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canals and the highways were raised by duties secured from the Arabs by the late George on the land, the date and corn crops, and on Smith. cattle. There were large quantities of temple The excavations at Olympia, which have been lands held in mortmain, like the inosque prop- prosecuted since 1875 with means furnished erty in the Turkish Empire. From the pal- by the German Government, have revealed the aces of Babylon Rassam has recovered records whole plan of this most interesting city, wbich which cover the period from the reign of Na- remained for many centuries the center of bonidus to the capture of the city by Cyrus. Hellenic civilization and the scene of the na
Babylon was built almost entirely of brick. tional festivals. The walled inclosure called Chambers and corridors of the Palace of the the Sacred Grove, in which were the Temple Kings, with decorations of plaster and painted of Zeus and the other shrines and sanctuaries bricks, were found. Extensive hydraulic works, and the official buildings connected with the consisting of wells and conduits connected Olympic games, was about four thousand feet with the river, seem to indicate the locality of long, and extended back from the river to the the hanging gardens. One of tho kings, ac foot of the mountain about two thousand feet. cording to a discovered document, had sixty The Temple of Zeus was a simpler, more massive gardens or paradises inade for him near the and more imposing edifice than the Parthenon, city. The ruins of the traditional site of the built in a purer Doric style. The group of Tower of Babel are probably the seven-story twenty-one colossal figures by Paionios, reptower of the Temple of Nebo.
resenting the battle between Oinomaos and Rassam has identified and explored the sites Pelops, with Zeus as arbiter in the middle, of two cities of higher antiquity than Babylon. which adorned the eastern pediment, have all These are Sippara, the city of the Sun-god, been recovered in various states of preservation. which was, according to Berosus, more ancient Statues of the river-gods Alpheios and Kladeos than Ur, having been founded before the flood, flanked the pediment. The western pediment and Outha, one of the great temple-cities of contained a group by Alkmenes representing a Babylonia. The modern name of the site of contest at the wedding of Peirithöös arrested Sippara is Abbu Hubba. The mounds cover by the intervention of the young Apollo, an area of over two miles in circumference. showing drunken Centaurs carrying off the The buildings were placed with their angles to women and Hellenes coming to the rescue, the cardinal points of the compass. The south- with weeping female slaves on the ground. west wall of an immense building was first This composition consists likewise of twentyuncovered. It was fifteen hundred feet long, one figures, of thirteen of which the heads reand broken at regular intervals by projecting main. At both ends of the temple are sculptbuttresses, which were ornamented by grooved ures in high relief representing the labors of panels. The edifice consisted of many long, Herakles. They are pronounced by Curtius narrow rooms, with exceedingly thick walls, to belong to the same school of sculpture as arranged around a central court. This build the pediments. The pediments can be inteling was the Temple of the Sun-god. In a ligibly reconstructed, and surpass any pedilarge gallery were the remains of the sacrificial ments before known. Curtius assigns the altar, nearly thirty feet square; and in a con- sculptures of the temple to the school of necting chamber were the records of the tem- Kalamis, which immediately preceded the ple. One of the records is a votive tablet highest development of Attic art in the age of commemorating the victory of the Babylonian Phidias. In the representation of Apollo the king Nabupallidina over the Sutu tribe of conventional traditions were adhered to, while Elamites, and dating from about the year 852 in the forms of the men and Centaurs com
It contains a figure in relief of the god plete freedom was exercised. The Heraion, and of the king and priests performing wor which comes next in size to the Temple of ship. It was the cult of the solar disk and Zeus, dates from an earlier period. It illusrays, a form of which was introduced into trates the growth of a Greek temple, which Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty. A list of the was originally a temporary wooden structure six solar festivals is inscribed, two of them cor- for the reception of votive offerings, but was responding to the spring and autumn equinoxes. gradually built up by the replacement of one Sheep, oxen, rams, and fruits of the earth are group after another of the wooden pillars by mentioned as the sacrificial offerings, as in the stone columns. The ground-plan of another Bible. This most ancient of the cities of Mes- temple surrounded by pillars has also been opotamia, and a neighboring place, whose ruins discovered. It is the Metroön, or sanctuary yielded records of minor importance, are in all of the mother of the gods. The treasuries have probability identical with the cities of Sephar- been exposed to view in the northern part of vaim mentioned in 2 Kings, xvii, 24–31, in the Altis, or sacred inclosure. They resemble connection with Outha, whose site was also temples, and stand in a row. The two largidentified and partially explored by Rassam. est, the thesauri of the Syracusans and of the The British Museum, which receives the ob- Megareans, have been identified. The latter jects recovered by Rassam, already contains contains sculptures representing the war of over three thousand of these tablets of the the giants, of an age preceding the Æginitæ. earlier period, including the large collection One of the most interesting monuments of the
classic period is the colossal figure of Nike, by portions. In picturing the giants the artist gave Paionios. The round temple built by Phil- free play to an exuberant fancy. Some of them ip of Macedon after the battle of Chæronea are fine types of manly strength and beauty ; stands in a fair state of preservation to the others fantastic mixtures of human and monwest of the Heraion. Structures of the Roman strous forms; some with legs prolonged into period are rotundas, water-works, etc., erected serpents; many with one or two pairs of wings; by Antoninus Pius and Herodes Atticus. The one with a lion's head and mane; one with the Pelopion, or precinct for the worship of the horns and ears of a Triton, and one with the hero Pelops, was marked by no structure ex-shoulders and hump of a buffalo. Zeus is repcept an entrance-hall at one end. The altar resented engaged with many foes at once-his of Zeus, an elliptical ring of rough stones, oc- serpent seizing the heads of two of the hideous cupied the very center of the Altis. In the serpent-legs, and his ægis held aloft in his exsoil around the altar quantities of votive offer- tended right hand. Athene with the gorgoneiings in bronze and terra-cotta were found. The on on her breast is dragging a winged youthPrytaneion, containing the altar of Hestia and ful giant by the hair. Hecate is a singular the banqueting-hall in which the Olympic conception, having three heads and trunks and victors were feasted, stood at the north west six arms. Apollo and Dionysos are forms of corner of the Altis. Between the buildings great beauty. A lovely female figure, engaged the open spaces were filled with statues, the in hurling a vase encircled with serpents at a votive gifts of cities and individuals, and also giant, has puzzled all archæologists. Cybele, statues of the victors in the Olympian contests. riding upon her lion, is armed with a bow. Of But few of these remain.
the frieze, ninety-four slabs, about three fifths Outside of the Altis the stadiums, leading to of the whole, have been excavated and sent to the course of the runners, stood on the east. Berlin, and with them thirty-four slabs of the The starting-place and goal are still in position. smaller frieze, representing scenes from the leAll the other contests took place here, except gend of Telephus; and numerous inscriptions, the chariot-races in the Hippodrome, of which statues, and other relics. no vestiges remain. An edifice consisting of a ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (REPÚBLICA Arquadrangular court, approached by two colon- GENTINA). “Our relations with foreign powers nades, dates from about the same period as the will be zealously maintained and fostered by Temple of Zeus. It is supposed to have been my Government, care being taken to augment the meeting-place of the Olympic Council. A and strengthen the bonds of union between series of fine buildings stood between the Kla- this republic and the most advanced nations. deos and the Altis on the west. A circular It will be my special endeavor to preserve harbuilding contained an altar with inscriptions to mony with our neighbors, while strictly ab“the hero,” referring, undoubtedly, to lanos, staining from interference in their internal conand afterward Klytias, founders of the priestly cerns. And as for those with whom, in relafamilies of diviners which first gave to Olympia tion to boundaries, we hare difficulties still its inportance. A group of dwellings near by pending, I shall seek to solve these in a manner were probably the homes of the priests, and worthy of all concerned, without yielding one the building whose site was taken for the iota where I understand the dignity, rights, or Byzantine church must have been the assem- integrity of the republic to be affected." These bly-hall of the priestly functionaries. To the words, quoted from President Roca's inaugural north were the Palæstra or practice-court for speech to the Argentine Congress, were spoken the wrestlers, and the halls where the rhetori- on October 12, 1880. Just one year later were cal declamations were delivered. East of the exchanged the following notes between the Byzantine church was the court, surrounded United States Minister at Buenos Ayres and with columns, which is called the Grand Gym- the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs : nasium. This was probably the largest and
UNITED STATES LEGATION, October 22d, 11.30 P. M. most splendid building in Olympia.
MY DEAR MINISTER : Allow me to offer you my There have been more than four hundred most cordial and sincere congratulations on the final inscriptions found. Many of them have refer- approbation, by the representatives of both countries, ence to the visitors at the games, and afford of the treaty which is the crowning and most glorious much information regarding the different games. know the meaning of the word gratitude. It may be
work of your life. It is said that republics do not The German explorers have also exhumed im- 80; but henceforward the two nations can never forportant remains of the Acropolis at Pergamon, get or cease to feel grateful for what you have done a city of great splendor in post-Alexandrian for them in one year of patient work and careful times. The sculptured ornaments of the great people of the United States will speedily indorse this altar, mentioned by ancient writers, have been well-merited recognition of the honor due to you for recovered in a good state of preservation. The the glorious peace and prosperity that must inevitably principal frieze represents the battle of the gods result from your great achievement. I shall take the and giants. This work dates from about 200 earliest opportunity of calling on you in person to B. O., the period of the inroads of the Gallic present my respects and renew my congratulations. barbarians. The figures are of heroic size, and
Your very sincere friend, THOMAS 0. OSBORN.
Buenos AYRES, October 220. executed in a free and bold style. The gods MY DEAR MINISTER : A thousand thanks for the very are dignified and graceful in attitude and pro. kind note you have sent me. I prize it extremely,
and will always keep it as a proof of your friendship. tados and the islands in proximity thereto, and, in The cordial feelings you express for myself, and the the Atlantic, those lying east of Tierra del Fuego and kind view you take of the part I have had in arrang- of the eastern shores of Patagonia ; and to Chili shall ing the boundary treaty with Chili, are highly flat- belong the islands lying south of Beagle Channel, and tering to me. If the treaty of July 23d assure peace all those west of Tierra del Fuego to Cape Horn. and reknit the bonds that have bound both nations Art. IV. The arbitrators mentioned in Article I together since they achieved their independence, as I shall in like manner fix the limits referred to in Arfirmly believe it will, very much of such a happy con ticles II and III. summation for the civilization and progress of this ART. V. The Straits of Magellan shall be neutral part of America will be due to you. We have both for ever,* and the navigation thereof free to all nations ; contributed something to the work you so justly call and, for the better securing said freedom and neutrality, good-I by carrying out the instruction of the Presi- no fortification or military defense shall be constructed dent, and you by so worthily interpreting the pol- there. icy of the Government of the United States. I am Art. VI. The Chilian and Argentine Governments already rewarded by the approval of iny Governmentshall exercise full sovereignty for ever over the regions my countrymen, and public opinion in general. As to them respectively appertaining under this treaty; for you, my highly esteemed friend, it is a source of and should any question unhappily arise between the extreme pleasure to me that your honored name is two countries, whether in virtue of this treaty or from linked with the international deed of July which re any other cause, such question shall be submitted to stores peace between two peoples who are alike neigh- thi arbitration of a friendly power; but the limits debors and brothers. Your most sincere friend, fined in this treaty can in no event be disturbed.
BERNARDO DE IRIGOYEN. Arr. VII. The ratifications of this treaty shall be Here follows the translation of the text of the exchange be effected either in the city of Buenos
exchanged within sixty days, or sooner if possible, and the treaty of limits between the two countries: Ayres or the city of Santiago. In the name of Almighty God. The Governments gentine Republic and of the Republic of Chili have
In witness whereof the plenipotentiaries of the Arof the Argentine Republic and of the Republic of affixed their hands and seals to this present treaty, in Chili, being desirous of effecting a friendly, and hon- duplicate, in the city of Buenos Ayres, on the twentyorable settlement of the dispute between their coun
third day of October, in the year of our Lord one tries, and in pursuance of the treaty of April, 1856,
thousand eight hundred and eighty-one. have decided to make a treaty of boundaries; and to that end have appointed the following plenipoten
(Signed) BERNARDO DE IRIGOYEN,
FRANCISCO DE B. ECHEVERRÍA. tiaries, namely, by his Excellency the President of the Argentire Republic, Dr. Bernardo de Irigoyen, Minister of Foreign Affairs; and by his Excellency the
For statistics relating to area, territorial President of Chili, Don 'Francisco de B. Echeverría, division, population, etc., reference may be Consul-General in the Argentine Republic; who, hav- made to the “ Annual Cyclopædia” for 1872, ing duly presented their credentials, and found the 1877, and 1878. The population of the re
agreed as follows: Article I. The limits between Chili and the Ar- 1878, is now estimated at not less than 2,400,gentine Republic are from north to south, as far as the 000, and consequently presents a rate of infifty-second degree of south latitude, the Cordillera of crease hitherto unparalleled elsewhere in the Andes, the dividing line being that extending over South America. the loftiest summits of the said Cordillera and separating the water-sheds of either side. All questions aris
In Dr. Coni's demographic bulletin, under ing as to the limits in valleys, or where the peculiar date of July 31, 1881, the population of the features of the Cordillera render the determination of capital, Buenos Ayres, was estimated at 278,the dividing line of the water-sheds difficult, shall be 603. submitted to two arbitrators, a third to be appointed
The number of immigrants in 1870 was 39,should such two fail to agree, and the decision of the arbitrators, when drawn up in the form of a public 667; in 1871, 20,928; in 1872, 37,037; in 1873, instrument and duly signed by them, shall be accepted 76,332 ; in 1874, 68,277 ; in 1875, 42,066 ; in as final by both Governments. The present treaty 1876, 30,965 ; in 1877, 28,798; in 1878, 35,shall go into effect upon the day on which it is signed, 876 ; in 1879, 50,205; in 1880, 41,615. and shall thenceforth be regarded as binding and valid, and waiving any further formalities or negotiations, and number of the immigrants who landed at
The following table exhibits the nationality and a copy thereof shall be given to each of the two Governments.
Buenos Ayres in 1879 and 1880: Art. II. In the southern part of the continent and north of the Straits, the boundary between the two
1879. 1850. countries shall be a line extending from Point Dungeness along the land to Mount Dinero; thence west
22,774 18.416 ward over the highest points of the mountain-chain of Spaniards..
3.422 that region to Mount Aymoud; thence to the point of French. intersection of the 70th meridian and the 52d parallel English.. of south latitude; and thence westward along that
Swiss.. parallel to the dividing line of the water-sheds of the Andes. The regions lying north of said lines shall
Portuguese belong to the Argentine Republic; and those south
Belgians.. of said lines to Chili, save as stipulated in Article III, concerning Tierra del Fuego and the adjacent islands. Dutch. Art. III. In Tierra del Fuego a line shall be drawn Russians.
8 from Cape Espíritu Santo, in latitude 52° 40', and,
Greeks and Turks. coinciding with the meridian of longitude west from
Various.. Greenwich, 68° 34', extended south to Beagle Channel. Tierra del Fuego being thus divided, the west
82,702 26,643 ern portion shall be Chilian, and the eastern Argentine. Concerning the islands, the following shall
* This neutrality clause was suggested and urged by the belong to the Argentine Republic: those of Los Es
Dalwers respect followesomferred upon them sufficient, public, which was set down at 3,250,0,400.in.
8.112 2,175 588 591 445 ST9 84 57
7 15 17 51 864
11 21 292
United States minister.
The President of the Republic is BrigadierGeneral Don Julio A. Roca (inaugurated October 12, 1880), and the Vice-President, Don Francisco B. Madero. The Cabinet was composed of the following ministers: Interior, Dr. A. del Viso; Foreign Affairs, Dr. Bernardo de Irigoyen; Finance, Dr. Juan José Romero; * Justice, Public Worship, and Public Instruc. tion, Dr. M. D. Pizarro; War and the Navy, Dr. B. Victorica.
The Argentine Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States and Great Britain is Dr. Manuel R. Garcia. The Argentine chargé d'affaires in the United States, during the absence of the Minister, is
* Resignation tendered in November, owing to disagreement with President Roca, but not accepted.
Señor Don Julio Carrié. The Consul-General
Dr. D. Rosa.
Minister of Finance. Dr. Mariano Demaria, / 1850.
M. J. Rodriguez.
M. Juarez Celman.
Dr. A. B. Gallino.
Colonel J. Antelo.
.Dr. M. Oliva.
.S. de Iriondo.
..J. M. Nouges.
Colonel A. Barros.
The United States Minister resident is Gen- Salaries.....
$1,068,720 Post-Office and telegraphs....
639,778 eral Thomas 0. Osborn.
Bridges and highways..
21,882 The Argentine army comprised, exclusive Subsidies to provincial governments.
187,713 of the National Guard, 7,203 men, as fol- Iuniigration
62,040 lows: 3,865 foot; horse, 2,574; artillery, 764. Legislature .
502,898 There were 5 generals of brigade, 14 colonels- Public Instruction.
165,256 major, 26 colonels, 126 lieutenant-colonels, 131 Public Worship.
153,857 sergeant-majors, and 568 officers of other Army........
8,820 The navy, in August, 1881, was composed Railways .
282,939 of 27 vessels: 2 steam ironclads, 6 gunboats,
24,464 Public Works.
64,552 2 steam torpedoes, 12 steamers transformed Railway guarantees
228,605 into war-vessels, 3 transports, and 2 sail of the Rio Negro Expedition..
Interest and sinking fund of consolidated national line, with an aggregate tonnage of 12,000, an
7,512,412 armament of 88 guns, and manned with 2 chiefs of squadron, 5 colonels, 8 lieutenant
The following tables exhibit the estimated colonels, 6 majors, 7 captains, 26 lieutenants,
revenue and expenditure for 1881: 22 students, 43 midshipmen, 7 pay-masters,
REVENCE. 26 engineers, 900 seamen, including officers, Import duties..
$18,500,000 200 infantry and artillery (National Guard), 1
850,000 torpedo section comprising 3 coinmandants, 8 Stamped paper, etc.
650,000 subaltern officers, and 80 privates. Before the Post-Ottice and telegraphs..
452,000 Light-houses, etc..
88,000 end of the year, however, the number of ves
700,000 sels was increased by the addition of a new
14,000 ironclad, the Almirante Brown, armed with six
30,000 40-pounder breech-loading guns, of new model, Sundries..
1,000,000 on antomatic carriages; eight 8-inch 11f-ton
Total.. breech-loading Armstrong guns, also of new
$19,898,777 model, firing projectiles of 180 pounds weight, with 90 battering charges, and a number of Ministry of the Interior.
$3,262,413 of Foreign Affairs.
199,920 smaller guns. The 8-inch guns, so mounted
9,576,646 that two can be fired straight ahead and three of Justice, Public Worship, Public In
1,375,072 on each broadside, are described as surpassing
of War and the Navy..
5,482,450 in range all the guns hitherto mounted in the British navy, and inferior to only a few in pen
$19,886,501 etrative power. There is a naval school and Almost every item of the foregoing tables is a school for cabin-boys, and at Zárate there indicative of continued financial prosperity. is an arsenal.
In the first place, the relatively small deficit The national revenue and expenditure for observed on comparing the total revenue and the fiscal year 1879-'80 has been officially re- the total expenditure for 1879-'80, and which ported as follows:
would in all likelihood be covered by the revREVENUE.
enue derived from the capital, is the more Import duties..
$12,844,738 striking as the Treasury was called upon in Export duties
that year to meet extraordinary obligations
332,135 Stamped paper, etc.
512,394 amounting to $8,631,243. Then the yield of Post-Office
the custom-house department was $15,732,101,
95,255 Light-houses, etc..
31,384 against $13,150,824 for the year immediately Railways
504,642 preceding, thus showing an increase of $2,Sundries.
8,904,618 581,277, or little less than one half of the enTotal.
$21,463,040 tire national revenue of the United States of
Colombia, although the population of this latter
country exceeds that of the Argentine RepubMinistry of the Interior....
$2,305,293 lic by more than 500,000. of Foreign Affairs
And again, in the 7,512,412 budget for 1881, the proposed appropriation of Justice, Public Worship, Public In
for public instruction was set down at $941,struction, etc...
1,051,090 of War and the Navy.
8:921,957 496, while the actual outlay upon that imporSundries (including salaries, etc.)..
1,989,548 tant branch of the public service was but $732,Total ordinary expenditure.
477 in 1880, almost a quarter of a million less.
In August last, the minister laid before ConExpenditure extraordinary. $425,181 Matured debts from 1877
gress his budget for 1882, in which he esti
606.071 Matured debts from 1878. 7,599,991 8,631,243 mates the customs receipts at $18,785,000, in
cluding an additional duty of one per cent on Grand total......
$25,476,578 all imports and exports already ect to dut The following are among the more impor- We subjoin the schedules of this latest budget, tant items of expenditure comprised in the lat- in which the revenue presents an estimated ter table:
total of $24,632,000, and some sources of rev
To which are to be added: