Gambar halaman

This, I conceive, no person whatever is entitled to providing for the release of a prisoner incardemand of me. 'Besides, I have always understood cerated under a writ de contumace at the expithat no bishop can make an order contrary to what is ration of six months, with the consent of the surrender, or even seem to surrender, the great prin- other parties to the suit, by omitting the prociples at stake, I should be for ever troubled with the viso requiring the consent of the other parties. curse of a guilty conscience.

The Archbishop of Canterbury supported this The archbishop, publishing the result of this bill on its second reading in August, but said correspondence, expressed regret at the want there would be a difficulty in applying it satisof success of his attempt to secure Mr. Green's factorily, because it would be hard to keep a release, but did not think that the attempt had gentleman like Mr. Green from getting into been wholly in vain, for it had proved to him, prison again after he was discharged. The he said,

Lord Chancellor, remarking that Mr. Green That the cell from which we should be glad to lead was charged with no fewer than eleven acts of him (Mr. Green) forth is locked on the inside. Mr. disobedience, said that in fact that gentleman Green will not accept the ruling of the archbishop's would appear to be of the opinion that no court, nor the opinion of the assembled bishops of the obedience was due from him in matters of cerAnglican communion throughout the world, nor the resolutions of convocation, nor the determination of emonial to any decisions of the ecclesiastical his own bishop, nor the invitation of the archbishop courts. Under the bill now before their lordof the province. So long as this attitude is preserved, ships, the person proceeded against might be I do not see any further means that can be adopted to imprisoned for six months over and over again effect his much-desired release.

until he ceased to be contumacious. That A systematic agitation was organized by the would require amendment. English Church Union, to be promoted by

A committee of ritualists, selected on acpublic meetings held under the direction of the count of the attention they had paid to the district and branch unions, and the circulation subject, held a series of conferences on the of petitions for Mr. Green's unconditional re- Prayer-Book and its rubrics, and for the disJease.

cussion of ritual conformity during 1880 and A general meeting under the direction of 1881, and published its report in September, the English Church Union, appointed to be 1881. The promoters of this step admitted held in connection with the Church Congress, that it had become apparent that the ritualistic was held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, October 5th, movement, in the absence of any system of Mr. O. L. Wood, president of the union, pre- rules, had resulted in the introduction of a siding. Addresses were made defining and de- great diversity of practice, and that some of fending the position of the union and of the the clergymen, in the excess of their zeal, had friends of Mr. Green; and a letter was read adopted usages which could not be justified by from the imprisoned clergyman, in which he any reference to the Prayer-Book ; and it was said:

believed that if the whole subject were revised If any one asked me why I was here, I should in a scholarly manner, and if what could be reply, " For the kingdom of Jesus Christ.' It is the honor of the Church for which we have been content

supported by appeal to the Prayer-Book were to strive, and, by God's help, hope to continue to exactly defined, a standard of extreme ritual strive as long as life shall last. The awful insult of- might be fixed, under which uniformity of fered to the Church by the Public Worship Regula- practice would be promoted, the irritation and tion Act is such as wist not be endured by the hum- friction felt in the Church would be diminblest sect in the land. That a Parliament, not even professing to be Christian, should set up a court and ished, a fair trial of the Prayer-Book, as the prescribe rules for the worship and discipline of the ritualists understood it, would be had on its own Church of God, is going, to my mind, beyond the en- merits, and the advance of liturgical revision durable.

would be sped. The report of the committee Resolutions were adopted thanking Mr. Green embodies the results of its inquiries into the for refusing to acknowledge the authority of true meaning of the rubrics, deals with cases the Privy Council and the courts subject to where a conflict of rubrics exists, and decides its jurisdiction in matters touching faith and in some instances that certain practices which worship: denying—while the duty of submis have been insisted upon are not sustained with sion to the canonical orders of the bishop was sufficient clearness, and ought to be abandoned recognized—the canonical authority of epis. or modified. copal directions avowedly controlled by and The English Church Union returned in its based upon the decisions of the judicial com- reports for 1880, 19,410 members, showing an mittee as overriding the inherent discretion of increase during a year of 1,684 members; six the episcopate, and declaring that no change new district unions and 264 'new branches had in the ecclesiastical courts could be acquisced been organized. The income of the union had in which did not restore the final determination been $24,970. The report said, referring to the of spiritual matters to the bishops and synods. results of the prosecutions of clergymen for

A bill, called the Ecclesiastical Courts Reg alleged illegal practices, “The apparent want ulation Bill, was introduced in the House of of success which has attended the defensive Lords, with especial reference to the case of efforts to maintain the civil rights of the perMr. Green. It proposed the amendment of the secuted clergy should not be regarded with act of 1813 and of "Thorogood's act” of 1840, feelings of despondency.”

ANTHROPOLOGY. The discovery of stone quite similar to implements still made by the implements in gravel-beds in the bluffs of the Esquimaux. Delaware River, near Trenton, New Jersey, There was less difficulty in connecting the raised an interesting question as to the an- Delaware flints with the Esquimau race than tiquity of man in America, since these gravel in accepting them as evidence of glacial or predeposits were believed to bave been formed by glacial man, though found buried in what was glacial action. The discovery of a few human supposed on good evidence to be glacial drift. bones in Pliocene deposits on the Pacific coast The special study of this formation made by was the only evidence of the extreme antiquity Henry Carvill Lewis has led to conclusions of the human race upon this continent before which remove this difficulty. Mr. Lewis says the finding of these relics in the Trenton grav- that the implement-bearing gravel is the most els, to which attention was first called by Dr. recent formation except recent alluvium, and C. C. Abbott. The genuineness of those Plio- much later than the Philadelphia brick-clay cene remains is, however, anything but well es- and red gravels which were deposited at the tablished. The inter-glacial palæoliths of the melting of the great glacier. It extends up Delaware Valley are rude celts of argillite. the valley of the Delaware to the Water-Gap, They differ distinctly from the implements left and is of fluvial origin, marking the former by the Indians here and in other parts of the bed of the river. It bears marks of icecountry; yet nearer the surface, and occasion- action, which must be ascribed to a second ally upon the surface, in the same region they (more recent) glacier, whose flood cut a channel are found among flint weapons of the Indian through the deposits of the first glacial period. type. Morgan and other American archæolo- The date of this smaller glacier corresponded gists have concluded that the Indians reached approximately to the Reindeer period of Euthe Atlantic coast from the interior, and that rope. The implements found in this gravel, their original seats were near the Pacific. It which is the most recent of nine gravel and must be inferred that they encountered and clay deposits in the Delaware Valley, are unexpelled another race, who had dwelt there questionably of the same age as the formation, since the formation of these gravel deposits. indicating the existence of man at the time There is historical evidence of a race of differ- when the floods of the river covered this gravent ethnological characteristics from the red- el, which is far above the present river-bed. men inhabiting this part of the Atlantic sea- This period Mr. Lewis proposes to call the Escoast in the sagas of the Icelandic colonists of quimau period. Greenland, relating to their visits to Vinland in The recent measurements of African skulls the eleventh century. The Skrællings, found by M. Hamy show that the races of that conby the Northmen in New England, have been tinent are not as universally dolichocephalous identified by most certain indications in their as has been supposed. He distinguishes bedescriptions with the Esquimau race, and tween two distinct types of cranial formation were called by the same name in the chroni- in the negro races, and between forms within cles. The Northmen first met the Esquimaux these ranging from the sub-brachycephalic low down on the Atlantic coast. Three cen- through the mesocephalic and the sub-dolituries later they appeared in large numbers in chocephalic to the true dolichocephalic. The Greenland, and the severe conflicts which took dwarf race north of the equator, described by place between the colonists and these invaders Schweinfurth and Miani (see Akkas), has been were probably the reason why the Green- studied by M. Hamy, who does not find their land settlements were finally abandoned. The skulls less arched than those of the rest of manmigration of the Esquimaux to the north- kind. Their stature is greater than that of the ward, evidenced by these events, was doubt. Bushmen, and is about the same average as the less caused by the pressure of the Indians Andaman-Islanders. Their horizontal cephalic behind them, who in more recent times have index approaches the true brachycephalous raencroached upon the Esquimaux in British tio. The Noubas, Fourahs, Gallas, and NiamAmerica.

Niams, and the Haoussas, who dwell west of Weapons of a ruder type than the flint, Lake Tchad, and are separated from the above quartz, and jasper arrow and spear heads, of peoples hy a population craniologically distinct, many different patterns, attributed to the In- he classes together in a single race. dians, have been found near the surface, not Fossil evidence of the semi-human transionly in the Delaware Valley, but in New Eng. tional stage in the development of the human land and elsewhere in the Eastern States. They species may be claimed to be afforded by a huare always large, rudely-fashioned celts of nearly man jaw-bone found in the Schipka Cave in uniform pattern, much weather-worn, and made Moravia, with bones of the mammoth, and rude of argillite, thus corresponding in all particu- palæoliths. It is a fragment of the lower jaw, lars with the implements of the Trenton grav- containing the incisors, an eye-tooth, and two el-beds. These palæolithic weapons, even in premolars, with the last three back teeth just the absence of historical evidence, could be emerging from the bone. It is therefore a attributed with good reason to the Esquimaux, child's skull, in the stage of development beas being the only race living in the earlier stoné longing to the eighth year. Yet the size of age found in an accessible region. They are the jaw and the teeth is that of an adult. The


lower part of the jaw recedes without forming was highly respected and esteemed for his ina chin, and the hinder surface of the symphy- tegrity and uprightness in all the walks of life. sis has a very oblique slope. These character. His time and attention were mainly devoted to istics, approaching the type of the anthropoid the business upon which he entered as a young apes, are exhibited in a much more marked man, with his father and brothers; and in the manner than in any existing savage race, or prosecution of that business, upon sound and in the fossils of men before discovered which manly principles, he met with gratifying sacshow them, such as the jaw of Nanette.

He acquired a large fortune, wbich he A fortified camp has been discovered by the wisely used, not only for the benefit of his imAbbé Ambrosio Sans in the Maestrazgo plateau mediate family and friends, but also for the in Spain, which bears every indication of hav- good of the community in which he lived, and ing been constructed by a prehistoric people especially for the cause of the church to which of the polished-stone age. It is situated in a he was devotedly attached. About seven years group of hills. On one side the position is ago, he was severely injured by being thrown protected by a natural escarpment. Within from his carriage, and he never fully recovered the curved outer wall, which was built of from the shock thus given to his system. His stones without mortar, is a smaller wall, still last illness was aggravated by a complication intact, and heaps of stones, the ruins of dwell- of disorders, and he sank rapidly under the atings. The habitations were oval, about 20 feet tack, passing away in the early morning of long by 6feet in breadth, and were arranged Wednesday, July 13tb. in groups and in solitary positions, according There were several points in Mr. Appleton's to a definite plan. At the foot of the wall character which deserve to be noted. He was, were found the remains of many animals, some first of all, a devout, consistent Christianof which belonged to extinct species. Outside one who was neither ashamed nor afraid to of the inclosure were picked up polished celts acknowledge his faith and trust in his Saviour, of reddish-veined white quartz, lance-heads of and one who strove to remember always that blackish diorite, and other implements of the he was a steward of God, placed in charge of Neolithic age.

large means and opportunities for promoting An ancient galley, discovered at Sandefjord, the spread of the Gospel and the happiness of in Norway, throws light on the naval architect. his fellow-men. And he continued steadfast ure of the Norse mariners a thousand years ago. in this faith, and, when the summons came, It was the sepulchre of a viking, whose bones, he laid down the burden of life with firm, anwith those of a little dog and some implements, wavering confidence in the mercy of our Heavwere found inside, and the bones of horses and enly Father in and through Christ Jesus our dogs sacrificed at the funeral round about; but Lord. He was for many years senior warden the tomb had been plundered. The vessel was of St. John's Church, Clifton, and was one of about 78 feet long, 17 feet in beam, and 5 feet its largest benefactors. It may indeed be called 9 inches deep, and would probably draw less his monument. A mural tablet has been erectthan four feet of water. The curves of the ed in the church of his affections, commemobent timbers seemed to be the natural growth rating his quiet life of faith and service as a of the trees. There were twenty ribs. The Christian. It was done by the members of the side-boards, of selected and well-seasoned oak, church, his friends, and the employés in his overlapped each other, and were fastened by business. iron rivets clinched on both sides. No evidences In admirable keeping with this inner life of of the use of a saw were seen. The frame- faith, Mr. Appleton always proved himself to timbers were fastened together with root be a gentleman of the truest tyre. He was withes. Bow and stern had the same shape. uniformly courteous and considerate toward The rudder was on the starboard side, a foot others, never wounding the feelings of any one, or two from the stern. There was no deck. however obscure or lowly his lot, and always There were holes for 32 oars. These were 20 ready with a pleasant word and kindly act. feet long. The finish and workmanship were Though of a rather nervous temperament, and careful and elaborate, and the plan of the hull disliking everything of the nature of parade was anything but primitive and rude, the lines or show, he was fond of congenial society, being admirable for speed and for seaworthi- and took delight in dispensing cordial and ness. The ship was covered by a burial-mound upostentatious hospitality at his beautiful resiof blue clay, this material accounting for its dence in Staten Island. He was a lover of excellent preservation.

home and home pleasures, and, as he had been APPLETON, JOHN ADAMS, was born in especially favored and happy in his marriage, Boston, Massachusetts, January 9, 1817, and he made his home the central point of quiet died at his residence, Clifton, Staten Island, and peaceful enjoyment. July 13, 1881, in the sixty-fifth year of his As a business man, Mr. Appleton was deservage. Mr. Appleton was one of the firm of edly esteemed to be an honor to the name. “D. Appleton & Company,” a house well He took his full share in upholding the high known for its steady progress and uniform reputation which the house of D. Appleton & success as publishers and importers of books. Co. has always sustained for integrity and fairMr.John A. Appleton, wherever he was known, ness in their vast business transactions. He was

jealous for the good name of the house, and Royal Museum at Berlin. The Egyptian disdesirous, by every effort on his part, to extend covery was the fruit of the efforts of Maspero, its honorable usefulness. He was endeared to the new director of the Boulak Museum, and all with whom he was brought into close busi- of his assistant, Brugsch, both renowned Egypness relations, as touching evidence of which tologists. It includes records which clear up a may be adduced the spontaneous gathering of doubtful period of Pharaonic chronology. The the employés of the house, the day after his discoveries in Mesopotamia were made by an death, and the resolutions unanimously adopted agent of the British Museum, who has been enat the meeting. Truly, in all the varied re- gaged for years in this exploration, and who sponsibilities of life, the passage of Holy Script- has now located cities more ancient than Babyure selected as the text of an eloquent dis- lon, and brought to light remains of the primecourse preached at his funeral aptly describes val Assyrian civilization. The Greek remains Mr. Appleton's career: “The path of the just recovered embrace examples of classic art in is as the shining light that shineth more and its highest prime, and also an interesting work more unto the perfect day."

of a later age illustrating the aberrations of ARBITRATION. A decision of the Louisi- Greek genius in the decadence of taste. The ana Court of Appeals embodies a totally differ- excavation of these objects from the ruins of ent doctrine from that which has guided English Olympia and Pergamon was conducted by courts, and American courts after them, for over commissioners of the German Government, two hundred years, relative to the obligation of which had appropriated a large subsidy for merchants to submit to and abide by arbitration this purpose. after agreement to do so. A contract for the In Egypt an extraordinary treasure of sepulsale of mules contained a stipulation that dif- chral relics was brought to light in the summer ferences arising between the parties should be of 1881, through the efforts of Professor Masreferred to arbitrators, one to be chosen by pero. For many years curious antiquities have each party, and the two, on failing to agree, to occasionally appeared in the markets, of a sort fix upon an umpire. On the failure of the sell- which led to the suspicion that the Arab trader to deliver, the buyer brought suit in court. ers had discovered a royal tomb, which they The selling party objected that the plaintiff had were secretly rifling.

were secretly rifling. Upon deciphering a not offered to arbitrate, as the contract required. photographic copy of a ritual purchased by a The suing party argued that a stipulation to traveler at Thebes, and discoveriug it to be the arbitrate is revocable any time before award is funeral papyrus of Pinotem I, Professor Masmade, and can not debar access to the civil pero's suspicions were confirmed. Having been courts. The court, acknowledging the weight appointed the successor to Mariette Pasha as of authority to conflict with the view taken, conservator of the Khedivial collections, he had delivered the opinion that stipulations of this the opportunity of inaugurating his official character, not being contrary to either law or connection with an important discovery. Proto public policy, should not be considered less ceeding to Thebes, he arrested an Arab dealer binding than other lawful contracts. Arbitra- in relics, one of three brothers who alone were tors are authorized by modern laws to take tes. in possession of the secret. This man, after timouy under oath, and have accordingly the many weeks of obstinate reticence, disclosed facilities for investigating simpler questions. the situation of the treasure. The objects were When parties, knowing the full effect and cir- then taken out by Emil Brugsch, and transcumstances of the agreement, have deliberate- ported to Cairo. The place was not a tomb, ly agreed to settle disputes by friendly refer- but a cave which had been used as a hidingence, they should be left to the tribunal of their place, to which the contents of royal sepulchres own election. The powers of arbitrators and had been taken for safety. The removal took the finality of the award have been considera- place, it is supposed, either at the time of the bly enhanced in New York and other States. tomb robberies of the twentieth dynasty, or Yet the liberty possessed by either party of of the sacking of Thebes by the Assyrians. The withdrawing before the conclusion of the de- mummies and grave-treasures were piled toliberations, discourages merchants from resort- gether in great confusion, and some of the ing to this mode of adjasting disputes in minor identifications which were made on the strength controversies, notwithstanding its preferable- of funereal inscriptions afterward appeared ness to legal trial. In exchanges, boards of donbtful, as there were evidences that the trade, and similar associations there usually re- place had already been ransacked. sides efficient power to enforce a rule compell There were taken out altogether some six ing members to submit their differences to the thousand objects, including twenty-nine mumarbitrament of a committee, and the custom, mies of kings, queens, princes, and high-priests, thus made binding, is eminently satisfactory in five papyri, one of which is the funeral papyrus its workings.

of Queen Makera, of the twentieth dynasty, and ARCHÆOLOGY. Important discoveries of two plaques of the kind which Professor Masantiques illustrating the civilizations of Egypt, pero has before described from specimens which ancient Chaldea, and Greece, have been ex must have come from the same place. The humed and deposited in the British Museum, mummy-cases, which were all contained in a the Boulak Museum of the Khedive, and in the chamber twenty-three feet by thirteen, had

been opened by Arabs, and into some the wrong Jewish captivity, but which Professor Maspero mummy had been returned, as the names on afterward" concluded to be that of Rameses the bandages did not correspond to those upon XII, of the twentieth dynasty ; of Queen the cases. The mummies of people of the Not-em-maut, wife of Her-Hor, the first priesteighteenth and nineteenth dynasties appear king; of the high-priest Pinotem; of Queen to have been removed to this place of safety Ramaka and her infant daughter Mout-em-hat, from their graves in the Valley of the Tombs of the twenty-first dynasty; of King Pinotem during the reign of the first priest-king, Here II, the third of this dynasty, and of Queen Hor. And afterward, perhaps on account of Hon-ta-taoni, his daughter, Queen Ast-em-jeb its secrecy, the vault was used as a burial-place and Princess Nessi-kon-sou, other daughters, for succeeding princes.

Prince Jep-ta-a-ouf-anch, high-priest of Ammon The depredations committed among these Ra, his son, and the high-priest Mas-sa-ha-ta, coffins have been considerable, and much of the another son or near relative. difficulty in identifying the bodies is owing to The assemblage of mummies of different pethe abstractions and displacements. The fu- riods in this place was owing, according to the neral papyrus of Queen Not-em-maut was conjectures of Maspero, originally to the tombpurchased several years ago by the Prince of robberies of the reign of Rameses IX. The Wales, who deposited it in the British Museum. tomb of Amenhotep I was one of those which The funeral papyrus of Neb-seni, one of the the robbers attempted to break into. It was dignitaries whose coffins were found, has also probably in the midst of the necropolis at been for some time in the British Museum. Koorneh. Several mummies were missing Many statuettes, inscribed tablets, scarabæi, probably at the time of the removal. The mummies, etc., have been sold to travelers of tomb of Queen Mashont-ti-moo-hoo had been late years, which were undoubtedly taken from pillaged, and apparently those of Thothmes this place by the Arabs, who have known the III, Rameses I, Seti I, and others. Contemsecret of the chamber for probably twenty-two porary mummies of the family of the twentieth years.

dynasty were deposited in the same place for Of the twenty-nine mummies recovered, sev- safety on account of the unsettled state of the en are those of kings, nine of queens and prin- country, owing to insurrections and the estabcesses, and five of personages of distinction. lishment of the rival dynasty at Tanis. This The hiding-place was situated behind an angle twenty-first dynasty could not have succeeded of a cliff a little way from Deir-el-Bahari, near Her-Hor, but reigned contemporaneously with Thebes, southwest of the village. The entrance the priest-kings whose names are preserved to the chamber in which they were concealed in this cavern. These descendants of Her-Hor was by a perpendicular shaft, 12 metres deep, were as follows: High-Priest Piankhi; Highwhose mouth was 60 metres above the plain. Priest Pinotem I; Pinotem II; his sons, King From the bottom of the pit a gallery, 74 metres Menkheperra and High-Priest Mahasirti; and in length, conducted to the chamber, whose King Pinotem, whose wife, Makeri, was dimensions were 7 metres by 4. A hint of the daughter of the contemporary King of Tanis. causes which led to the deposit of the bodies in The rival dynasties were both supplanted after this secret place is probably given in hieratic the death of Makeri by Sheshouk, the head of inscriptions on the mummy-cases of Leti I and a Semitic family in Lower Egypt, who founded Rameses XII, which stated that their remains the Bubastite dynasty. had been placed for safety in the tomb of Queen Assyriologists have for some time expected Ansera. The mummy of this queen was found that in the ruined cities of Babylonia more in the vault, though not in her own mummy ancient versions of the Assyrian text than the case, but that of Rai, the nurse of Queen cuneiform inscriptions already recovered would Ahmes-Nofertari.

yet be brought to light. In 1880 Hormuzd Among the mummies were identified those Rassam found a fragment of a tablet relating of a Raskenen, one of the last kings of the to the Deluge in the ruins of one of the temseventeenth dynasty; of King Ahmes I, the ple libraries of Babylon. Through the seasons founder of the eighteenth dynasty, and of of 1880 and 1881 the same explorer has indusAhmes-Nofertari, his queen; Queen Arhotep triously examined the sites of the Chaldean and Princess Sat Ammon, his daughters, and cities of Babylon, Borsippa, Sippara, and Prince Sa Ainmon, his son; of Amenhotep I, Cutha, and has unearthed a large number of the second king of this dynasty; the mummy- religious texts and records. cases of Thothmes I and Thothmes II, succeed Since the large discovery of inscribed tablets ing monarchs; the mummy-case, and perhaps made by Arabs in 1874, there have been inthe mummy, of Thothmes III, or the Great; numerable relics and inscriptions exhumed in mummies of Queens Hont-ta-me-bou, An, Set. Babylon. The same spot has been explored ka, and Princess Mes-sont-ta-me-hou, all of the by Rassam. It was the center of commercial eighteenth dynasty; the mummy of Rameses life in ancient Babylon, being the court of a I, the founder of the nineteenth dynasty; of family named Beni Egibi, who seem to have King Seti I, his successor; the supposed been financial agents of the government. The mummy of Rameses II, or the Great, the third tax-receipts found here reveal the fact that the king of this dynasty, and the Pharaoh of the taxes for the maintenance of the irrigation

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »