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is sufficiently strong to check any tendency Senator. How far his opposition to its conto excess. Between these two elements, the firmation would be carried was not definitely great voice of independent opinion can always known, and the chief object of this caucas be heard with effect, and the country has ev- committee, appointed April 27th, was to ascerery prospect of peace and prosperity.” Judge tain whether antagonism between him and the Davis, accordingly, voted with the Republicans President could not be reconciled. The Presiin favor of proceeding to the election of offi- dent disclaimed any purpose of offending Mr. cers; but the dilatory tactics of the Democrats Conkling or slighting his just claims to be conwere kept up, and prevented the adoption of sulted, but took the position that the collectorthe resolution offered by Mr. Dawes, of Massa- ship at New York was a national office, over chusetts, for that purpose. The contest, how which there could be no local claims, and that ever, was continued throngh the entire month he felt entirely free to make the appointment of April, the debate taking a wide range over according to his own best judgment. He disthe political field. General Mahone took oc- tinctly intimated a purpose to adhere to his casion to defend the financial policy of the former action, while Senator Conkling showed Readjusters in Virginia, and was answered by no disposition to abate his claim to a controlhis colleague, General Johnston. Mahone's ling voice in the selection of Federal officers in party attitude in the Senate was made the sub- New York. The caucus was called together ject of severe criticism by Hill, of Georgia, on the 3d of May, and decided to agree to exand others, and several heated colloquies took ecutive sessions on the following days for the place. The method of conducting political can- consideration of appointments, those which vasses and elections in the South was brought were uncontested being first acted on. On the under discussion, and the suffrage laws of some 4th Mr. Dawes rose to explain the course of of the Northern States were denounced. There his party in persisting in the effort to elect the was scarcely a question of recent or current officers of the Senate, and, insisting on the politics that was not made a subject of debate. right of its position, proposed a suspension of

On the 27th of April the Republican Sena- the contest in order that the President's aptors held a caucus for the purpose of consider- pointments might be acted upon. By a unaniing whether they should consent to an execu mous vote the Senate went into executive sestive session, at which the President's appoint- sion, confirmed several appointments, and took ments could be acted upon. The question was up the treaties with China. Seeing that it was referred to a caucus committee which was in- the plan of Senator Conkling to secure, if posstructed to consider the situation and make a sible, the confirmation of the uncontested apreport of its conclusions. The efforts of this pointments, including those within the State committee were directed mainly to ascertain- of New York, and then to induce the Senate ing whether harmony could be secured in act- to adjourn without acting upon the others, ing upon certain pending nominations. On President Garfield, on the 5th of May, withthe 22d of March, the last day on which an drew the names of Woodford, Tenney, Payn, executive session had been held, the following MacDougall, and Tyler. The same day the names had been submitted by the President Chinese treaties were ratified, and numerous for appointment in the State of New York: appointments were confirmed. Stewart L. Woodford to be District Attorney The action of the President in withdrawing for the Southern District; Asa W. Tenney, the other New York appointments brought District Attorney for the Eastern District; the contest with Senator Conkling over that Louis F. Payn, Marshal for the Southern Dis- for the collectorship to a distinct issue, which trict; Clinton D. MacDougall, Marshal for the the Senate could not avoid meeting. All efforts Northern District; and John Tyler, Collector to compromise the difficulty were futile. A of Customs at Buffalo. These men caucus of Republican Senators was held on the known as more or less close political friends 9th of May, in which Senator Conkling stated of Senator Conkling, and their appointment his claims at great length, and charged the was presumed to be agreeable to him. The President with bad faith and violation of his next day, March 23d, William H. Robertson pledges. The caucus continued its discussions was named for Collector of Customs at the on the 10th, when Senator Edinands withdrew port of New York; Edwin A. Merritt, the in- a resolution which he had offered the day becumbent of that office, received the appoint- fore, in favor of postponing action on Robertment of Consul-General at London, and Gen- son's case until December. The caucus made eral Adam Badeau was transferred to the po no decision at that time on the course to be sition of Chargé d'Affaires to Denmark, Mr. adopted, and another was held on the 13th, Cramer being transferred to Switzerland. with a like result. Meantime a contest had There were other important appointments sub- been carried on in the Senate over the appointmitted at the same time, but they gave no oc- ment of Stanley Matthews, of Ohio, to be an casion for a contest. Mr. Robertson had been Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. It a pronou ced opponent of Mr. Conkling in the was confirmed on the 12th by a majority of leadership and management of the Republican one vote. party in New York, and it was known that It having become evident that no action his appointment was very distasteful to the could be secured on the part of the Republican


Senators, hostile to the confirmation of Judge They appointed a committee to confer on the Robertson's appointment as Collector, on the subject with a similar committee on the part 16th of May both the New York Senators, of the Democratic Senators. Before receiving Roscoe Conkling and Thomas C. Platt, sent no- inforınation of this action, the Democrats had tice to the Vice-President that they had that decided that the Chief Clerk should call the day forwarded the resignation of their seats to Senate to order, and that the resolution for the the Governor of their State. Their reasons for election of a President pro tem. would then be adopting this course were set forth in a joint in order and should be offered. They selected letter of resignation addressed to Governor Mr. Bayard, of Delaware, as their candidate." Cornell. (See New YORK.) The appointments They consented to the appointment of a comof Mr. Robertson as Collector of the Port of mittee of conference, but there was no agreeNew York and of Mr. Merritt as Consul-Gen- ment reached, as neither party was disposed teral at London were confirmed, almost without to recede from its position. The Republican opposition, on the 18th of May. The name of candidate for the temporary presidency was General Badeau for Chargé d'Affaires to Den- Mr. Anthony, of Rhode Island. mark was withdrawn at his own request. After the preliminaries of opening the sesAmong the other appointments confirmed the sion on the 10th had been disposed of, Mr. saine day were those of Thomas A. Osborn as Pendleton offered a resolution that Mr. Bayard, Minister to Brazil, in place of H. W. Hilliard of Delaware, “is hereby chosen President pro recalled ; and Judson Kilpatrick as Minister to tem. of the Senate." Mr. Edmunds arose and Chili, in place of Mr. Osborn. On the follow- presented the credentials of Messrs. Miller and ing day the nominations for offices in the Lapham, of New York, and Aldrich, of Rhode State of New York, which had been with- Island, and moved that they be first sworn by drawn, were renewed, but the name of Henry Mr. Anthony, the oldest member of the session E. Knox was substituted for that of Louis F. in continuous service. He claimed that this Payn as Marshal of the Southern District, and was in accordance with right and with precethat of Charles A. Gould for that of John dent. It was claimed on the other side that Tyler as Collector of Customs at Buffalo. An the law requiring new Senators to be sworn in appointment to which much opposition was by the presiding officer could not be set aside developed was that of William E. Chandler, of unless by unanimous consent. A motion to New Hampshire, to be Solicitor-General. The lay Mr. Edmunds's proposition on the table was vote in the Judiciary Committee was a tie, two adopted by a vote of 36 to 34. General Mamembers being absent who were opposed to hone was absent, and Judge Davis voted in the confirmation. The name was reported without negative with the Republicans. Mr. Edmunds recommendation, and, on the 20th of May, was then moved to amend Mr. Pendleton's resolurejected by a majority of five in the executivo tion, by providing that Mr. Bayard be chosen session. The same day the New York appoint- President pro tem. “for to-day.” This was ments and some others were confirmed, and negatived by a party vote, Davis, of Illinois, the Senate adjourned without any renewal of still acting with the Republicans. Then Mr. the contest over the election of officers. Edmunds moved to substitute the name of Mr.

Anthony for that of Mr. Bayard, which was

also negatived. The original resolution of Mr. On the 23d of September, President Garfield Pendleton was adopted, 34 to 32, Mr. Davis having died in the mean time, President Arthur, not voting. The Democrats in caucus,

the his successor, issued a proclamation convening day, determined to make no opposition to the the Senate in extraordinary session on the 10th admission of the new Senators, and not to of October following. The main object of this press the election of a Secretary at present. was understood to be the election of a Presi- They selected Colonel L. Q. Washington, bowdent of that body, as the accession of the Vice- ever, as their candidate for that position. The President to the executive chair left no officer new Senators were sworn on the 11th, without in the line of succession, in case of the death, objection. The equal division of parties in the resignation, removal, or disability of the incum- Senate, there being no longer a casting vote of bent. Before the Senate met there was some the Vice-President, made the retention of Mr. controversy as to whether the presiding officer Bayard as the presiding officer dependent on should be chosen before the new Senators were the vote of Senator Davis, in case the Republiadmitted. The resignation of Messrs. Conkling cans attempted to secure a change. The Reand Platt, and the death of Senator Burnside, publicans held a caucus on the 12th, and deof Rhode Island, had produced three vacancies termined to propose Mr. Davis himself as the on the Republican side, giving the Democrats President pro tem. The next day a resolution control of the organization, if it was to be continuing the standing committees was adopteffected before their successors were sworn in. ed by a vote of 37 to 35, and then a resolution Both parties held caucuses on the 8th of Octo was offered by Mr. Logan, of Illinois, for the ber. The Republicans questioned the right of election of his colleague, Senator Davis, as the the Democrats to elect a presiding officer before presiding officer. This was adopted, yeas 36, the new Senators were sworn, but resolved to pays 34, Bayard and Davis not voting. Messrs. confine their opposition to a formal protest. Bayard and Anthony were appointed to escort



Mr. Davis to the chair. In accepting the posi With regard to manufacturing industries, tion, he declared that he could not have done which are of comparatively vast magnitude so if the manner in which he was chosen had in Connecticut, and other matters relating to not left him free from party obligations. He which directly or indirectly the General Asaccepted the honor as a recognition of the in- sembly would be called upon to legislate, the dependent position he had long occupied in the Governor in his message deprecated the enactpolitics of the country.

ment of any law that might, even remotely, The session, which was interrupted for a few tend to affect them injuriously, saying: “In days by the centennial celebration of the battle every county are flourishing towns and villages of Yorktown, came to an end on the 25th of which have sprung up, each about some thrifty October, having been devoted exclusively to manufacturing establishment. These estabexecutive business. Among the important lishments now number nearly twenty - two nominations confirmed, was that of Charles J. hundred, employing, and as a rule profitably Folger, of New York, for Secretary of the employing, over $60,000,000 of capital, and givTreasury, Mr. Windom baving insisted on re- ing work to upward of sixty-six thousand persigning, and ex-Governor E. D. Morgan, of sons. The value of their annual product is New York, having declined the position after reckoned at $120,000,000, and their market is his appointment had been made and confirmed. the world. Interests so important, and affectA contest was begun over the appointment of ing such large classes of our people, should be a postmaster at Lynchburg, Virginia, at the sedulously protected from any legislation that instance and in the supposed interest of Gene would embarrass or contract the energy of inral Mahone, but as it threatened to prolong vention or of capital. Every enactment which the session' it was dropped without action. could possibly affect them should be carefully The appointment was opposed by the Demo- scrutinized, to the end that it works no injury.” crats, on the ground that it was intended to The finances continue in a satisfactory conhave an influence in the political canvass then dition. The conservative method which has pending in Virginia. An unwonted incident been steadily used heretofore is still continued. of this contest was a resolution adopted dur. During the year ended November 30, 1880, the ing an all-night sitting, directing the Sergeant- aggregate receipts of the State from all sources, at-Arms to compel the attendance of certain including $42,146.95 brought over as cash balabsent members, in order to produce a quorum. ance from the previous year, were $2,506,The execution of this order led to a vigorous 971.18; the aggregate expenditures for all purprotest, signed by several Senators, which was poses (including $286,197 interest paid on the entered on the journal.

State debt) were $1,600,383.36 ; leaving in CONNECTICUT. The members - elect of the Treasury, on December 1st, an available the Connecticut Legislature met at the Capitol surplus of $906,587.82 to meet current expenses and were organized for the session of 1881 on of the year 1881. January 5th. Lyman W. Coe was elected Presi The amount drawn from the Treasury on dent pro tempore of the Senate, and William C. account of the new State House in 1880 was Case Speaker of the House of Representatives; $118,131.36. This sum includes the $15,000 both were Republicans, and both elected by appropriated by the last General Assembly as great majorities on a party vote.

a compensation to the members of the Capitol On January 5th, also, the new Governor, Ho- Commission, who had in charge the building bart B. Bigelow, was inaugurated. His mes while in course of erection. sage to the Legislature upon the condition of The receipts for the year ending November public affairs in the Commonwealth he sent in 30, 1881, including the above-noted balance of at once to the two Houses.

$906,587.82, were estimated at $2,501,461.82; The constitutional amendment changing the and the expenditures at $1,459,005.32. manner of appointing the judges of the Su The State debt continues to be as it was at preme and Superior Courts, which was passed the end of 1879–$4,967,600. Nearly three at the last session and submitted to the people fourths of this sum bears interest at the rate of for sanction or rejection at the town elections 6 per cent per annum; the remainder at 5 per on October 5th, was ratified by their vote, and centum. thus became a part of the State Constitution." Outstanding bonds to the amount of $887,000

The sanitary condition of the people of the will become due on January 1, 1883, the State State, owing apparently to want of caution and having it then in her power either to pay and other causes, suffered in 1880; although there cancel them, or to continue them, in whole or have been no serious epidemics, the general in part, by a new issue. average of health has not been so good as dur The total valuation of taxable property in ing the two years preceding. The sanitary Connecticut the grand list shows to be $327,conditions of life, however, as regards drain- 182,435, an increase of $2,293,412 over the preage, ventilation, and water-supply, are receiv- ceding year, ing constantly increased attention.

The number of savings banks in the State The affairs of the Commonwealth are in a continues the same—85; but the number of satisfactory state, and there is every sign of a depositors has grown up to 231,913, which is healthy and progressing commercial condition. 9,692 greater than it was at the close of the

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previous year. Of this increase, 9,408 are de- tion in Connecticut, meeting with no such positors of less than $500. These depositors, marked opposition or complaint, on the part compared with the whole population of the of parents, as experience shows to have been State, are in the proportion of more than one the case in some other States. For this differin every three of her inhabitants. The pres- ence between the States concerned, Governor ent amount of all their deposits is $76,518,- Bigelow accounts as follows: “This shows 570.91, an increase of $3,676,127.52 over that not only the temper of our people toward eduof the year last past. The average amount for cation, but also that there does not exist with each depositor is $357.50, and for every in- us that necessity for the earnings of children habitant in the State it is above $100. The of school age which supports the defiance of dividends annually paid by the banks have similar laws in other coinmunities." been withdrawn by depositors to a much less For the support of the State Normal School, extent this year than in the preceding. where teachers are trained to give instruction

The 28th annual report of the Railroad Com- in the common schools, the amount paid from missioners shows the railways operating in the Treasury in 1880 was $12,700. A good inConnecticut to have had a prosperous year in crease in the number of trained teachers is 1880, their business having considerably in- now promised by the building of a Normal creased in freight as well as passenger trans- School in New Britain, for the erection of portation. The total of their gross earnings which the General Assembly appropriated amounted to $12,290,878.51, which is $1,378,- $75,000, the said town having pledged itself 627.34, or 12 per cent, above that of 1879. to contribute $25,000 more, of its own money, They exceed the gross earnings of all previous for the same purpose. years—even of 1873, when the earnings were In the Hospital for the Insane, at Middlethe largest as compared with those of any pre- town, there were 610 patients at the beginning ceding or succeeding year till 1880. A note- of last year, and 528 at the end of it. The worthy fact in the mutual relations between whole number of patients treated during the the yearly amounts of earnings from passenger year was 654, which shows a permanent overand freight transportation in these roads for crowding in the hospital, the capacity of which 1880 was, that the freight earnings, instead or is sufficient to give accommodations for 450 being less than the passenger, as they had al- patients only. The additional new buildings, ways been, exceeded them by more than one for which the General Assembly at the previous million dollars. This change has occurred es- session appropriated a large sum of money, pecially in the business of two among the and which, when completed, will probably roads, namely: The New York, New Haven, double the present capacity of the hospital, and Hartford, and the New York and New have been already planned, and their erection England. The proportion of expenses to earn has begun. Of the 528 patients remaining in ings was 62 per cent, a little more than 1 per this institution at the close of 1880, two only cent over the previous year's.

were paying patients; the Governor stating Nine companies have paid in dividends last “that 526 were entirely supported by the year $2,539,295.70, or nearly as much as they State, or by the towns from which they were had paid in 1879.

The aggregate length of all the railway lines The School for Imbeciles, at Lakeville, seems in Connecticut measures 953.96 miles; double worthy of continuance for its usefulness. The tracks, 108.78 miles ; sidings, 185.94 miles— pupils cared for in it during the year numbered making a total of 1,248.68 miles of single track. 93, of whom 47 were beneficiaries of the State.

The collective amount of State tax paid by The total expenditure of the institution for the roads into the Treasury during the year the year amounted to $15,799.91, of which was $357,000. In 1879 it was $346,000. $5,960.87 were paid from the public Treas

The education of youth continues satisfac- ury for the 47 State beneficiaries, and the retory, with a fair prospect of forward progress mainder was paid by the friends of the other in efficiency and thoroughness. The cost to pupils. A department connected with this the State for supporting the common schools school takes care of several harmless lunatics, in 1880 was $213,420.50, the largest amount some among whom also were supported last among the items of public expenditure after year by the State at a cost of $534. that belonging to the judiciary system, which In the State Reform School for Boys there was $256,598.93. The results of this large were, at the close of 1880, 307 inmates; reexpenditure have for many years been most ceived during the year, 148; discharged, 109. gratifying; and the reports of the State Board This school is considered to have never been of Education, and of their Secretary, show the in a better condition than at present. The combined efficiency and thoroughness of the family system, so called, has been successfully system of free popular education. The “Com- introduced in its management since last year. pulsory Law," so called, by which children of The Industrial School for Girls, at Middleproper age are made to attend the public town, during the year 1880, received 71 girls; schools, has been more efficiently and perfectly placed in positions of usefulness, or discharged, enforced this year than ever before. This 63; remaining in the school on December 1st, law seems to be of comparatively easy execu- 160. The whole number of inmates at this


school in the 11 years of its existence is reck- the times for such adjustment being made to oned at 430. Of the girls sent out from it, correspond with those times when a new centhree fourths are stated to have given evi- sus should be taken. Fifty years ago the first dence of permanent reformation. An addi- apportionment was made under this arrangetional building is now in process of erection ment, but, notwithstanding the very greatest for the older inmates.

changes have since taken place, not only in the In the State Prison there were 261 convicts aggregate population of the State, but espein confinement on December 1, 1880. At the cially in the distribution of that population, no same date in 1879 they numbered 251 ; com- Legislature has, at any of the decennial periods mitted during the year, 134; released, 124. intervening, seen fit to change the basis of repEight among the prisoners were sent from the resentation. . Penitentiary to the Hospital for the Insane. "The population of the State by the census of The prison's management has been for some 1880 is 622,683, as against 287,675 in 1830, the time progressing from good to better, especial- census on which the present apportionment is ly in regard to discipline among the convicts. based. ... The whole character of the popu

The militia of Connecticut, under the name lation, and of the occupations in which they of “National Guard,” consists of 2,731 enlisted are engaged, has during this time undergone men and 183 commissioned officers, making a an entire revolution. Consequently, the centotal of 2,914 as the active military force of ters of population have shifted, and the density the State. Last year's expenditures for this of population has altogether changed. Disforce amounted to $88,609.67. There are also tricts which were substantially equal fifty some independent companies, and the Govern- years ago, to-day show a difference of 4 to 1; or's Guard; for both of which a further sum others have grown so as to present differences of $15,021.28 was expended, the aggregate of a less degree, yet quite enough to make military expenses for the year having been equality of representation absurd. Six dis$103,630.75.

tricts, with a combined population of 83,000, The First Regiment of the Connecticut Na- balance in the present Senate six other distional Guard, under the lead of its colonel, and tricts having a population of 281,800 ; while the second company of the Governor's Foot ten districts with a population of 411,700 can Guard, with a military band attached, were be outvoted by eleven districts which have a detailed to take part at the celebration of the population of 199,000.” centennial anniversary of the surrender of the The Legislature subsequently passed an act English army at Yorktown, Virginia, on Octo- reapportioning these senatorial districts, and ber 19th. The Governor himself, accompanied defining their respective limits. The provisions by his staff and the principal military and civic of this act have also been carried into practical officers of the State, besides other prominent execution, the districts numbering now twenmen of Connecticut, attended the ceremonies ty-four, instead of twenty-one, as heretofore. of the occasion. The Legislature appropriated The Democratic papers in the State denounce $7,000 to meet the expenses of the excursion. the manner and character of the new appor

The Legislature was urged to reapportio tionment in the strongest terms, noting it “as the senatorial districts of the State without the most glaringly dishonest partisan work further delay, if the people of Connecticut are ever attempted in the United States”; and to to live under what is more than a semblance make this partisan injustice more clearly apof a representative form of government. The parent, they have published a map of Connecargument presented to the Legislature was as ticut representing the dividing lines as well as follows: These districts remain now the same the different configurations and sizes of the as they were when first formed fifty years several districts. The Republican papers seem ago, although the changes in their respective to admit that by the new arrangement of the populations during the lapse of this balf cen districts their party secures seventeen, and tury have been so numerous, and so remark- may possibly get two or three more, out of the ably great, as to render the continuance of the twenty-four Senators. The relative populaold districts not only unjust, but manifestly tions of the new districts vary from 12,098— contrary to the intention expressed and em- the least in the twenty-third-to 62,882—the bodied in their original formation. Among largest in the eighth. Ten among the districts the reasons set forth to evince the imperative have populations ranging between twenty and necessity of a new apportionment, and some thirty thousand. practical instances showing the injustice of The January session of the Connecticut Legthe division then existing, were the following: islature in 1881 was closed in its fifty-second * In the plan of government designed by the day, April 14th, when the Governor adjourned Constitution the Senate was intended to be the the General Assembly sine die with the usual body of popular representation. The lower formalities. Among the more important acts and larger House was, for historical reasons, passed at this session are the following: A founded upon the existence of townships. It new law relating to elections; it is intended was provided that the basis of representation for the principal cities in the State, to prevent in the Senate should be adjusted from time to fraudulent registration. An act reducing the time, as the population of the State changed, tax on mutual life insurance companies; this

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