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The following table exhibits the value (in The Left, in order that they might carry on crowns) of Danish commerce in 1879:
the conflict with the Landsthing and the King
to the end, voted temporary supplies for the Imports.
regular expenses of Government. The Lands
thing agreed to this measure of relief with reGreat Britain.
luctance. Upon its term of expiration it was Sweden
20,048,000 continued indefinitely, pending the struggle Norway..
over the budget. Holland.
950,000 The contest resolved itself into the question Belgium
whether the Government was not answerable France...
2.868,000 to the people, and ought not to submit to the Greenland.
625,000 clearly expressed will of the country, as deUnited States
696,000 Danish West Indies. 1,830,000
clared by universal suffrage. Estrup and his brazil...
14,000 colleagues in the ministry insisted as a matter Faroe Islands
388,000 Other countries
of principle that the authority of the Second 15,158,000
Chamber and the prerogative of the crown Total .. 199,053,000 158,063,000 should not be subordinated to the popular
branch of the Legislature. The opposition, led The aggregate length of railroads in opera- by Berg and Holstein-Ledreberg, determined tion in 1879 was 1,576 kilometres (1 kilometre to carry through the principle that the Lower = 0.62 mile); of these, 1,240 kilometres be- House should entirely control the supplies, and longed to the state and 335 to private compa- that the arbitrament of the ballot should be nies. The number of post-offices was, in 1879, decisive in the politics of the country. The
164; the number of letters and postal-cards ministry withdrew nearly the whole of the mailed, 27,422,333; of merchandise and printed disputed items in the budget, until it was no matter, 2,195,221 ; of newspapers, 25,733,527. longer a question of financial policy. The inThe aggregate length of state telegraph lines significant sum, which the ministry still inwas 3,444 kilometres; of wires, 9,115; the sisted upon and the Opposition objected to, number of telegraph-offices was 124. Besides was a mere pretext, the real issue being the the state telegraph lines there were 137 offices responsibility of the ministry to the people. of railroad telegraphs opened to the public. The Left demanded the resignation of the minThe number of dispatches sent in 1879 was as istry and the formation of a Cabinet from their follows: 422,848 inland, 522,147 international, own ranks, and, in case this did not remove and 24,128 service dispatches, making a total the difficulty, the dissolution of the Landsthing. of 969,123 dispatches.
Measures for the acquisition of railroads by Denmark found herself during this year in the state were carried in the Folkething in a dilemma such as had not before arisen in January. It was voted to acquire the East any constitutional country. The financial pol- Jutland road, and to construct the projected icy propounded by the ministry met the views railways from Tommerop to Assens, and from of the Second Chamber. But the popular Rivo to Glyagoro. Chamber opposed totally the financial projects The right to furnish passing ships with victof the Cabinet, and refused, by a large major- uals and marine stores out of the bonded wareity, to agree to the budget until it should be houses of Helsingor without the payment of stripped of every feature attaching to the fiscal duty, has been granted. policy of the Government. The Cabinet did The question of civil marriage came up in not feel called upon to resign as long as they the Folkething on the occasion of a private bill. reflected the opinions of a firm majority in Civil marriage has existed since 1851, but only the co-ordinate branch, and since their policy for dissenters from the national church. It and their course of action met with the hearty appeared that clergymen frequently refused to approval of the King. An appeal to the coun- marry divorced persons, being prompted by try resulted in the re-election of the same men their religious scruples to defy the law. A to the popular assembly, and thus rendered bill was introduced to extend civil marriage to more hopeless any escape from the difficulty divorced persons. In a mutual interchange of except the complete surrender of its legislative opinions several spoke in favor of making the authority by the Senate. Parliament was dis- civil form general and obligatory. solved by the advice of the ministry a second Three differences of long standing existed time, the third dissolution during the whole between the Government and the representacontest. The people responded by electing a tive body. The Government desired to prestill heavier majority of the Opposition party. serve the university fund intact, and pay
VOL. XXI.-14 A
the deficit of the university from the public ment to the hands of the Radicals. Consetreasury, while the Folkething proposed to quently, the Folkething was again dissolved, cover it out of the capital fund of the uni- July 6th. The new election on the 26th reversity, as has been done before. The differ- turned a still stronger majority of the Left to ence with reference to the army appropriations the Folkething. The Radicals gained 3 seats was not serious. The question of raising the and counted 32 votes; the Right lost 2 and numsalaries of officials has long divided the two bered 22 ; the Moderates were 24 in number inThings, the Landsthing wishing to extend the stead of 22; and the Ultras counted 19 votes, a benefits of the measure to the intermediate gain of one. The Opposition numbered 75 to officials, and the Folkething to confine them 26 ministerialists. The Parliament assembled to those of lower grades.
August 8th. The Crown Prince prepared the The Government was still unable, after six address, in the absence of the King in Austria, months of strife, to induce the legislative ma- which was read by the Minister-President, jority to adopt any part of its programme. Estrup, without eliciting the usual cheers. On May 7th the King dissolved the Legislature, Krabbe was again elected president. The mindeclaring that “it lacked either the capacity or istry announced that in case the Parliament the will to discharge even a small part of the failed to pass a financial bill it would not again weighty business which was laid before it.” Of be dissolved, but would be prorogued to the 112 projects for legislation brought into the regular session, commencing October 30, while two Houses, 80 had not yet been passed upon, the Government must content itself with the including the budget bill, the matter of sup- provisional supplies. The Landsthing made plementing officers' salaries, regulation of the only four amendments in the financial bill as salaries for certain posts, a system of intend- it came up from the Folkething, involving less ancy for the army, the inspection of merchant- than 200,000 crowns, omitting all the other vessels as to seaworthiness, and other impor- points of strife. The Folkething rejected the tant and pressing measures. The elections amendments by a vote of 71 to 21, and the took place on the 24th of May. The composi- Landsthing, by a majority of 49 to 7, insisted tion of the new Parliament was not materially upon the four items. The extraordinary sesdifferent from the last. The majority of the sion was then closed by the Crown Prince, on members were re-elected. The 102 represent the 30th of August. Parliament opened Ocatives in the Folkething were chosen from the tober 3d without an address from the throne, different social classes in the following propor- and, after organizing, adjourned to November tion: 37 were farmers; 20 officials and law- 29tli. yers; 14 teachers; 11 writers, capitalists, etc.; The political condition of Denmark is in 10 land proprietors; 8 officers, and 2 trades- many respects peculiar. Over one half of the men. Copenhagen and the surrounding dis- population are engaged in agricultural pursuits. trict elected most of the members of the This body of agriculturists are prosperous, inRight, Northern Fünen and Northern Jutland telligent, and exceedingly active politically, and the Moderates, Northern and Middle Jutland progressive in their opinions. Yet within a the seceders, who formed the new Center life-time this same class languished in a state of party, and Southern Fünen and Southern Jut- practical serfdom. Strachey, an English stuland the so-called Radicals. There were 17 dent of Danish affairs, says: “The Danish new men elected. The body was as badly Jorddrot (landlord) was, till recent times, the split up into factions as the Folkething which scourge of the peasantry. Under his parental had been dissolved. The Radical Left counted love the Danish Bonde" (farmer) was a mere 29, the Moderate party 23, the Right 33, and hewer of wood and drawer of water; his lot the ultra-Conservatives 17. The Moderates and was no better than that of the most miserable Ultras elected the president, Krabbe. Hol- ryot of Bengal. The Bonde is now the freest, stein-Ledreberg declared, on the part of the the most politically wise, the best educated of Left, that his party would not recede from the European yeomen.” This social reform has position they had taken in the former Parlia- been accomplished by the co-operation of all ment. Estrup, president of the Council, an- classes. The advance from the feudalism of swered that then no budget conld be voted, the middle ages to the van of modern progress, since the Landsthing were in accord with the accomplished in a short period, has brought Government. The temporary allowance for about a combination of political ideas and sothe current necessities of the Government, cial habits not found in other countries, and which had been voted, expired June 30th. The resulted in a political organization and legal Minister of Finance requested the continuance arrangements which are peculiar and in some of the provisional appropriations until an agree- respects worthy of imitation. The Danish ment on the law should be reached. This was nobility, who have so lately abdicated the granted. Although the Right conceded point privileges of their order, naturally hold very after point until the sum of the items in dis- enlightened and advanced political and social pute was reduced from 1,115,000 to 200,000 theories. Naturally, also, they preserve much crowns, the Left would listen to no compro- of the pride of feudal barons and the habits of mise. The ministry were not disposed to re social caste. In feudal society, the spirit of sign and confide the direction of the Govern- caste runs through all ranks, and in Denmark
the habits of mind belonging to that condition There were in 1869 1,750 of these estates, are found in the present transitional state to averaging about 370 acres, and not covering co-exist with intellectual convictions of the more than one eighth of the cultivated land of most progressive character. The sturdy Dan- the country. The tenant-rights and customs ish peasantry, who are descended from a race linking the peasant to his land, which were inof freemen, and who, when again emancipated cident to the feudal system, were so interpreted from the feudal yoke, have made such aston- and enlarged that the land has passed into the ishing intellectual and material progress, feel proprietorship of the cultivators instead of bethemselves fully competent to guide and con- coming the absolute property of the feudal trol the political destinies of the nation. This lords as in some other countries. The feudal they will be empowered to do if the theory of land laws have been abolished by parliamentpopular sovereignty is adopted into the funda- ary action, the greater part of this work havinental law. The upper classes, on the other ing been accomplished since 1849. Socage hand, nurtured as they have been in the habits service has been done away with. Tithes have of political rule, and regarding the peasantry, been commuted, and the game laws reformed. whom they have helped to elevate, as still in a All the legislative efforts have been avowedly state of tutelage, stubbornly maintain the exist- and liberally directed to the advantage of the ing constitutional barriers against democratic peasantry, and feudal rights have been extinascendency. From these political conditions guished or commuted in the interest of a peashas arisen the present constitutional struggle. ant proprietary. The policy of securing to the
The same conservatives who insist upon pre- cultivators the ownership of the soil has been serving the aristocratic features remaining in consistently followed by the Legislature, and the Constitution, are often extremely demo- those whose rights have been set aside in the cratic and radical in their own doctrines. The interest of this great social and economical reconflict between the Folkething and the Lands- form have acquiesced and taken a hand in the thing and crown is a conflict between classes work. The lands belonging to the state and for political power. But there is no real issue to public institutions and corporations were at present, nor are there likely to arise any ma transferred to peasant proprietors by a series terial differences between the classes. Hence, of laws passed between 1851 and 1865. The very trivial questions are seized upon as a pre- holders of entailed and trust estates were text for an exciting political conflict; and a authorized to sell farms to occupiers, and in constitutional crisis can be brought on by the 1866 a law was passed prohibiting the creation first small matter of difference between the of new entails. The abolition of entails and Government and the majority of the Lower feudal dues has resulted in the ownership beChamber, until the King chooses his Cabinet ing transferred to the occupants. But the from the party controlling the vote of the Danes have not been contented with the temdirect representative Chamber, as is done in porary achievement of this object. Unlike most constitutional countries.
countries in which the feudal system was abolThe land system of Denmark has, within a ished earlier, the land of Denmark has not generation, by a series of constitutional re- been made free, or reduced to the state of a forms, been quietly revolutionized. The lease- merchantable commodity. The state has inhold farms have been converted into free- terposed its authority and imposed restrictions hold properties of 60 or 70 acres each, where on the sale and use of land. The land system the land is good, and of larger extent where of Denmark is, therefore, unique in its characit is inferior. The commutation of the fendal ter. An owner is not entitled to unite several tenure, by which the soil of Denmark was held farms into a single holding nor divide a single fifty years ago, into peasant proprietorship, has farm into several holdings. Proprietors are been accomplished by a system of time-pur- prohibited under severe annual penalties from chase prescribed by law and so arranged as to either absorbing or suppressing a farmstead, effect the transition successfully and without except under particular circumstances. A farmhardship. Three quarters of the land had er may cultivate one and only one farm besides passed, ten years ago, into the hands of 70,000 the one on which he resides. The principle of yeomen, nearly every one of whom owned the compulsion to lease, compelling every manorial fee of his farm. The farms average about 100 landlord to let every vacant holding to a new
One eighth of the remaining surface is tenant under the Danish life-lease, that is, for apportioned in lots, averaging 5 acres in size, the life of the tenant or his widow, is still among 137,000 peasants, two thirds of whom maintained, and where this does not prevail own their holdings. With regard to the por- there is an obligation to lease out for shorter tion of the land still held on lease, the pro- periods if desired. Proprietors are restricted prietary rights of the landlord are only partial. by the forest laws from stripping their lands The few farms which are still held under leases of timber. Titles and liens are recorded by a for life pass to the child or heir of the last ten- very perfect system of public registry; the ant by a custom which has all the force of law. total cost of the conveyance and registration of The manorial estates of the landlord class are a piece of property upon changing hands is the only part of their land over which they from one to three per cent of the purchasepossess more than a concurrent ownership. money.
An examination of recruits summoned for were in organic chemistry, but he soon directmilitary service showed that 86 per cent were ed his sole attention to mineral chemistry and able to read and write with ease, and only 1 inorganic analysis, in which field his reputaper cent were totally illiterate.
tion for thirty years was as high as that of A squadron of iron-clads, consisting of three any contemporary chemist. From bis labomonitors and two steam schooners, has been ratory bave emanated many great discoveries, fitted out and placed in command of Vice-Ad- some of them of high practical utility. Fruits miral Wrisberg.
of his earlier investigations were the synthesis The King has revoked the decree of banish. of nitric anhydride, the discovery of toluole, ment uttered against the Schleswig-Holstein- and an improvement in the method of waterAugustenburg family after the Schleswig-Hol- analysis in use at that time. His studies of the stein War of 1852. The late Duke Frederick, properties of the metal aluminum and his inin violation of a compact by which the family vention of the method of obtaining that subreceived compensation for their demesnes in stance in quantities attracted the attention of Denmark, asserted his claims to the throne of the world. He studied the metallurgy of plat, the duchies in 1863 and headed a revolt. His inum, and found out how it could be obtained quarrel was embraced by Prussia and Austria, in a pure state. He elucidated the properties with the result that the ducbies were annexed of boron and silicon. Through his ingenuity to Prussia and the ducal family shut out from the metal sodium was rendered obtainable on the throne as before. The present head of the a large scale, so that its price sank from two family is Prince Ernst Gunther, born in 1863. thousand to fifteen francs a kilogramme, an
The Minister of War, General Kaufmann, invention which has led to important results was appointed Commandant-General of Zea- both theoretical and industrial. Deville atland in place of General Nielsen, retired. The tained a proficiency in obtaining excessively office was placed temporarily in charge of the high temperatures which was long unexcelled. Naval Minister, Ravn, who was later appointed The artificial production of minerals in bis Minister of War.
laboratory was a striking dernonstration of On the resignation of Governor Garde, April his success in this direction. The opportunity 1st, C. H. Arendrup was appointed Governor which it afforded him of observing reactions of the Danish West Indies. “As the session ad- and thermal phenomena at high temperatures vanced there appeared to be no prospect of an led to the most important of Deville's discov. agreement between the law-giving branches on eries—that of the laws of dissociation. Definance questions.
composition had previously been supposed to In answer to a query of the authorities of be a simple phenomenon which takes place at Holland regarding the importation of infernal a certain fixed temperature for each compound, machines from America, the Foreign Office beginning and completing itself at that temperaexpressed its willingness to examine invoices ture. Deville showed that it is effected withwhich are not addressed to firms of good stand- in a certain range of temperature, and in some ing.
cases is arrested by an equilibrium being esThe Icelandic Althing opened July 1st. Ice- tablished between the decomposing body and land rejoices in the comparatively large meas- the products of decomposition. Deville recogure of liberty and independence which has nized no theory which was not founded on the been accorded it recently. The anxious period clearest kind of induction. He questioned the of the constitutional conflict has been suc entire theoretical structure of modern chemceeded by one of practical and peaceful prog- istry, treating even the atomic theory as a ress. A legislative hall has been erected for groundless and useless speculation. Deville the Althing in Reykjavik. In the upper stories received a poor stipend from his professorship. are placed the National Library and a collec- The task of instructing beginners was irksome tion of Icelandic antiquities. The portrait of to him; but he was a very amiable teacher, Jon Sigurdson, the champion of Iceland's inde- and generously aided and encouraged younger pendence, is a conspicuous ornament in the hall investigators. He died in the possession of a of sessions, and even the household furniture comfortable fortune, being a director of the of the hero is preserved as a national treasure. Municipal Gas Company. He was one of the
DEVILLE, ETIENNE HENRI SAINTE-CLAIRE, chief promoters of the International Metre French chemist, was born in the Island of St. Commission in 1870. Although a man of enThomas, in the West Indies, March 18, 1818, thusiastic temperament, his scientific caution and died at Boulogne-sur-Seine, July 1st. He and strict accuracy contributed not a little to went to Paris in his boyhood with his brother, the enviable reputation he bore in scientific the late meteorologist, Charles Deville. Du- circles. mas's lectures first attracted him to the study DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE. (See of chemistry. His reputation was rapidly es NATURALIZATION PAPERS, PANAMA CANAL and tablished. In 1844 he became professor at Pert, Chili, AND UNITED STATES.) Besançon, and in 1851 was called to the Nor DISCIPLES OF CHRIST. The annual mal School in Paris, where he held the chair meeting of the General Christian Missionary of Chemistry until his death, delivering lectures Convention was held at Indianapolis, Indiana, besides at the Sorbonne. His early studies October 20th. The Board of Managers re
ported that its total receipts for the year had suitable fields for further efforts, and recombeen $29,899, of which $17,258 had been given mending the appointment of traveling finanin cash, the rest in pledges. The additional cial agents to procure subscriptions for the sum of $52,342 had been obtained by eight maintenance of the work of the society. This State and missionary agencies, making a total report was adopted. amount for the co-operative work of the Gen The Christian Woman's Board of Missions eral and State Conventions of $82,241. The has a mission in Jamaica, with 700 members, whole number of additions reported by the a school at Kingston, and day-schools, supports State organizations and the General Convention a teacher in France, and employs a missionary was 2,884. More than $30,000 had been con- to the freedmen at Jackson, Mississippi. tributed for the church to be built in Washing The churches of the English missions, emton, D. C., the total cost of which is to be bracing congregations at Chester, Liverpool, $35,000. Special report was made of mission- and Southport, held a meeting at Helsby, Auary work in Dakota, Oregon, Alabama, Col- gust 1st, and took steps for the organization of orado, Georgia, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, a conference, “not for the exercise of legislaNorth Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, tive or ecclesiastical functions, but for the culTennessee, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. A tivation of personal religion, and the extension considerable extension of the mission-fields of the Redeemer's cause,” to be held annually. and the establishment of a mission among the DISRAELI, BENJAMIN, Earl of Beaconsfield, German population of the country, were rec- twice Prime Minister of Great Britain, died in ommended. An amended constitution was London, April 19th, at the age of seventy-six. adopted, containing provisions by which per- The deceased statesman had suffered for sev. sons contributing to the funds of the society eral years from attacks of gout complicated might obtain, through representation in the with bronchitis, which at times reduced him to convention, a voice in its management. The a condition of extreme weakness. The fatal General Christian Missionary Convention was attack seized him, while suffering from general organized in 1819 under the name of the Amer- ill health and in a season of exceedingly unfaican Christian Missionary Society, and received vorable weather, just a month before his death. its present name in 1869. The total amount In the medical treatment of his case, the quesof moneys contributed in 1881 was $187,454, tion of the professional propriety of allopathic giving an annual average of receipts for thirty- physicians consulting with Lord Beaconsfield's two years of $5,857. In addition to this attendant, Dr. Kidd, who belonged to the hoamount, the State societies had contributed for møopathic or the eclectic school, arose in the their co-operative work, since 1870, the sum regular organization of medical practitioners. of $623,077, making an average for each year Dr. Quain, a physician of reputation, waived the of $51,923. Since 1858, 16,669 persons, or an rule of etiquette, and assumed the case jointly average of 694 for each year, had been added with Dr. Kidd, with the general approval of to the church through the General Convention; the profession. and, since 1870, 52,428 persons, or an average Disraeli occupied a position so anomalous of 4,369 for each year, have been added through that even after the triumphs of his last prethe State societies.
miership the sources of his influence and the The sixth annual convention of the Foreign secrets of the great power he wielded are Christian Missionary Society met at Indianap- scarcely understood even by the party which, olis, Indiana, October 19th. The available re- under his leadership, controlled a vast majority sources of the society for the year had been of the suffrages of Great Britain. His char$13,822, and its expenditures $13,313. The acter was mistrusted by the Tories themselves missions were at Southampton, Chester, and when they submissively followed his guidance Liverpool, England; Copenhagen, Denmark; in courses of which they had no foreknowl. Frederikshald, Norway ; Paris, France; and edge, and which antagonized their own convicConstantinople, Turkey; and returned 648 tions. He brought others to forget their promembers, 159 additions during the year, 2,600 fessions and abandon their principles; but in persons in the congregations, and 665 in Sun- the extremest concessions which he made to the day-schools. The society decided to co-operate democracy he maintained with justice that he with the Christian Woman's Board of Missions did not depart from the fundamental principles in establishing a mission in Japan as soon as of politics which he had always avowed. Disthat should be judged practicable by the board raeli belonged to a school of political thinkers of managers. The committee on “Present Mis- whose deeper perceptions have not been appresions” presented a report in favor of maintain- hended by a world dazzled by the philosophy ing all the existing missions in foreign coun of the French Revolution and of the industrial tries, making especial reference to those in school of political economy. The older romanGreat Britain, which was adopted. The com tic statesmen belied their better inspiration in mittee on the extension of foreign missions becoming mere reactionists, the sentimental or made a report deprecating the idea that the the interested champions of existing powers duty of the society was fulfilled by establishing and menaced privileges. Disraeli was a Conservand maintaining missions in Protestant Chris- ative by nature, but one who possessed the gift tian countries, indicating Japan and Africa as of looking before as well as after. He pro