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Value in Ecuadorian
The total value of the imports at the port of The annexed table shows the imports through Guayaquil, through which the foreign com- Guayaquil from the United States in 1879: merce of the republic is almost exclusively car ARTICLES.
Value, U.S. gold. ried on, was estimated at $7,500,000 Ecuado Hardware and cutlery.
77,254 26 rian pesos,* and the exports at $9,437,240, for Machinery (general)..
25,148 84 the year 1879. The following table exbibits the Agricultural implements....
1,547 00 quantities and values of the Ecuadorian staples Carts, carriages, etc..
2,285 00 Dry goods..
226,785 00 exported in that year:
29,524 60 Provisions.
10,124 00 Lard..
446,699 78 Quantity. Canned goods.
36,175 80 Beer..
4,927 00 Cacao, (pounds).. 31,546,657 $6,624,797 97
11,711 00 Peruvian bark,
20,861 98 Rubber, 559.016 Iron, wrought and unwrought..
14,430 00 Hides,
58,862 50 Ivory-nuts,
113,789 43 Coffee,
95.352 00 Gold-dust...
$1,123,350 $8 Specie..
Probable cargo of the Edith Davis, burned at
25,000 00 Total.
$1,148,850 88 The exports and values thereof from Guaya It is interesting to see the marked increase quil to the United States for the same period in the imports from the United States to Ecuawere as below:
dor within the past few years, and particularly
in 1879, as compared with 1878, in which latter Ecuadorian Quantity.
the value of said imports was but $723,000 in gold.
American gold. In 1878, the imports from and Cacao.... lbs. 1,563,566 $336,950 98 $246,217 89:62 exports to Great Britain were of the values of Peruvian bark, 620,377 Rubber.
523,818 298,186 04 205.748 36.76 $1,022,000 and $1,020,000 respectively; in Hides...
550,829 97,417 88 67.218 30-27 1879, they were $1,410,000 and $2,615,000; Ivory-nuts.... 2,296,596 98,255 94 67,796 59:86 and in 1880, $1,760,000 and $3,235,000. The Fish-glue.. Dental instrum'ts.
800 00 207 00:00 imports from and exports to France in 1878, Gold-dust
5,695 50 8,981 96:50 through Guayaquil, were of the values of lbs. 4,493 Specie...
103,644 24 70,989 21.00 $561,000 and $157,000 respectively. Thus, the
trade with the United States, though rapidly Total..
$1,049,220 45 ($723,436 19-49 extending, is still far behind that with Great Total export of staples (Ecuadorian currency).. $8,998,773 39 Britain. Export to the States,
The shipping movements at Guayaquil were Total...
as follows in 1879:
The foregoing statistics of trade with the lish manufacturer resident at Chemnitz, in United States have been compiled mainly from Saxony, describes the town, its industry, and the interesting and comprehensive returns for- the schools in which the artisans and the manwarded by Consul McLean to the Department ufacturers, managers, and foremen of the town of State.
and neighborhood receive elementary and EDUCATION, TECHNICAL, IN Saxony. A technical instruction. As this subject of the small volume written by Mr. Felkin, an Eng- special instruction of the manufacturing popu* The Ecuadorian peso is reckoned by the American con
lation is yearly becoming more and more imsul at about 69 cents of United States currency.
portant, it is well to record what is being done
in a manufacturing district in the center of attends the elementary schools. Private schools the German Empire, Saxony being taker as a and teaching are almost unknown in Germany. fair type of North Germany. Mr. Felkin is a The Gymnasium of Chemnitz, a fine structure, native of Nottingham, England, and has, since erected at a cost of about $63,000, is attended 1861, carried on at Chemnitz the manufacture by 350 scholars, who receive instruction from of hosiery, which is also the staple trade of his a rector, a sub-rector, and 20 masters. Benative place. Besides hosiery, woven fabrics sides classical instruction, its curriculum inof various kinds are produced; and where cludes modern languages and physical science; water-power was formerly largely employed, and students pass from this to the university. steam-engines are now generally in use. Hand- The modern school (Real Schule) cost about looms and frames are also almost entirely su- $87,000. It receives a subsidy from the state perseded by the latest improvements in me- of nearly $3,000 per annum. It has a director chanical contrivances. Chemnitz is readily ac- and 26 masters, and is attended by 430 scholars. cessible by railroad from all parts of the empire, In place of classics are taught natural history, and has large and flourishing factories for loco- chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical motives, steam-engines, engineering tools, etc. and free-hand drawing, so as to prepare the The workshops of the Saxon Government rail- pupils for the polytechnic and mining schools. roads are placed there, and give employment The fees in each of these schools are nearly to five thousand hands. Mr. Felkin points out $30 per annum. Chemnitz has also a public the significant fact that, in the manufacture of commercial school, with appropriate studies gloves, the Chemnitz workmen bave literally and 170 scholars. In addition there is an evendestroyed the trade of Nottingham, and, fur- ing (Fortbildung) school, established by a workther, that they not only sell their wares in the men's union, at which about 1,900 scholars United States and South America, but have attend. established an agency in Australia. The popu All the preceding schools are under the dilation of Chemnitz has increased from 40,000, rection of the Minister of Education and Pubtwenty years ago, to 90,000 in 1879; and the lic Worship. The three technical schools, viz., surrounding villages have a population of about the Technical Institute, the Higher Weaving the same number.
School, and the Agricultural School, are under Elementary education here, as everywhere in the Minister of the Interior. Of these, the Germany, is compulsory; and the children of Technical Institute is carried on in a building the very poorest class attend the public ele- erected by the state at a cost of about $400,mentary schools until at least the age of four- 000. It is partly supported by fees, the balteen. After they have left these schools and ance of the income needed being made up by gone to work, they are still obliged to attend the state. The Higher Weaving School was the evening (Fortbildung) school two evenings erected by the municipality, and is maintained in each week for two more years. They then by fees and subsidies of $726 each from the become eligible for voluntary attendance in the state and the town. The Agricultural School schools for foremen, for the building trades, is a recent foundation, and has a small grant and for instruction in elementary drawing. from the state. Mr. Felkin has fully deThese elementary schools do not receive assist. scribed, and illustrated by plans, the laboraance from the state, and the school-fees vary tories, lecture-room, libraries, and museums of from $1.75 per annum in the lowest division, the Technical Institute, which may fairly comto $6.35 in the highest class of the highest pare with the more celebrated schools of Gerdivision. These fees cover about one fourth many and Switzerland. It has four departthe cost of maintaining the schools; the other ments—the Higher Technical, the School for three quarters are borne by the municipality. Foremen, that for the building trades, and the There are also schools of the same grade, at- Art School. The Higher Technical School has tended by children of wealthier parents, with three branches, one for mechanical engineerfees varying from $11.52 to nearly $15.00. ing, a second for chemical technology, and Children passing through these schools may, if a third for architecture. Its courses extend qualified by examination, enter the classical over seven semesters (a semester = six months). school (Gymnasium), or the modern school The first three are general, after which special (Real Schule), at the age of ten; or they may, subjects are studied. These courses qualify for after completing the elementary course, con- industrial employment and for the profession tinue their education in one of the technical of an architect; students, however, who seek schools.
for employment in architecture by the state The regular course of instruction in the ele- must complete their education in the Baumentary schools includes moral and doctrinal Academie of Dresden, or in some institution of religion, arithmetic, geometry, grammar, com- equal rank. The fees are $14.50 per semester, position, history, natural history, geography, and there are 150 students. The School for and gymnastics. The school board has in it Foremen has two winter courses of six months always a clergyman and three of the head mas each, and two branches of study, viz., one for ters of the schools. Chemnitz school district, mechanical and the other for chemical indusincluding a suburban area, contains 152,000 try. Students are admitted at the age of sixinhabitants, of which one sixth (about 25,000) teen, and must have worked for two years at
105,732 32.730 16,243 11,327
Title of debt.
their trades before admission. Generally they iards, 879 Germans, 752 Persians, 358 Rusare selected from promising young workmen, sians, 139 Americans, 127 Belgians, 119 Nethereducated in the public elementary schools. landers, and 204 others. There are 230 students, who pay $7.25 for each The population of the principal cities was course. The fee is frequently remitted in cases as follows in 1877 : of unusual merit. These courses include arith
327,462 metic, geometry, physics, chemistry, mechanics, and other subjects of technical instruction, as well as Gerinan literature and book-keeping. Suez. In order to obtain admission to the school for
3,854 the building trades, students must have worked
Port Said (in 1881)....
18,294 at their trades for two years. There are four After a long period of disorder in the finanwinter courses, adapted to the special wants of cial condition of Egypt, order has at last been the pupils, and generally during the other six restored. In April, 1880, the Commission of months they work at their trades. The stu- Liquidation, composed of members delegated dents number 170, and the fees are the same as by the Governments of Germany, Austro-Hunin the School for Foremen. The Art School gary, France, Great Britain, and Italy, met at has 110 students. The Higher Weaving School Cairo and framed a law, which was promulat Chemnitz, which is one of several in Sax- gated on July 17, 1880. The principal stipuony, appears to be the most important, and its lations of this law are-1. Payment of the courses are attended by young men from all floating debt, 30 per cent in cash, and 70 per parts of Europe, including the sons of large cent in bonds of the new privileged debt; 2. manufacturers in England. It has a fine, com- Conversion of the so-called short loans (of modious building, four teachers (of whom two 1864, 1865–66, and 1867) into bonds of the are practical weavers), and students varying in unified debt, with å reduction of the rate of number from 30 to 50. The course occupies interest to 4 per cent. The debt on January two half-years, and the fee is $65.50. Its in- 1, 1881, was as follows: struction includes properties of materials used in weaving, construction of looms, composi Unified debt at 4 per cent..
£57,776,840 tion of patterns, drawing, etc. The Agricult Privileged debt at 5 per cent.
22,587,800 Domain loans at 5 per cent..
8,499,620 ural School was begun in 1877 with 20 pupils; Daira Sanieh loans at 4 to 5 per cent.. 9,512,870 in two years its numbers increased to 60, with
Total..... a prospect of still further increase. It is held
£98,376,630 in the winter months, and is especially ser To this amount it is necessary to add a home viceable to small land-owners and tenant- debt, which should be paid in fifty annual infarmers. Besides these schools there are others stallments of 150,000 Egyptian pounds each for mechanical weaving, intended for hand-loom (1 Egyptian pound = $5), and the interest on weavers, held on Sundays, an evening-school the shares of the Suez Canal, bought by Engfor practical tailoring, etc.
land in 1875, amounting to £200,000 annually. It is believed by some that the educational The budget for 1881 was as follows (in advantages in Germany have enabled its manu- Egyptian pounds): facturing population to compete successfully with English workmen. Probably this may be
£5,822,078 right, though, at the same time, the cheap
1,568, 787 Railroads and telegraphs..
1,145,575 ness of wages in Saxony must be taken into
889,086 account as an element in the problem.*
£8,419,421 EGYPT, a tributary of Turkey, in Northeastern Africa. The ruler of Egypt, who has
.£681,486 the title of Khedive, is Mohammed Tevfik,
8,788,840 born in 1852, the eldest son of Ismail Pasha,
8,888,544 who resigned June 26, 1879. The eldest son
£8,808,876 of the Khedive is Prince Abbas Bey, born July 14, 1874.
The military forces of Egypt comprise the The area of the entire Egyptian territory regular army and the irregular troops. The is estimated at 2,987,000 square kilometres, regular army is composed of six regiments of with 17,400,000 inhabitants. Egypt proper infantry, two regiments of cavalry of six squadhas about 1,021,354 square kilometres, with a rons each, one regiment of field-artillery, and population of 5,517,627. The number of for- three regiments of artillery for fortresses, makeigners, in 1878, was 68,653, of whom 29,963 ing in all 15,000 men. The irregular troops were Greeks, 14,524 Italians, 14,310 French, comprise seven mounted corps, each contain3,795 English, 2,480 Austrians, 1,003 Span- ing 4,000 men.
The navy in 1880 comprised two yachts, one * The average weekly wages of mechanics in a locomotive and engineering factory in Chemnitz were, in 1870, as low frigate, one school-ship, four dispatch-boats, as *3.12 ; a few years later they were $4.32; at present they two transports—in all, ten steamers. are about $4.00. For similar work, in Eng'and, mechanics
The total value of Egyptian commerce in receive $5.50 per week; and in the United States wages are considerably higher.
1855 was estimated at 275,000,000 piasters
9,593 100 26,745,000
(1 piaster = 4 cents), in 1862 at 506,000,000, postal-cards 48,000; the pieces of printed matin 1870 at 1,028,000,000, in 1875 at 1,333,000,- ter, newspapers, and merchandise, 1,556,000 ; 000, in 1876 at 1,356,000,000, in 1877 at 1,275,- the number of money orders sent, 38,125, 000,000, in 1878 at 810,000,000, in 1879 at for 39,608,000 piasters; the number of money 1,344,000,000, and in 1880 at 1,298,000,000 packages, 32,500, for 1,107,000,000 piasters. piasters. The commerce with the different The number of foreign letters and postal-cards countries in 1880 was as follows (value in pias- sent and received was 1,625,139; of newspaters):
pers, etc., 1,063,000; of money orders, 11,440,
for 4,500,000 piasters. Exports.
The two Comptrollers-General, De Blignières 818.749,000 907,494,000 and Colvin, made their annual report to the
Khedive on the 21st of February. The former Austria.. 1 aly.
Viceroy, Ismail, had not only plunged the Turkey
country into debt, but had disorganized the Russia.
9,856,000 entire machinery of the administration. The
first task of the two comptrollers was to liqui19,656,000
date the enormous debt. A commission was 654,993,000 1,299,832,000 appointed, composed of representatives of the
great powers, and representatives of the The value of the principal articles of im- Egyptian Government, which in three months port and export in 1880 (in piasters) was as elaborated the decree for liquidation, presented follows:
to the Khedive on July 17, 1880, and signed
The first step necessary for carrying out the Cereals..
229,452.000 settlement was to realize on the Rothschild Cotton-seed. Sugar
loan of 8,500,000 pounds sterling face value; Fermented liquors..
which would yield, after the deduction of the Articles of food.
commissions, the first coupon, and the dis
58,553,000 Metal and metal goods.
count, 5,635,500 Egyptian pounds ($28,290,Hides...
10,051,000 000). Interminable bindrances stood in the Ostrich-feathers,
10,238,000) Spinning materials.
14,421,000 732, 40,000
way of the realization. Other public creditors Wood and ivory..
27,086,000 2,970,000 held mortgages upon the state demesnes which Woven goods. 292.835,000
were hypothecated for this loan, and new liens
were being constantly registered. The prior Boots and shoes.
mortgages were finally lifted by means of Drugs
money advances from Rothschild, after the Other goods.
63,308,000 42,989,000 later claims had been removed by a viceregal 654,998,000 1,298,832,000
decree annulling the judgment of the Court of
Appeals at Alexandria, and declaring the deThe receipts of the Suez Canal Company for mesnes not subject to execution. The pro1880 amounted to 41,790,900 francs, the ex- ceeds of the loan were thus made available. penses to 28,811,803 francs, leaving a balance The financial transactions for the first year left of 12,979,097 francs. After deducting the
a surplus. The comptrollers apply the entire statutory reserve of 5 per cent, a balance of surplus from the revennes set aside for the 12,330,145 francs remained. In 1880, 2,017 settlement of the debt, when there is a surplus, vessels, of 4,378,064 tons, passed through the to the sinking fund. If they yield a surplus canal. The nationality of these vessels was as sufficient to satisfy the stipulated requirements follows:
of the sinking fund, one half of one per cent of the amount of the public debt annually, the
remaining revenues are left at the disposition Great Britain..
of the Government; but, if they do not, enough
274,990 is taken from these to make up the amount reNetherlands
quired for sinking the debt. The budget for
105,279 1881 was made up in accordance with these Spain..
rules. The ordinary receipts for the foregoing Germany.
year were 5,034,267 Egyptian pounds as reDenmark.
11,030 turned by the departments, and 4,370,030 Turkey, Sweden and Norway..
pounds ($21,740,900) when comptrolled. The
extraordinary receipts were expected to amount Others...
to about 300,000 pounds ($1,500,000), and were Total..
disposable by decree of the Khedive. The
comptrollers recommended their application to The length of railway lines in 1880 was public works, as 135,000 Egyptian pounds were 1,518 kilometres. The number of post-offices needed for the railroads, and as much as 300,in 1880 was 130. The number of domestic 000 for public buildings. The revenues for letters sent was 2,925,084 ; the number of 1880, the report shows, yielded under the re
Fats and oils.
formed administration a surplus over expendi- taxes for all time. The actual losses accruing tures sufficient to add 153,000 Egyptian pounds to persons who had taken the benefit of this to the sinking fund, and furnish at least as law, by its abolition, were made good to them much for improvements on public works. For by Treasury warrants. The land-tax laws some time to come the debt settlement will were referred to a commission for revision. consume 40 per cent of the total revenues of To establish a rational system of land-taxation the state.
in Egypt is a work of long study and labor. The effect of the settlement of the debt The survey and registration of the lands is first question by the liquidation law was to raise necessary, and this work was immediately bethe price of Egyptian securities in the market gun. But, like all public business in Egypt, from 150 to 360 francs. Before the close of this simple task soon got into a tangle. Genthe year 1880, 11,424,000 Egyptian pounds of eral Stone, the chief of the army staff, was floating debt had been paid off, and there re- intrusted with the supervision of the survey. mained 1,021,000 pounds yet to settle. The After nine months of topographical work he revenues assigned for the payment of the debt was replaced, April 7, 1880, by a commission, and interest are the land-taxes of four prov- which set to work to revise the work perinces and the customs duties.
formed, and adjudged the greater part of it The public debt of Egypt, amounting to unsatisfactory. The 300,000 Egyptian pounds $365,000,000, exclusive of the Daira and Do- thus far expended were consequently wasted, main debts, which come to $85,000,000 more, and the labor of surveying the country will not is an enormous burden for a land which has nó be completed in less than fifteen years, unless mines, forestries, or manufactures, and derives a larger force and more capable directors are its entire revenues from 4,750,000 acres of employed. agricultural land. The revenue reaches barely The decree of February 25, 1880, fixing the $42,500,000, out of which as much as $20,- time for the payment of taxes, affords a desired 000,000 go to the creditors, and $3,500,000 are relief to the Fellahs by making the collections paid to the Sultan. The favorable financial fall in harvest-time, and not when the agricultresults of the year 1880, when, in addition to urist has paid out most of his money in prethe fixed obligations, $1,500,000 surplus was paring for the next crop. In Lower Egypt applied to sinking the debt, are attributed by the taxes are collected, under the new regulaMr. Money to an abundant harvest, improved tions, in part after the cotton-picking, which trade, the readjustment of the land-tax, the commences in October, and in part after the abolition of tax-payments in kind, and the winter crop is harvested, or in April and the better legal facilities for the collection of ar- succeeding months, while during the months 'rears in taxation. The two coupons of the uni- of March, August, and September no taxes are fied debt were paid, amounting to $11,250,000; collectable. In Upper Egypt nearly all the the deficit of the privileged debt, amounting collections are made between April and Auto $1,250,000, was made up; the large amount gust. The Kurbaj is still resorted to, and dedue to the sinking fund was paid; and the linquent Fellahs are made to produce their above surplus left over. The law of liquida- hoards under the lash. tion increased the privileged debt $18,750,000, Payments of taxes in kind are abolished, making the annual charge for this part of the since the improvements in the means of comdebt some $6,000,000.
munication, especially in the postal system, The accomplishment of the far-reaching re- enable the inhabitants of the remotest districts forms which have been instituted in the Gov- to convert their produce into money. The poernment of Egypt is ascribable in a great meas. sition of the tax-gatherer was materially beture to the merits of Riaz Pasha. The substi- tered by allowing him a yearly salary of twelve tution of a Government monopoly of salt, for Egyptian pounds, while the percentage which the system by which the purchase of this com- he is allowed from the collected taxes has been modity was made compulsory, has not resulted reduced one tenth. Through this change the favorably for the revenue thus far, by reason prevailing system of extortion will be remedied of deficient supervision. In January, 1880, to some extent, and the tax-payer somewhat twenty-eight small but vexatious taxes were relieved from the necessity of providing for abolished, the poll-tax was done away with the support of the collector on a more or less and the trade-taxes were reduced to narrower liberal scale, in addition to the payments which limits, those which weighed down agricultural find their way into the Treasury. occupations-being happily removed altogether. The tariff has been submitted to thorough The resulting losses to the revenue were made regulation, and the collection of customs good by an increase in the Ushuri, or tithes, placed in charge of a better director, with resting upon lands.
the result that they have yielded in the first The Mukabala, one of the most vicious finan- year a surplus of 100,000 Egyptian pounds. cial measures in Ismail Pasha's whole category The system of statute labor the new adminof impolicy, was remedied at the same time. istration would like to abolish, and they have This was an arrangement by which proprietors striven to restrict the demands to the lowest could, by the payment of certain assessments, practicable limits. Nevertheless, the Departpurchase a partial immunity from the land- ment of Public Works were obliged in 1880