill, carried (June 21, from that State. On the day following Judge 1880) by 333 against 140 votes, as the result William H. Robertson was named as Collector of the first oration he had delivered from the of the Port of New York, the incumbent of tribune of the Palais-Bourbon since the som the office, E. A. Merritt, being appointed conber days of the revolution of September 4, sul-general at London. These appointments 1870; the defeat of his cherished electoral were known to be displeasing to Senator Conkreform bill for the scrutin de liste, etc., is in ling, and provoked considerable discussion. form and in fact the history of the Corps Légis- When the Senate finally went into executive latif itself, and reference therefor may be made session, Mr. Conkling declared his opposition to the article France, in our volumes for 1878, to the appointnient of Mr. Robertson, claiming "79, '80, and the present one.

that he bad a right to be consulted in the matGARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM, twentieth Pres- ter, and that the selection of a conspicuous ident of the United States, born at Orange, political enemy of his for so important an Cuyahoga County, Ohio, November 19, 1831; office in his own State was an insult, and in died at Long Branch, New Jersey, September violation of pledges given bim by the Presi19, 1881. (For particulars of his life down to dent. Finding that the New York Senators his election to the office of President, see “An were determined, if possible, to defeat the nual Cyclopædia " for 1880.) In the interval confirmation of Robertson and Merritt, the between his election and his inauguration on President withdrew all the other appointments the 4th of March, with the exception of a brief for that State in order that their cases might visit to Washington on private business in No- be acted on alone. Seeing that they could vember, he continued to reside at Mentor, not prevent the confirmation, Senators ConkOhio, where he was visited by many public ling and Platt both resigned on the 16th of men, some of whom came on his special invi- May, and returned to New York to seek a vintation. The composition of his Cabinet, and dication of their course by an immediate rehis general purposes in regard to public ap- election. Robertson and Merritt were then pointments, were the subject of constant specu- confirined, and the other New York appointlation, and in consulting the political leaders ments renewed, a change being made in that of his party he manifested a desire to unite for Collector of Buffalo. Out of this conthem all in support of his Administration. It troversy grew considerable factional excitewas early understood that Senator Blaine, of ment between what were known as the “StalMaine, who had been one of the chief com wart” and the "Administration wings of petitors for the nomination at Chicago, was to the Republican party. be Secretary of State. Among those summoned On the morning of July 2d, the President to Mentor for consultation was Senator Conk- set out from the Executive Mansion with Secling, who had led the delegates in the conven- retary Blaine for the Baltimore and Potomac tion pledged to the nomination of General Railroad station, where he was to join several Grant; and it was given out that Secretary members of the Cabinet for a trip to New Sherman, who had been the other leading can- York and New England, including visits to didate for the nomination, could retain his Williams College and the White Mountains.

YUX

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The two entered the station arm in arm, and most universal outbreak of sorrow and indignawhile they were passing through the ladies' tion at the crime, and sympathy for the sufferer waiting-room two pistol-shots were heard in and his family, and this found expression in quick succession, one of which took effect in the action of numerous public bodies and politthe President's back. He sank to the floor, ical assemblies, of both parties and in all secbleeding profusely, and for a moment was un- tions of the country. It extended to foreign conscious, and then was affected with vomit- lands, and brought forth many official and uning. To get him out of the confusion he was official expressions of sympathy. After the carried to the offices of the company, on the first shock had passed, the announcement that second floor. Several physicians were sum- the wound was not necessarily fatal, and that moned, and, after a superficial examination of there was a chance of recovery, gave rise to a the wound, the President was taken back to hopeful feeling, which increased with daily rethe Executive Mansion. His wife was sum- ports of favorable progress. As early as the moned from Long Branch, whence she was to i0th of July Governor Foster, of Ohio, sughave joined him on his Eastern trip. Among gested to the Governors of all the States the the physicians first summoned was D. W. appointment of a general day of thanksgiving Bliss, an old friend of Garfield, for whom for the President's escape from death, and the Secretary Lincoln had sent his carriage, and, prospect of his speedy recovery. In several at the request of the President, he took charge states this suggestion was acted on. The faof the case. With the acquiescence of Mrs. vorable reports continued for some days, and Garfield, he selected Drs. J. K. Barnes, Sur- the President's recovery was confidently pregeon-General of the Army, J. J. Woodward, dicted by the surgeons in atteudance. They also of the army, and Robert Reyburn, as his concluded that no important organ had been assistants. The result of their first careful injured, and that the bullet was likely to beexamination was the opinion that the bullet come encysted and harmless, or might possibly had penetrated or grazed the liver, and had declare its presence in a way that would admit lodged in the front wall of the abdomen. They of its successful removal. The first check in believed that the injury was not necessarily the favorable symptoms was on the 18th of fatal, but concluded that it was not advis- July, and was followed by an apparent resumpable to attempt the removal of the bullet. tion of progress. The first serious relapse ocOn the evening of July 3d it was decided to curred on the 23d of July, being attended with call in Drs. D. Hayes Agnew, of Philadelphia, chills and more or less of fever. The bullet and Frank H. Hamilton, of New York, for had entered between the eleventh and twelfth consultation and advice. They approved of ribs about four inches to the right of the spinal what had been done, acquiesced in the opinion column, the assassin standing about six feet of the other physicians as to the course of the behind and a little to the right of his victim, bullet, the inadvisability of attempting to ex- and the bones had been somewhat splintered. tract it, and the chance of recovery.

The diagnosis assumed that there had been a The person who had fired the pistol at the deflection which sent the bullet downward and railroad-station had been promptly seized and to the right. The probing and treatment of taken into custody. He proved to be Charles the wound had followed this supposed course, J. Guiteau, who had been a persistent but un- where there was by this time a channel several successful applicant for an appointment, first inches in depth. The unfavorable symptoms as minister to Austria, and then as consul- were caused by obstruction in the flow of pus, general to Paris. He describes himself as a and on the morning of the 24th an incision was lawyer, a politician, and a theologian, and is made by Dr. Agnew to give a freer passage reported to have said, on being taken into cus- from the supposed track of the wound. This tody: “ All right, I did it, and will go to jail was followed by relief and a resumption of for it. I am a Stalwart, and Arthur will be hopeful reports. On the 28th there was a President.” A letter was found on his person slight recurrence of fever, and day by day in which the death of the President was spoken thereafter there was more or less of febrile rise of as a “sad necessity” that would "unite in the temperature and pulse, attended with the Republican party and save the republic." abnormal respiration. Guiteau was lodged in the District of Colum The heat of the season aggravated the diffibia jail, to await the result of the President's culty of dealing with the case, and artificial wound.

means of cooling the atmosphere of the ExecuThe news of the attempted assassination tive Mansion were resorted to. Large quancreated intense excitement throughout the tities of ice were placed in the cellar, over country, and it was considered in some quar- which air was passed and then admitted to the ters as an indirect result of the political system sick-room by means of an apparatus specially that encouraged unregulated office-seeking and devised for the purpose. The case was also occasioned many disappointments, and to the believed to be more or less complicated by quarrel between the so-called "Stalwarts" and malarial influences prevailing in and about the Administration Republicans, which had origi- White House. Besides the physicians already nated in the controversy over appointments mentioned, there were in constant attendance in the State of New York. There was an als on the President his intimate friends Colonel

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A. F. Rockwell and General Swaim, and Mrs. There was an apparent recovery from the reDr. Edson, the family physician of Mrs. Gar- lapse of the 15th, and hope was still cherished. field; Dr. Boynton, the President's cousin and On the 18th inflammation of the right parotid former physician, was also a careful and solici- gland was announced, which increased until an tous watcher. Experiments were made for incision was made in it on the 24th. The conlocating the bullet by means of the induction dition of the patient was fluctuating during balance under the direction of Professor Gra- these days, and he began to express a strong ham Bell and an assistant, the result of which desire to be removed from Washington. On was announced, as follows, in one of the medi- the 25th his condition became critical, and on cal bulletins of August 1st :

the day following fears of a fatal ending of all Under the supervision of the attending surgeons, hope were entertained throughout the country. Professors Bell and Taintor this morning made anoth- There were, however, slight indications of imer application to the patient's body of the electrical provement on the 27th, which increased until apparatus known as the induction balance, with a view to completing the tests of last week, which were

by the 30th there was a renewal of hopeful annot entirely conclusive, and ascertaining definitely nouncements. On the 1st of September the and certainly, if possible, location of the ball. question of remova was taken up again, and Professors Bell and Taintor have been almost con the gastric disturbance returning on the 4th, it stantly engaged for two weeks in experiments with the induction balance, and have made several modi

was decided to take the patient to Long Branch, fications and improvements which greatly add to its in accordance with his own earnest desire. efficiency. They tried this improved apparatus upon

The journey to Long Branch was made on the President's body for the first time last week, and the 6th of September. The cottage of Mr. C. although it indicated faintly the location of the ball, J. Francklyn, in Elberon Park, had been pre. it was afterward found to be slightly out of adjust- pared for the reception of the President, and, ment, and the experiment was not regarded as perfectly conclusive. The results of this morning's tests,

with two others near by, was to be occupied however, are entirely satisfactory both to Professors by his family and attendants. A special train Bell and Taintor and to the attending surgeons, and of the Pennsylvania Railroad was fitted up for it is now unanimously agreed that the location of the ball has been ascertained with reasonable certainty,

the transfer from Washington to Long Branch, and that it lies, as heretofore stated, in the front wall and arrangements were made for running it of the abdomen, immediately over the groin, about without delay and at a high rate of speed over five inches below and to the right of the navel. the 228 miles of distance, which included parts

Favorable reports continued during the first of six different lines of railroad. The patient days of August, and plans were discussed for was removed from the Executive Mansion to renoving the patient to the Soldiers' Home. the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station On the 6th unfavorable symptoms were re without serious disturbance, at an early hour ported as the effect of thở heat, and on the in the morning, and was made as comfortablo following day they were declared to be more as possible in a car specially fitted for the purserious, and attributed to further obstruction pose. Tho departure from Washington took of pus in the wound. A new incision was place at 6:30 A. M. The route was over the made, this time below the rib, giving another Baltimore and Potomac Railroad to Baltimore; and freer outlet from the assumed track of the thence, passing the outskirts of the city, it wound. Relief and renewed progress were an entered upon the Philadelphia, Wilmington nounced as the result, but there seemed to be and Baltimore Railroad; passing over the Juncno satisfactory evidence of healing. On the tion Railroad from Gray's Ferry to West Phila10th the President, for the first time since the delphia, and thence to Mantua, it proceeded by shooting, signed an official document, pre- the New York division of the Pennsylvania sented for the purpose by the Secretary of road to Princeton Junction, thence to MonState, being one of the papers in an extradi- mouth Junction, entering upon the Amboy tion case pending with Canada. About this division, and reaching the Long Branch divistime there was considerable discussion as to ion of the Central Railroad of New Jersey at the correctness of the medical treatment, and Sea Girt. The rate of speed was at times as also as to the propriety of leaving the execu- high as sixty miles an hour; few stops were tive department of the Government without made, and Long Branch was reached at one an active head, some maintaining that the ex- o'clock—3,500 feet of railroad-track having igency existed under which the Constitution been laid specially to convey the train from the provided for the devolving of the powers and regular station to the immediate vicinity of the duties of the presidential office on the Vice- Francklyn cottage, at Elberon. The following President on account of “inability.” After is the medical bulletin issued the same eventhe 10th of August the reports from the suf- ing: ferer were less hopeful, and unfavorable symptoms declared themselves on the 13th. On the President has been removed from Washington to

6.30 P. M.-Since the last bulletin was issued, the 15th the patient was admitted to be in a pre- Long Branch. He was more restless than usual last carious condition. His pulse went to 130, and night, being evidently somewhat excited by anticipahe was affected with "rigors” and vomiting. tions of the journey. This morning, at 5.30 o'clock, Thereafter the stomach was continually troub- his pulse was 118; temperature, 99.8° ; respiration, lesome, and much of the time nutriment and

18. We left Washington with the President at 6.30

Owing to the admirable arrangements made stimulants were administered by injection. by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and to the

A. M.

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