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chinery, 800 to 900 yards long, and seven feet of restoration has occupied many years, and has in diameter. The machines were susceptible been executed with a skill and thoroughness of improvement; yet they were already capa- calculated to make the new work as firm and ble of boring sixty-seven yards in a week, at durable as the old. which rate two galleries, seven feet in diameter, A method of destroying garbage by fire has could be made to meet in the middle in five been practiced in Leeds, Blackburn, Warrington, years. From the bottom of the Shakespeare Derby, and other English towns, proving emiCliff shaft, 155 feet below the surface, another nently satisfactory, especially in Leeds, which well was sunk 106 feet deeper, passing through has led the way in these improvements. At the old gray chalk and into the Galt clay, with- Burmantofts, two miles from the center of the out finding any trace of water. On the French city, a six-celled destructor and a carbonizer side also two shafts were sunk, and the same were erected. The chambers of the destrnctor, favorable results were obtained. The machine as it is called, were built in brick, lined with with which the tunnel can be bored through fire-brick, and braced together with iron rods. the chalk at a much swifter rate than by the The destructor occupies a space of twenty-two ordinary appliances, and which permits the by twenty-four feet, and is twelve feet in startling project to be entertained as a mercan- height. An inclined road leads down to the tile venture, is the joint property and invention top, and another incline from the level of the of Captain English, Colonel Beaumont, and Mr. firing floor to the public road. Each cell is Pigon. The Southeastern Railway Company, capable of destroying or carbonizing seven tons which has contributed the funds for the trial of refuse in twenty-four hours. The cells condrift on the English side, has agreed with the sist of a sloping furnace, with hearth and fireFrench projectors that the trial-work should gate covered by a reverberatory arch of firebe extended one mile under the channel from brick, with one opening for the admission of each shore, the headings to be of the same sec- refuse, another for the escape of the gases, and tion, seven feet.
a furnace-door for the removal of clinkers. The two main headings of the Severn Tun- The refuse is emptied on the platform, and nel, which is being constructed under the bed shoveled into the cell, falling first on the incline, of the Severn by the Great Western Railway thenco reaching the sloping hearth, whence, Company, were successfully united, September when sufficiently dry, it is pushed on to the 26th, after serious difficulties. Both headings fire, where, owing to the radiant lieat of the filled with water in 1879. The one on the firebrick arch, it burns fiercely, the products of Monmouthshire side was closed up by masses combustion being gases, a fine ash, and clinkers. of the loose sandstone through which it passes. Every cell is provided with an opening large The fragments of rock were driven in by water enough to take in infocted bedding, diseased from the adjacent hills which flooded the works. meat, etc. The gaseous products of combustion This heading has been bored 11,000 feet from pass through a fue to a boiler, which supplies the bottom of a shaft 180 feet deep, and meets steam to a horizontal engine driving two mortarthe other with only three inches of deviation, mills. In these mills the clinkers are mixed although the vibration of the pumps, which had with lime, and ground into an excellent mortar, to be kept constantly going, interfered with the which sells readily at five shillings a load; fixing of plumb-lines. The headings are seven while the tin cans and iron are sold for old feet high and seven feet wide. The tunnel will metal. No fuel of any kind is required, the be enlarged to the width of thirty feet, and to cinders and other combustibles found in the a proportional height.
refuse supplying all that is needed. The carThe ancient aqueduct built in the time of bonizer is used to convert street refuse and the Emperor Augustas, to supply Bologna with vegetable matter into a charcoal, which sells at water, has been restored through the efforts of the rate of thirty shillings a ton. It consists Count Gozzadini, and was reopened June 5th. of a group of brick cells, each having a separate The Roman engineers tapped the Setta near its furnace. It is twenty-six feet long, twelve feet junction with the Reno, about eleven miles wide, and fifteen feet six inches high. The from Bologna, and brought the water to the chute is fitted with sloping plates, which procity in a tunnel running along the banks of ject from its sides, and form a kind of spiral the Reno, underneath the hills, and under the ledge, which, near the bottom of the cell, takes beds of the torrential mountain-streams which the form of a fire-block, resting on a wall which flow into the river. The tunnel was injured divides the contents of the cell from the gases only in the places where the streams had worn of the fire. The vegetable and other refuse to down their channels, carrying away the mason- be converted into charcoal is filled into this ry under their old beds, and where the Reno chute in a solid mass, the eaves or ledges formhad washed away its clay banks as far back as ing on their under-side a flue, so that the matter the tunnel, taking away portions of the aque- is gradually heated as it slips down the well, duct. The greater part of the aqueduct, when until, at the bottom, it is surrounded by nearexamined before 1864, was found as good as ly red-hot fire-brick. The charcoal is withwhen first constructed. The masonry was as drawn at the bottom, and is placed in a cooler solid as rock. It was of stone and brick, ce- worked by the steam- engine, and each cell mented with lime and volcanic sand. The work is capable of treating two tons and a half
of vegetable and street refuse in twenty-four tions are over. These piers will then be hours.
drilled and filled with a sufficient quantity of A design for a steam tug-boat for canals, explosives, and the whole mine will be fired which has been proved by trials on the Saar simultaneously. The equivalent of 100,000 coal-canal to be free from the objections to the pounds of nitro-glycerine will be employed in use of steam in narrow canals, is the invention the explosion, according to the original estiof Paul Jacquel, of Natzweiler, in Alsace. mate. After dredging away a portion of the Steamboats have proved useless on ordinary débris it is expected that a channel 26 feet canals, because the waves which are generated deep, at low water, will be obtained. The by the screws or paddles injure the banks, and length of the galleries completed at Flood for the reasons that the boats are liable to in- Rock at the end of the fiscal year was 13,528 jury in passing through locks, and that they can feet; the quantity of rock removed, 39,608 not carry sufficient cargo to pay expenses. In cubic yards. The mining is expected to be Jacquel's system of tug-boats the screw is placed completed at the end of the season of 1883. in the body of the boat, and is surrounded by A considerable proportion of the labor of a cylindrical casing which receives almost the mining is performed by steam machinery, the entire force of the wash, the water passing out most approved modern appliances being emastern in a stream so concentrated in direction ployed. The four large boilers on the reef that the banks are preserved. The water is can develop 400 horse-power. They furnish fed in through two large channels leading from steam to five upright air-compressors, which the sides of the boat. The screw itself in its supply air at a pressure of 55 pounds on a sheltered position is safe from injury. The square inch to 30 drilling-machines, as well as boat being a tug, and always drawing the same to the winding-engine, a ventilating-engine, a depth of water, can transport a large train of shop-engine, two mining-pumps, and other mabarges at three or four times the speed obtained chinery. The length of galleries driven during from horses. The tug being steered by its own the fiscal year 1880-'81 was 6,211 lineal feet, rudder, the use of steering-poles, which are and the stone removed amounted to 21,528 cuvery detrimental to the banks, is avoided. bic yards. During the year 9,823 tons of stone
The removal of Flood Rock, a large reef in were dredged from Hallet's Point, making the the middle of the swift and narrow channel total quantity removed since the explosion 81,entering New York Harbor from Long Island 907 tons. Over two thirds of the area forSound, is the most important of the Hell-Gate merly occupied by this reef, the required depth improvements, executed at the cost of the Gov- of 26 feet has been obtained. In the remainernment, under the plans and directions of ing one third there are still places where the General Newton. Flood Rock is a ledge of depth is not over 19 or 20 feet at low tide. gneiss of similar composition to Hallet's Point The estimated cost of the remaining works at Reef, which was cleared away by undermining Hell Gate is $2,250,000. This comprises the it and leveling the remaining portions by a sin- completion of the work at Flood Reef, the regle explosion, which took place September 24, moval of Heel-Tap and the North Brother 1876 (see " Annual Cyclopædia” for that year). reefs, and excavations on Frying-Pan Rock. The work on Flood Rock was begun in 1876, From Buttermilk Channel, between Governor's but suspended for lack of appropriations dur- Island, in the harbor, and the Brooklyn shore, ing the year 1878, with which intermission it which was obstructed by a large shoal, with a has been prosecuted continuously. The summit minimum depth of 9} feet at mean low water, of the reef was at all times above water, al- about 80,000 cubic yards have been dredged. though only a small portion was visible. By The Madras breakwater, constructed of béraising upon it retaining walls and cribs, an ton blocks of 27 tons' weight, was subjected area of about a quarter of an acre was built up to the force of a cyclone on the 12th of Noabove high water, which afforded a suitable vember; about 700 feet of each pier was enfoundation for the buildings and a hoisting-tow- tirely destroyed, and the topmost tier of er at the opening of the shaft. This was sunk blocks throughout their entire length was from the apex of the ledge to a depth of about carried away. The failure of the Parkes plan 75 feet. The rock which was removed at the of construction, under the action of a storm mouth of the shaft was utilized at first to fill which was not more than half as violent as the a deep hole along shore, and then dumped one which struck the same shores in 1872, will between Little and Great Mill Rocks, a space probably lead to the entire rebuilding of the 800 feet in length, in order to constitute with harbor-works. The 27-ton blocks were swept them the western jetty which will confine the away like shells. The only part of the works new channel to be formed by the removal of which can be utilized in the reconstruction is Flood Rock,
the rubble mounds. The blocks of the ColomThe plan of the excavation is the same as bo breakwater, designed by Sir John Coode, that pursued in the leveling of Hallet's Point. are 50 tons in weight, the piers are half as The net-work of galleries and cross-galleries wide again as those at Madras, and, what is covers five acres. Piers, only sufficient in size most important, the cks are set or bonded and number to support the roof of rock which each nearly one half its length over the neighremains, will be left when the mining opera- boring block, and this wall has five joggle
holes running from top to bottom. Parkes plan is similar to the one proposed to the pronounced the usual practice of bonding un- national Government by Colonel Meigs in necessary, and also placed his blocks on the 1879. The level of the lake is 25 feet above edge, instead of choosing a broad form and lay- mean low tide. The artificial outlet will greating them flat, thus exposing as little surface as ly diminish its area. In addition to this canal possible in proportion to the weight to the it is proposed to dig another to the Caloosalateral force of the waves.
hatchie River, which flows into the Gulf of In the first excavations for the Panama Mexico, to deepen and straighten the streams Canal, at Emparadór, the nature of the ground which empty into the lake, and to dig lateral was found to be much more favorable than was drains, and tap the ridges separating the sawassumed in the plans. In making the engi- grass from the Atlantic and from the Gulf, neers' estimates it was supposed that a stratum thus draining all the extensive tracts of worihof hard rock would be found underlying the less land in that section. The work on the soil at a depth of about 12 feet along the route principal canal has been commenced. It is of the canal. In the first borings the instru- done by steam-dredges, two working side by ment descended to the depth of 37 feet with- side and excavating the entire cut as they proout striking any rock, and then, after penetrat- ceed. They are constructed on the continuousing a layer of rock only 6 feet thick, .went ladder principle, working like the buckets in a down to the depth of 64 feet without encount- grain-elevator. The quantity of earth to be ering anything but a mixture of clay and soft removed in the main drainage-canal is estistone. The route of the canal from one side mated at 9,000,000 cubic yards. The excavaof the isthmus to the other has been cleared of tion will cost, according to the estimate of trees and other obstructions to the width of Menge, the designer,of the dredges, only two from 60 to 90 feet, and 125 miles of paths cents a cubic yard. branching out from the canal route have been ENGINES, SOLAR. French physicists have constructed. The climate has proved terribly addressed themselves with encouraging experifatal to the skilled workmen and superintend- mental results to the utilization of the sun's ents brought from Europe. The work of exca- heat for generating the steam to work mechanvation was stopped during the rainy season and ical motors. If only a minute fraction of the resumed in October. It has been ascertained radiant energy of the sun intercepted by the that no rock excavations will be necessary be- earth could be directly utilized, it would furtween Colon and Lion Hill. At the latter sta- nish a superabundant supply of mechanical tion the steam sounding apparatus showed that power for all of man's requirements. When the excavation will be in soft clay layers formed the coal-beds, which represent stored-up enby the degradation of a greenish pyroxenic ergy derived from the sun and preserved from rock. At other places the soundings have re a former geological period, have been exvealed to the depth of 80 feet a succession of hausted, there remains, so far as science is able derived rocks growing softer and softer. The to predict, no other abundant chemical source mellow soil has also been found unexpectedly of energy. The current supply of solar heat deep along the route.
must then be depended upon. The terrestrial The work of reclaiming the swamp and forces of wind and water power, into which a overflowed lands surrounding and extending portion of the intercepted radiant energy is south of Lake Okechobee, opening to cultiva- converted, will probably remain to the end of tion a tract covering 17,000 square miles of the time the natural agencies upon which the area of Florida, has been undertaken by a world must rely for the chief part of its mecombination of Philadelphia capitalists. The chanical work. In those parts of the earth's State has entered into a contract by which one surface upon which the direct rays of the sun half of the 8,000,000 acres to be redeemed will beat without remission through the whole become the property of the company. This year, their heating effect can be converted into tract embraces every class of Florida soil, much mechanical power by means of mechanism of of it being admirable sugar-land, and contains sufficiently neat construction and delicate advaluable deposits of hematite ore and warl. Lake justment. The heat of the sun the earth Okechobee covers an area of 1,000 square miles. is estimated to be equivalent to the melting of The main feeder of the lake is the Kissimmee a crust of ice 103 feet thick, covering the River, which discharges 207,360,000 cubic feet whole surface of the globe, each year. The of water per diem. The rate of evaporation is greater part of this heat is absorbed by the one third in excess of the inflow, so that for eight atmosphere. The average heating effect of the months of the year a large portion of the lake- sun's rays, at the level of the ground within the bed is dry. During the four rainy months the tropics, is estimated to be enough to melt a water overflows vast tracts of the surrounding layer of ice 85 feet in thickness. If the heat country. The plan of reclamation is to con- falling upon one acre could be entirely utilized struct a drainage-canal 21 miles in length and in producing motive power, it would give 4,000 44 feet wide, to the St. Lucie River. The horse-power for nine hours a day throughout canal is to have a fall of 1 foot a mile, giving the year. a calculated velocity of 23 miles ap hour, and Mouchot has experimented many years upon discharging 733,708,800 cubic feet a day. The the utilization of the sun's heat as a source of
power for operations requiring an elevated Number of local preachers, 611; Sundaytemperature." With mirrors of 80 centimetres schools, 2,016, with 21,773 officers and teachdiameter, he obtains 400° or 500° centigrade ers and 127,557 scholars; number of baptisms of heat, sufficient for the calcination of alum, during the year, 1,328 of adults and 7,828 of : the preparation of benzoic acid, the sublima- children; probable value of the 1,534 churches, tion of sulphur, the distillation of sulphuric $3,350,485; number of parsonages, 456, of a acid, for concentrating sirups, refining linseed- probable value of $431,810; anonnt of conoil, making charcoal in closed vessels, and ference contributions," $5,313; of contribuother such processes. His small solar alem- butions for missions, $92,740; of contributions bics he can use for distilling essences, for heat- for the Sunday-school and Tract Union, $2,773. ing the sand-bath, and similar objects. The The increase in the number of members during rays are brought to a focus upon the alembic the year was 1,674. by the concave mirror. The great mirror of EXHIBITION OF ELECTRICITY AT Mouchot has a diameter of 3.80 metres. The PARIS. Among the notable events of the form of concentrating mirror used at first did year was the International Exhibition of Elecnot utilize more than 50 per cent of the solar tricity opened in Paris, August 11th, in the heat. The new form, devised by Abel Pifre, Palace of Industry, in which the World's Fair gives back 80 per cent of the total possible of 1855 was held. So rapid has been the deheating effect. The older one was conical, velopment of electrical appliances in recent while the new form approaches the parabola, years, that this great building, with its fortythe generatrix being a broken line forming five thousand square metres of space, barely three truncated cones, the middle one having sufficed for the present display. Indeed, å its sides inclined to the axis 45°, the same number of pavilions were erected without its angle as in the simple trancated cone used boundaries by numerous exhibitors. The difin the older form. This reflector presents to ferent countries were very fully represented, the sun an effective area of nine square metres. the iargest and most varied exhibit being mado The boiler, holding 50 litres, is brought to a by France, which occupied as much space as boil in 50 minutes, and the pressure then rises all the rest of the exhibitors ; England, Gerat the rate of one atmosphere every seven or many, and America being next in order. While eight minutes. With this apparatus Mouchot the exhibition was devoted to electrical applihas obtained six times the useful effect given ances of all kinds, the chief feature was unby the other. With a steam-engine of special doubtedly the larga and varied display of elecconstruction, made movable in its bed to cor- tric lighting—the lamps of both the arc and respond to the direction of the reflector, 100 incandescent type, the machines for generating litres of water per minute are raised three me the current, and the many details of a comtres. A motor of one horse-power has been plete system of this mode of illumination. In constructed, the reflector of which has at its the main hall, a large rectangle, two hundred opening a diameter of 5} metres, or an area of and fifty metres long by one hundred broad, incidence of 20 square metres.
all the various forms of lamps were comminEVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION. The fol- gled, producing a dazzling glare of light, that lowing is a summary of the statistics of this rendered comparison impossible. But in the Church, as they were published in August, smaller saloons reserved for the different ex1881:
hibitors, only the special lamp of each exhibitor was shown, allowing of a correct estimate of each form of light. The display of lamps
of the arc type was very full, all of the now East Pennsylvania.
14,805 well-known, as well as a number of more reCentral Pennsylvania.
cent, lamps being shown. The interest, howPittsburg.
7,582 ever, centered upon the systems of incandescent Erie.. New York
lighting, examples of which were exhibited by Canada...
5.088 Messrs. Edison, Maxim, Swan, and Lane-Fox.
7,792 The arc had already made for itself a permaMichigan
nent place, but about the incandescent lamp South Indiana.
2,145 there was much doubt. This has been very Illinois....
largely removed by the excellent showing 3,652
10,003 made by these lamps at the exhibition, and Minnesota
several prominent electricians, who have looked Nebraska... Des Moines.
with great disfavor upon this method of illuKansas...
3,245 mination, have in consequence announced their Pacific Platte River *
belief that the problem of household illuminaGermany.
4.356 tion by electricity, if not solved, is at least very Switzerland
3,507 near a solution. The most complete of the exTotal. ...
hibitions of incandescent lighting was that of The report of this conference is included in that of the the conductors, was shown in detail. A thou
Mr. Edison, whose system, from the lamp to Des Moines Conference, from which it has been taken and organized.
sand lamps, three hundred in the two saloous
89 755 20 60 81 89 86 57
74 18+ 72 99 85 125 45 134 63 11 29 84 10
devoted to his exhibits, and the remainder tion to the subject in an address at the meetlighting the grand stairway, were operated by ing of 1881. his enormous steam dynaino of one hundred The Gramme machine was the first electroand twenty-five horse-power. The Maxim in- motive device which proved practically valuacandescent light was also very fully shown, ble. It consisted of a ring of iron, with a coil about two hundred lamps being in operation. of insulated wire wound around its rim, roThe Swan and the Lane-Fox lamp, and the two tated between the poles of an electro-magnet. English incandescent lamps, made good dis- The leading feature was the commutator, which plays, but neither are as complete as the sys- kept the current always running in the same tems of Edison and Maxim.
direction and perfectly continuous, and allowed Outside of electric lighting the exhibition of the current being used to increase the power was full and varied, but space can only be of the electro-magnet, besides doing the megiven here to a few of the more notable de- chanical work required of the machine. The vices, including one or two others which were not illustrated at the exhibition.
Sir William Thomson has made a careful mathematical calculation of the conditions of transmitting water-power from Niagara to Philadelphia, Boston, New York, Montreal, and all places within a radius of three hundred miles. The dynamo-machines of Gramme or Siemens, supplemented by the Faure storage battery, make it demonstrably practicable to transmit the power of water-falls for long distances and use it for mechanical work with less dissipation of energy than in ordinary hydraulic and mechanical contrivances for transmitting power a few hundred yards. He proposes to convey the current by a solid copper wire carried over-head like ordinary telegraph wires. A current of 240 webers can be transmitted 300 miles by a wire } inch in diameter, receiving energy at the rate of 26,250 horse-power from dynamos driven by the Niagara water-fall, and discharging it at the far
GRAMME'S DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINE. ther end at the rate of 21,000 horsepower. The loss of 20 per cent by conver same method of econ
onomizing the electricity sion into heat in the conductor would not was worked out by Siemens and Wheatstone; raise the temperature of the wire above that but its development by Gramme first led to of the surrounding atmosphere more than the practical use of electricity for the genera20° centigrade. The potential of 80,000 volts tion of light. Various new modifications of on the conductor would not render the isola- the dynamo-electric machine were shown at tion of the wire difficult, nor would it be dan- the Paris International Electric Exposition of gerous to manage in the central station ; but 1881. Surprise was caused among the electriwhen applied to miscellaneous practical uses cians by the exhibition of electrical machines it must be reduced to 200 or 100 volts. This invented in 1860, and described in 1864 by Procan be done by the medium of the Faure bat- fessor Pacinotti, of Cagliari, which contain all tery. A battery of 40,000 cells can be con- the essential features of Gramme's later innected directly with the electric main ; and at vention and some of the improvements which short and regular intervals a small number of have been added. the charged cells can be removed and replaced A newly invented machine by Dr. Hopkinby new ones. Sets of fifty could thus be con- son consists of twenty-four fixed magnets arstantly replaced, and the charged cells placed in ranged in two opposite circles with unlike poles connection with the supply circuit. In elec- facing each other, between which revolves an tric transmission of power high potential is a iron ring in which channels are cut out altercondition of economy. The idea of the appli- nately on the opposite sides. It thus presents cation of water-power at a distance by electric square projections, around which as cores are transmission was first suggested by O. W. Sie- wound bobbins of wire, whose ends are atmens in 1877, and has been made the subject tached to the arms of the commutator. This of thorough theoretical study by Sir William device allows the current to be taken from any Thomson, who stated the results of his calcu- opposite pairs of arms in the commutator by a lation in an examination before a parliament- number of brushes. ary committee on electric lighting in May, 1879, The Bürgin machine has field-magnets like, and called the attention of the British Associa- a Siemens machine, and an inside ring, which