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contending societies, each of which claimed to been invented by Jacob Reese, of Pittsburg, be the White Lick quarterly meeting of Friends. which is found very useful in its industrial apIf those who had withdrawn from the West- plications, while the principle of its action is ern yearly meeting to form a new yearly a puzzling problem to scientific men. It is a meeting had never been recognized in accord- circular, revolving saw, with which steel bars ance with the usages of the Society of Friends are cut in two. The material of the circular as a regularly and properly organized yearly saw is soft iron. It fuses steel bars which are meeting, they bad no rights, powers, or au- brought into close proximity to it without thority which the civil courts could recognize touching. The bar to be cut is made likewise as such; and if, as was also alleged, the de- to revolve, in the contrary direction, with a fendant society had never been recognized by speed of 200 revolutions a minute. The rethe established Western yearly meeting, with- volving disk is 42 inches in diameter and $ in whose territorial jurisdiction they seemed inch thick. It turns with a velocity of 2,300 to have attempted to organize, as properly or- revolutions, equal to a tangential velocity of ganized, then they had no rights as such organi- 25,250 feet a minute. The circular disk is zation which the civil courts could protect or mounted on an arbor and set in motion with enforce. It might appear to the court or jury pulleys and belts, like an ordinary circular saw. that the recognized Western yearly meeting, When the bar is brought almost into contact or the recognized White Lick quarterly meet with the revolving disk, a small drop of molten ing, had utterly abandoned the ancient faith metal first appears on its surface. In a few and practices, doctrines and teachings of the seconds a notch is made, the molten metal Society of Friends; yet when the superior or- flowing downward in a streain of sparks, and ganizations have decided otherwise, when they being thrown in sparks in all directions. A continued to recognize and fellowship these singular circumstance is the fact that the inorganizations, notwithstanding such apparent candescent sparks, when they first leave the change, as regular and orthodox, and refused bar, are not hot. These sparks or drops of to recognize or admit to fellowship the new fused metal are of dazzling whiteness, yet organization which might appear to adhere their temperature differs but little from that strictly and tenaciously to such ancient faith of the surrounding atmosphere. In their path and practices, courts and juries must respect through the air those sparks which are protheir action, and in the judgment of the court jected sidewise acquire heat froin the friccould not go behind it.

tion. At the distance of five feet or more Issue was afterward joined upon the ques. they burn like a red-hot poker, while their tions of facts involved in the suit.

vivid incandescence has given place to a dullFUSION DISK. A simple apparatus has red color.

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GAMBETTA, Léon MICHEL, a French states- The luster of a period marked by military sucman, born April 3, 1838, at Cahors, where his cesses in the Crimean and Italian Wars, and father, a Genoese of Jewish origin, was engaged etficient to repress but not subdue the oppoin commercial pursuits. After attaining high sition, had been dimmed by the sorry issue of honors at the lyceum of his native town, he the Mexican expedition, and the disastrous studied law in Paris, and was there admitted Treaty of Prague; both indicative of the ento the bar in his twenty-second year. For feeblement, or, as it has been aptly termed, some time secretary to the late M. Crémieux, the precocious dotage, of the head of the the young advocate's talents soon won for him dynasty. Public discontent was at the full, the admiration and friendship of the veteran and the people looked forward to a solution democrat, in whom he afterward found a firm not long to be deferred, and already foresupporter. During the interval between 1859 shadowed in overt democratic demonstrations and 1868 ho gained notice and distinction both of hostility to the Government. As an inas an eloquent forensic orator and as a writer, stance of such manifestations, we may cite the alternately pleading the causes of political of- popular tribute to the memory of Deputy Baufenders (mostly journalists), publishing essays din, the circumstances of whose death while on eminent members of the Paris bar, and con- endeavoring to shield the people from the fury tributing to the daily press articles on politics, of the troops on December 2, 1851, had been finance, art, and other topics. In the electoral vividly recalled in a recent publication on the campaign of 1863, the first in wbich he took an coup d'état. Numerous arrests followed; the active part, he acquired considerable popular- press protested, and a subscription for a monuity as an ultra-Liberal. But 1868 found him ment to Baudin was opened in the columns of popular and left him famous. The empire, Le Réveil.” Delescluze, the editor-in-chief which sprang from the coup d'état of Decem- of that journal, was prosecuted, and Gambetta ber 2, 1851, and silenced for a time the nation's called to his defense. In his speech on that voice, had now become an impossible thing. occasion (November 14, 1868), the cause of

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GAMBETTA, LEON MICHEL.

say,

“Le Réveil” was to some extent overlooked, racy, but twice the age of Gambetta ; and those doubtless by design; but the authors of De- for the second, such men as Thiers, the civil cember 2d were lashed unsparingly in a tor- engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, and the Marrent of eloquence unparalleled for impetuosity quis de Barthélemy. He chose to sit for Marand daring since the days of Mirabeau : seilles, and took his place on the Extreme

Why talk here of plébiscites and ratifying clauses ? Left. After an absence of several months, A specious argument, in sooth, to draw from article occasioned by a severe throat affection brought 1338 of the civil code, and drag to this gloomy do- on by the fatigues of an arduous electoral cammain where it was little expected! Ah! you are not paign, he returned to the Corps Législatif and content with five million votes ! . Atter a reign of made a series of remarkable speeches, especially seventeen years, you perceive that it would be well to prohibit the discussion of your deeds by means of a one in which he protested (February 1, 1870) posthumous ratification emanating from a criminal with indignation against the arrest of his colcourt? No; it shall not be. No; you shall not, you league Henri de Rochefort, deputy-elect for can not have that satisfaction. For such a cause there Belleville in the place of Gambetta; and more ready, yesterday ; it will be judged to-morrow, and particularly the memorable one in which (April the day after, and for ever, until justice shall have 5th) he denounced the plebiscitum as unconreceived her supreme satisfaction. The cause of De- stitutional; juridically reviewed the value, escember 2d, do what you may, will survive indelible sence, and economy of the various political in Paris, in London, in Berlin, in New York, and the systems; and, pointing out why the republican the same. But our adversaries have, besides, another system ought to be preferred, seemed to invite accuser. Hearken : For seventeen years you have that avowed anti-republican assembly to make been the absolute masters of France. We would not the trial. It was no small triumph to be heard ask what use you have made of her treasures, her on such a theme for the space of three hours, blood, her honor, her glory; nor speak of her in- with admiration and almost without interrupfruits of' her industry: for no one needs to be told of tion, by a House notoriously hostile no less to the financial catastrophes now, at this very moment, the person than to the ideas of the speaker. springing as mines beneath our fect. Your most re- He could charm, but not persuade. But events lentless accuser, because it is the attestation of your already in preparation would soon place him

“We will celebrate, we will add to the list of in a sphere of action with the difficulties of solemnities in France, the 2d of December, as a na

which only abilities of a superior order, united tional anniversary!” 'Yet each successivo regime in to an indomitable energy and marvelous acour country has so honored the day of its birtli. July tivity, could cope. 14th and August 10th have had their fetes ; and the days of July, 1830, and February 24th, in like man

M. Gambetta's opposition to the war with ner. Two anniversaries only-ihe 18th Brumaire and Prussia was at first more measured than that 2d of December-have never been included among of many of bis colleagues; so much so, that he the solemnities of accession; for you know that the refused to seek, in the embarrassments to the nation could not in conscience sanction them. Hear, Government consequent upon the early disasthen! that anniversary, which you have neglected, we will take for ourselves; we will celebrate it year after ters of the campaign, a favorable opportunity year; and it shall be the anniversary of our dead, for revolutionary movements. After the cauntil the day when the nation, once morc in posses- pitulation at Sedan, however, hesitancy gave sion of her sovereignty, shall visit upon you the great place to decision: the republic was now to be national expiation in the name of Liberty, Equality, established, and he joined the ranks of its zealand Fraternity.

ous promoters. On September 3d he signed, Rather than a defense of Delescluze, there as member of the Provisional Government of was here an indictment of Cæsarism, and the the National Defense, Jules Favre's proposition knell of the second empire; for the structure, declaring the Napoleonic dynasty deposed; the still so brilliant without, must be decayed with next day saw him in possession of the portfolio in and tottering to ruin, when the very judges of the Interior; and on the 7th he signed the whose first duty it was to silence the seditious convocation of the electoral colleges for the orator, heard him, as if spell-bound, to the 18th * of October, for the purpose of appointing end. Unanimous acclamations of the Liberals a Constituent Assembly. The new Minister of throughout France signified the adhesion of the Interior remained but a short time at Paris. that party to the young advocate, thencefor- His colleagues counting, and with reason, upon ward one of its chieftains. During the ensuing his energy and the magic power of his elosix months he won new laurels, in the defense quence to rouse the inhabitants of the provof the “Progrès du Nord,” at Lille, and of the inces against the invader, and meet the cruel “Emancipation,” at Toulouse. In the general necessities of the hour, he was attached, by elections of 1869, M. Gambetta was pre- . decree of October 7th, to the delegation (Crésented as a Republican candidate to the Legis- mieux, Glais-Bizoin, and Fourichon) already lative Assembly for Belleville (first electoral sent to Tours, and whose tardiness in the ordistrict of Paris) and Marseilles, he announc- ganization of the national defense in that region ing that he would accept no mission but that was a source of anxiety to the Central Governof an opposition irréconciliable. He was elect-, ment. He set out from the capital in a balloon ed both districts by an inmense majority, on the 8th of October, and, reaching Tours on the rival candidate for the first being M. Carnot, one of the favorite names of the democ- but the elections were in the event postponed indefinitely.

* On the 16th, an earlier date, October 20, was fixed upon ;

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