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States. The scientific exploration of these The remains hitherto discovered in America wide regions, which has been promoted by the of these strange forms of the Mesozoic age berational policy of the Government at Washing. long to the Cretaceous period. Earlier types ton, has revealed more important forms of will probably be found in the Jurassic deposits, extinct life, and enriched the sciences of pale- and possibly still lower down. The three-toed ontology and comparative biology with more foot-prints in the Triassic beds of the Connectivaluable data in recent years than the discov- cut Valley, which attracted much attention & eries in all other lands together. Of these dis- few years ago as presumably the tracks of birds, coveries, the group of toothed birds classified are now almost unanimously ascribed to the by Professor 0. C. Marsh, which he has ranged dinosaurian reptiles whose bones are found in in a sub-class, giving to this the name Odont- the same deposits. Remains of birds have been ornithes, is perhaps of higher scientific value found on the Atlantic coast in the cretaceous than all the rest, not excepting the hipparion, rocks, notably in the greensands of New Jerthrough which the Darwinians have traced the sey. These fossils consist only of separate ancestry of the horse, and which has furnished bones, which do not allow of being strictly them with an effective argument in support of classified. The specimens from the West are the development theory. In the same geolog- many of them nearly complete skeletons, which ical horizon in which the Odontornithes were cast a flood of light upon the origin of the bird discovered a great number of pterodactyls, or type. They were exhumed from the cretaflying reptiles, were found. All these belong ceous strata of the plains of Kansas and Coloto a new order, the chief characteristic of rado, which consist for the main part of fine which helps to bridge the gap between birds yellow chalk and calcareous shale, marine deand reptiles in an important particular, and posits undisturbed by upheavals, in which the one complementary to the missing link afforded numerous fossils of the reptile age which they in the leading mark of the Odontornithes. This contain are preserved in an almost perfect conis the absence of teeth, on account of which dition. The geological horizon of the Odontpeculiarity the name Pteranodontia was be- ornithes thus far discovered is within the Midstowed upon the order. The affinity is traced dle Cretaceous. The strata in which they have further back in a group of wingless reptiles of been found, named by Marsh the Pteranodon an earlier period, which are likewise toothless. beds, contain besides these species abundant They are called the Sauranodontia, and are remains of Mosasauroid reptiles, Plesiosaurs allied to the icthyosaurus. The Pteranodontia resembling the Pliosaurus type, the Pteranowere gigantic animals, some of them having a dons or toothless Pterodactyls, and multitudispread of wings measuring twenty-five feet. nous fishes.
In the course of his ten years' researches The Mesozoic birds divide themselves into before the publication of his monograph on two distinct and widely divergent types; but, the Odontornithes, which forms vol. vii of the as they both possess teeth, they are included publications of the “Survey of the Fortieth in the new sub-class of Odontornithes. One Parallel," and the first of the “Memoirs of type, represented by the genus Hesperornis, is the Peabody Museum of Yale College," and that of large, wingless, aquatic birds, some of is the opening volume of a work which will them of enormous size, whose teeth were fixed embody all his investigations of the extinct Ver- in grooves. The other group, of which the tebrata of North America, Professor Marsh genus Icthyornis may be taken as the typical had distinguished twenty species and eight representatives, are small birds with large genera of toothed birds. Over a hundred spec- wings and remarkably light and hollow bones, imens of this type of animals were found. whose flying powers must therefore bave been These are preserved in the Peabody Museum enormous. Their teeth were fastened in sockof Natural Õlistory at New Haven. Many of ets, and their vertebræ were biconcave. them are remarkably complete; but some of Marsh has found a fossil bird in the Jurassic the species are represented by very fragment- Atlantosaurus beds of Wyoming, the oldest ary remains.
The first discoveries of these representative of the class except, perhaps, the fossil birds were made in 1870 by Professor Archæopteryx. The name given to the species Marsh, who revisited the field the following is Laopteryx priscus. The specimen consists season and the next, afterward delegating the of a portion of the skull, which indicates a bird exploratory work to others.
larger than the blue heron. The bones of the The eight genera and twenty species de- skull are pneumatic. In general character it scribed in Professor Marsh's monograph are resembles the Ratite. The bird probably posas follows:
sessed biconcave vertebræ, and was furnished
with teeth, as one was found in the matrix Apatornis celer,
Icthyornis lentos, similar to those of the Icthyornis.
FRANCE (RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE). By the pumilus,
victor, Hesperornis regalis, Laornis Edvardsianus,
terms of the present Constitution, voted by crassipes, Palæotringa littoralis,
the National Assembly in 1871, and bearing gracilis,
date February 25, 1875, the legislative power Icthyornis dispar,
vetas, agilis, Telmatornis priscus,
is vested in an Assembly of two Houses-the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate; and the
executive power in a chief magistrate called deputies should be expunged, and Government President of the Republic. The deputies are bills alone proceeded with. In 1881, however, elected, for the term of four years, by univer- the Senate resolved, under the inspiration of sal suffrage, under the scrutin d'arrondisse- its president, M. Léon Say, to place all prement adopted by the National Assembly on dissolution bills on an equal footing. The November 11, 1875, each arrondissement re- President of the Republic, elected for a term of turning one deputy; and, if its population be seven years by a majority of votes by the Senover 100,000, an additional deputy for each ate and Chamber of Deputies united in Ng100,000 or fraction thereof. At the general tional Assembly, may be re-elected; has the inielection of 1878 the électeurs politiques (per- tiative of legislation concurrently with the two sons having a right to vote) numbered 9,992,- Houses; promulgates the laws voted by both 329. Citizenship and twenty-one years of age Houses; disposes of the armed force of the naare the only requisites to be an elector. The tion, and appoints all civil and military funcnumber of deputies in 1881 was 557. The tionaries, including the members of the Cabinet: Senate is composed of 300 members; 75 hold but every act of the President must be countheir seats for life, vacancies being filled by tersigned by a minister. He may, with the the choice of the Senate; and 225 are elect- assent of the Senate, dissolve the Chamber of ive, one third of their number retiring every Deputies before the expiration of its legal
Twenty-five years of age and term; but the electoral colleges must in such citizenship are the only requisites to be a event be convened for new elections within deputy, and forty years of age and citizen- three months. Pursuant to a special article ship to be a senatör. Both the senators and appended to the Constitution of 1875, and dated the deputies receive pay for their services, July 16th of that year, the President can not at a fixed rate per diem. In the budget for declare war without the previous assent of 1880 the expenses of the Senate were esti- both Houses. In case of a vacancy by death mated at 3,865,600 francs, and those of the or any other cause, the Senate and Chamber Chamber of Deputies at 6,521,000. Both bod- of Deputies must immediately proceed to the ies assemble on the second Tuesday in Janu- election of a new President. The President ary of each year unless previously convoked of the Republic is responsible only in case of by the President of the Republic, and must high treason; but the Cabinet is responsible remain in session at least five months out of to the Senate and Chamber of Deputies for the twelve. The President can adjourn the the general policy of the Government, and Chambers, but not more than twice in one the ministers individually for their personal session, nor for a longer period than one month acts. at & time. The Senate possesses conjointly The President of the Republic is M. Jules with the Chamber of Deputies the right of in- Grévy, elected January 30, 1879; and the Cabitiating and framing laws; but financial laws inet, at the end of 1881, was composed of the must first be presented to and voted by the following ministers: Foreign Affairs, M. Léon deputies. For all practical purposes the four Gambetta, President of the Council; Interior, years' existence of the Chamber is a single M. Waldeck-Rousseau; Finance, M. Alain-Tarsession, with mere adjournments. A dissolu- gé; Justice, M. Cazot; Commerce and the Coltion alone annuls all bills pending in it. The onies, M. Rouvier; Public Instruction and Senate, however, is never dissolved, and bills Worship, M. Paul Bert; Public Works, M. are now taken up by it one session at the stage Raynal; War, General Campenon; Marine, M. they had reached in the previous one. Indeed, Gougeard; Agriculture, M. Devès; Fine Arts, a year has repeatedly intervened between the M. Proust; Posts and Telegraphs, M. Cochery. passing of a bill in one House and its passing In this new ministry, dating from Novemin the other. A measure which became a law ber 14, 1881, is to be observed the severance on November 15, 1881, abolishing the last ves- of the Department of Worship from the Intetige of ecclesiastical control over cemeteries, rior, and its reattachment to Public Instrucdeserves notice as having been the first to profit tion, from which it used to be temporarily disby this continuity of parliamentary proceed- joined when the latter portfolio was held by a ings. Introduced by a private deputy during Protestant. By the change, M. Paul Bert, who, the session previous, and adopted by the Cham- in his memorable lecture in September last, ber, it was sent up to the Senate, but too late affirmed that nations receded from religion in for discussion before the prorogation. When, proportion as they advanced in morality, was in 1877, the Senate had for the first time to the man appointed to transact business with decide how pending bills were affected by a the Catholic prelates. The clerical press dissolution of the Lower House, and with the evinced irritation at the appointment of M. option of making a tabula rasa, of taking up Bert. One paper declared it scandalous and bills at the pre-dissolution stage and passing insolent; some republican journals likewise them without sending them back to the Cham- demurred to it; one paper noted that Worship ber if unamended, or of passing them and send- was “handed to a man who has hitherto treating them down to the Chamber like measures ed it as a pamphleteer rather than as a statesinitiated in the Senate, its decision was that man”; while another styled it an act both of bills introduced into the Chamber by private “bad policy and bad taste"; and the clerical
VOL. XXI.-20 A
organs uttered comments on the foreign ex
Frusa traction of both the Minister and the Under- Direct taxes
899,994,100 Secretary of Foreign Affairs, the former being Product of the forests..
Stamps and registration duties.
88,858,600 the son of a Genoese, and the latter (M. Spul- Customs and salt.
831,555.000 ler) of a Baden immigrant. The motives as
1,033, 748,000 Posts and telegraphs.
140,699,700 signed (in the decrees) for the creation of the Surplus of the budgets of 1877, 1878, and 1879.. 60,616,000 two new portfolios of Agriculture and Fine Three per cent tax on personal property 40,485.000 Arts, formerly coupled respectively with Com- keceipts from prisoners' labor
7.887,155 merce and Public Instruction, were as follows: Revenue of Algeria....
26,990,100 That agriculture is the chief element of national Tax on civil pensions
20,664,000 Miscellaneous receipts..
49 876,162 wealth; that the Minister of Commerce is sufficiently occupied with international exchanges, Total (ordinary) revenue..
2,856,585,222 customs, and commercial treaties; that Ger
EXPENDITURES. many, America, Austria, and Italy have made Public debt and dotations ....
1,235,339,577 agriculture a distinct department; that foreign Ministry of Justice..
85,572,992 competition, bad harvests, and the phylloxera of Foreign Affairs..
of the Interior and of Worship.. 189,698,106 have placed French agriculture in a critical of Finance..
19,561,992 condition; and, as regards art, that nations, of Posts and Telegraphs..
1,995,560 but lately in itators of France, have (as proved
571,896,893 of Marine and the Colonies.
197,048, 497 by the last exhibition) become her rivals in
of Public Instruction and Fine Arts.. 114,858,941 the influence of art-training on producing
of Agriculture and Commerce.
83,181.904 of Public Works....
181,983,731 forces, and in the importance of strengthening technical education. The Minister of Agricult
Total (ordinary) expenditures...
2,804,282,905 ure was to have charge of surveys and subsi
461,186,000 dies for irrigation, drainage, dredging canals, Grand total...
3,815,868,905 water-supply, and agricultural improvements; the Minister of Arts, of public buildings, cathe
The total public debt amounted, on January drals, art and technical schools, and drawing 1, 1879, to a nominal capital of 19,862,035,983 classes.
francs, the interest on which, or rente, was France, with an area of 528,572 sqnare kilo- 748,404,952 francs. The nominal capital of metres (204,081 square miles), is divided into each of the four classes of rente, the interest 87 departments, and had, according to the cen
or amount of rente, and the number of inscripsus of 1876, a population of 36,905,788.
tions or individual holders thereof at the date The movement of population from 1869 to just referred to, were as follows: 1878 was as follows:
Interest, or Number of
or description of repte.
12,101,802,167 363,010,565 1,788, 114 1670 944,115 1,046,909 D. 103,894
4 per cent.
11,152,400 446.096 1871 826,121 1,271,010 D. 444,815
4f per cent.
832,061,176 27,442,779 159,459 1872 966,000 793,064 B. 172,986
5 per cent..
6,917,472,240 845,873,512 2,482,574 1873 946.364
844,588 B. 101,776 1874 954,652 781,709 B. 172,943
19,862,085,983 748,404,952 4,350,983 1875 950,975
815,062 B. 108,913 1876 966,682
834,074 B. 182,608 1877 944,576
801,956 B. 142,620 The following table shows, from official re1878 937,817
899,076 B. 98,241 1879
turns, the number of holders and the amount 936,629 839,882 B. 96,647
of rente, at decennial periods, from 1798 to The number of still-births, 39,778 in 1863, 1870, and in each of the later years therein had in 1879 reached 43,875.
expressed: The relation of marriages to the total popu.
Amount of lation from 1871 to 1877 was as follows:
holders of rente.
24,791 25,111,785 YEARS.
Marriages. marriages to population.
145,663 56,780,583 100 inhabitants. 1820.
199,697 172,784,883 1830.
195 870 204,696 459 1871.. 86,544,067 262,476
265,447 195,911.137 1872.. 36,102,921 352,754
846,830 229,6C8,758 1873.. 36,260,928 821,238
1.073,801 888,356,589 1874.. 86,383,481 803,113
1,254,040 856.087,510 1875. 86,542,910 300,427
1,269,789 386,292,843 1876. 86,905,788 291,393
2,147,180 502,126,236 1877. 86,977,098 278,094
8,473,475 626,120,206 1878.. 87,119,720 279,650
4,180,040 690,018,493 1679.
4,880,933 748,404,952 The number of marriages registered in 1879 was 282,776.
The interest and other expenses connected By the terms of the law of July 29, 1881, the with the national debt were given as follows in budget estimates for 1882 were as follows:
the budget for 1882:
748,026,239 francs. “hors cadre.” The brevetted officers who are Redeemable capital.
810,432,278 Annuities and life-interests..... 151,881,060
not called into the service of the general staff
form a reserve. The new general staff consists Total outlay on account of the debt, 1,235,889,577 francs.
of 300 officers and 150 archivists. Outside of On January 1, 1873, the new army law of this cadre a land-surveying commission has been July 27, 1872, went into operation. Its first established in connection with the war depot, article enacts universal liability to military consisting of twelve officers. service. Every Frenchman capable of bearing The actual strength of the army on a peace arms must serve for twenty years, namely, five footing in 1881 was 498,497 men, of whom 52,years in the standing army, four years in the 750 were in Algeria, while about 39,000 were reserve of the standing army, five years in the absent on leave and in hospitals. Here follows territorial army, and six years in the reserve the latest published classification by arms: of the territorial army. By a law of July 24, 1873, on the reorganiza
68,907 tion of the army, France is divided into eight Artillery
68,762 een districts, each of which is occupied by an
9,540 army corps. One army corps is also organized Administrative troops..
27,990 in Algeria. Each of the eighteen army corps
26,511 consists of two divisions of infantry, one bri
495,880 gade of cavalry, one brigade of artillery, ono battalion of engineers, one squadron of the The total number of recruits in 1879 was train, a general staff and the subordinate staffs. 316,662, of whom 34,857 were rejected. Of By a law of March 16, 1880, the former gen- the total number, 46,636 were unable to read eral staff, which was a closed corps consisting and write, 9,931 were able to read only, 64,409 of 513 officers, has been dissolved, and has could read and write, 181,680 had an elementbeen replaced by a new staff which is acces ary education, 5,851 held degrees and diplomas, sible to all officers who, after completing the and of 9,155 the degree of instruction was uncourse of studies in the military school, have known. obtained the staff brevet on the ground of their The navy, on January 1, 1881, comprised 356 final examination. In this examination all cap- vessels. Of these, 59 were ironclads (32 large tains may take part, even if they have not passed war-vessels and 27 for coast defense); 235 through the school. Moreover, officers of the steamers (57 cruisers, 39 dispatch-boats, 47 staff may receive the brevet under special con- gunboats, 61 transports, and 31 torpedo-boats); ditions fixed upon by the Minister of War. The and 63 sailing-vessels. Minister of War selects among the brevetted The foreign trade of France is officially diofficers those who are to enter into the service vided into a commerce général," which comof the general staff. In time of peace they re- prises the entire imports and exports, includmain in this service for four years, after which ing goods in transit, and "commerce spécial," they return to their former position. They can which embraces the imports consumed and not be recalled to the general staff until two the exports produced within the country. The years later. While serving in the general staff, following table exhibits the movements of their names remain on the lists of their own French commerce from 1859 to 1880 (value branch of the army, but they are kept there expressed in francs):
France produced 680,316 gallons (U. S. wine and exported from France is not all of French measure) of wine in 1879, against 2,217,600,- growth: 1,400,000 acres of vineyard had, up 000 in 1875. The mean price per gallon from to 1881, been devastated by the phylloxera, 1862 to 1867 inclusive was 36 cents, and the and foreign wines are imported in ever-inpercentage of taxation upon the value, 14:55. creasing quantities (nearly 15,700,000 gallons The wine exported from France in 1879 was in 1880), mostly from Spain, Portugal, and of the total value of $45,917,000; and that im- Italy. The champagne exported to the United ported, $21,074,400. More than 4} per cent States in 1880 was of the value of $2,317,593. of the area of France is vineyard, occupying The chief sources of the imports and desti7,000,000 persons.
Yet the wine consumed in nations of the exports in 1880 were as follows:
184,985 Great Britain 599,000,000 830,200,000 Coasting-vessels..
2,899 111,599 Belgiumn. 415,000,000 429,400,000 Ocean-vessels
1,743 643,406 Italy 857,800,000 180,400,000 Yachts, etc.......
929 29,310 Germany
Of the total number in 1880, 14,406 vessels,
42,400,000 44,700,000 of 641,539 tons, were sailing vessels, and 652, Portugal.
of 277,759 tons, were steamers.
The railroads of France are either main lines,
16,700,000 16,600,000 which serve the general interest, or local lines. Totals Europe. ..... 2,842,700,000 | 2,886,000,000
The former belong partly to the state Govern
ment, and partly to private companies. The United States..
715,900,000 276,200,000 latter will be assumed by the Government at Argentine Republis...
134,600,000 73,100,000 Brazil..
55,100,000 70,900,000 the expiration of their charters. The number Peru.
51,500,000 18,500,000 of kilometres in operation on January 1, 1881, Uruguay
82,800,000 21,200,000 Chili..
was as follows:
7.500.000 13,800,000 Main lines
26,166 British India.
126,200,000 7,100,000 The number of kilometres in the course of China...
construction, on the same date, was 6,038, of Japan
80,600,000 8,500,000 Cochin-China and Siam
8,900,000 4,300,000 which 2,498 were built by companies, and Dutch Indies...
19,600,000 4,200,000 3,540 by the Government.
The statistics of telegraphs are as follows:
Length of lines in 185c, kilometres. 65.949 188,800,000 54,000,000 Length of wires in 1880..
196.589 Stations in 1890
6,891 Other countries. 12,600,000 6,100,000 Total dispatches in 1830.
122,800,000 139,800,000 The latest postal statistics were as follows: Senegal.
19,000,000 12,000,000 Number of letters sent in 1880. 522,402,165 St. Pierre and Miquelon.
9,157,092 French Guiana 800,000 6,100,000 Newspapers....
820,568,422 French possessions in India.. 5,100,000 800,000 Samples and printed matter.. 836,805,818 Other possessions. 2,700,000 400,000 Total articles sent
1,219,059,561 Receipts in 1879.
104,769.735 frapes. Totals colonies.... 227,100,000 190,400,000 Expenditure
76,271,510 Total foreign commerce.. 4,595,200,000 3,281,300,000 The senatorial amendments to the Merchants' The principal articles of import and export Chamber on January 30, 1881, the bill was
Shipping Bill having been accepted by the in 1880 were as follows (in francs):
promulgated on the following day. Clause four CLASSES.
provides that, as compensation for the burdens
imposed on ship-building by customs duties, a Articles of food..
2,153,868,000 809,284,000 Raw materials
bounty shall be granted of 60 francs per ton 1,777,724,000 582,044,000 Manufactured goods.
433,965,000 1,668,832,000 gross on iron ships, of 20 francs on wooden Other merchandise
491,990,000 340,483,000 ships of not less than 200 tons, of 10 francs Total merchandise.. 4,907,547,000 8,400.689,000
on wooden ships of smaller size, of 40 francs Coins and precious metals.... 295,759,000 475,073,000 on mixed constructions, and 12 francs per 100 Total....
kilogrammes on steam-engines and their acces5,208,306,000 3,876,712,000
sories. Clause five accords, on vessels enlarged, The port movements of the republic for the similar bounties proportionate to the increase year 1880 were as follows:
of tonnage, as also for steam-power inserted af
ter the completion of the ships, together with a CLEARED.
bounty of 8 francs per 100 kilogrammes for new FLAGS. Number of
boilers of French build. Clause nine grants & vessels. Tons.
premium on long voyages for ten years, a comFrench.. 10,194 8,581,875 8,007 8,159,638 pensation for the burden imposed on merchant Foreign.. 26,281 8,386,471 15,117 8,996,578 shipping by navy recruiting and service. The Total.. 86,425 11,968,846 3,124 7,156,211
premium begins at 1 franc 50 centimes per
ton net for every 1,000 miles traversed by vesThe merchant navy at the close of 1880 was sels of French build, and is reduced by of a as follows:
centime for wooden or mixed ships, and by i