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sionaries of the society, and nearly half of its The Lower House feels that this forbearance must foreign expenditure. The native churches in be conditioned by limitations. West Africa were gaining strength and taking The Upper House adopted a resolution deupon themselves more and more the responsi- claring thatbilities of pastoral and missionary work. The Litigation in matters of ritual is to be deprecated and spiritual and philanthropic work of the Frere- deplored, and if possible to be avoided. This House town mission, in East Africa, had been carried also declares that authority to settle differences in on with unceasing energy. Reports were also such matters is inherent in the episcopal office, as witmade of the mission at Uganda, of the missions preface of the Book of Common Prayer; and while
nessed by ancient practice, and as referred to in the at Jerusalem, Jaffa, Gaza, Nablus, and the this House entertains the hope that the clergy, as in Hauran, in Palestine, of stations in Persia, and duty bound, will, in conjunction with the laty, supthe other older and extensive missions of the port the legitimate authority, it also expresses its consociety.
fidence that this authority will be exercised by the The one hundred and eightieth annual ineet- bishops of this province in their respective dioceses,
with the earnest endeavor to compose such differences ing of the Society for the Propagation of the without litigation, and at the same time to maintain Gospel in Foreign Parts was held May 12th, order, decency, purity of doctrine, and edification in the Archbishop of Canterbury presiding. The Divine worship. income of the society during 1880 had been The convocation met again May 17th. The £138,288, against £131,674 in 1879. Five committee which had been appointed in 1870 hundred and eighty-six ministers had been em for the revision of the authorized version of ployed during the year : 157 in Asia, 121 in the Holy Scriptures reported that the revision Africa, 54 in Australia and the Pacific, 253 in of the New Testament had been completed, and America and the West Indies, and one in Eu- presented the volume containing the same. rope. There were also in connection with the The Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol spoke society 1;242 catechists and lay teachers, mostly upon the character and extent of the labors natives in heathen countries, and about 250 of the committee, after which thanks were restudents in colleges abroad, who were in train- corded to those members of the body who ing for the work of the ministry in the lands were not appointed by convocation. A resoof their birth.
lation was adopted in the Upper House for the The Convocation of Canterbury met for the appointment of a joint committee of both dispatch of business, February 8th. The arch- Houses, to inquire into the remedies provided bishop presented to the Upper House the sub- by law for neglect of duty by the clergy. The ject of the addresses which had been sent to special attention of the parliamentary commithim for and against greater liberty in ritual. tee was asked by the Lower House for the A resolution was passed in the Upper House Charity Trusts Bill. A resolution was adopted requesting the archbishop to take steps with as an articulus cleri deprecating any further a view to obtaining from the crown a letter of relaxation of the oath of allegiance required business committing to convocation the work from persons seeking admission into Parliaof providing for a fuller representation of the inent. The Bishop of Llandaff stated that a parochial clergy in the Lower House ; the committee had been appointed by the Welsh Lower House, however, declined to concur in bishops and clergy to consider the expediency this action. A resolution was passed in the of undertaking a revised version of the New Upper House approving of the scope of the bill Testament in the Welsh language. which had been introduced into the House of The convocation met again July 19th. The Commons by Mr. E. Stanhope, to give effect alleged neglect of baptism, and a proposition for to the recommendations of the Royal Commis. the constitution of a Board of Missions, were sion on the sale and exchange of benefices. A discussed in the Upper House, and projects report having been presented from the Lower for giving religious instruction to seamen, and House on the recommendations of a committee for securing the simultaneous bringing forward which had been appointed “on the relations of church questions in church conferences and of church and state,” suggesting that greater synods, in the Lower House. The Bishops of authority should be given to convocation, the Lincoln, Exeter, and Truro were requested to Upper House requested the archbishop to move consider what measures could with propriety for a royal commission to consider the sub- be taken to secure the release of the Rev. S. jects of clerical discipline and of courts of F. Green, who was in prison for contumacy in first instance and of appeal in ecclesiastical resisting an order of the court, commanding
causes. An articulus cleri was adopted by the him to desist from certain practices in ritual · Lower House and sent up to the Upper House, which had been declared unlawful.
asking that body, in view of the uncertainties The Contocation of York met April 26th and that were thought to surround some recent in- 27th. A motion was offered by the Bishop of terpretations of ecclesiastical law, and of the Manchester to the effect that, in view of the peculiar character of the parishes and the con- doubtfulness attaching to the interpretation of gregations placed in similar religious circum- the rubric relating to ornaments of the church stances, to discountenance as much as possible and of ministers, as it now stands, and of the legal proceedings in such matters. In making frequent litigation that has ensued, the rubric this request, the resolution said:
should be expunged, to establish a clear and
distinct rule in the matter, conformable to in respect to the death of Mr. Miall, the founder the usage which has prevailed in the Church and chief promoter of the society, and a resofor the last two hundred years. The resolu- lution was passed to the effect thattion was unanimously adopted in the Upper While the Council will gladly support measures House after some discussion, but was lost in which will put an end to the traffic in church livings the Lower House. A resolution was passed in the Church of England, it feels bound to oppose for the appointment of a committee to con- proposals which provide for the perpetuation of the
trattic under whatever conditions, believing that the sider, with a committee of the Convocation of corrupt and illegal practices disclosed before the Royal Canterbury, the constitutional relations be- Commissioners will not cease until the right to aptween the ecclesiastical and civil authorities, point to benefices ceases to be treated as property caand the best methods whereby common action pable of being sold or bequeathed. And the Council may be taken by them in matters affecting the expresses great surprise that the present Lord Chan
cellor should have brought in the Augmentation of Church.
Benefices Act Amendment Bill, which aims at increasThe Archbishop of Canterbury moved in the ing the value of crown livings for the express purHouse of Lords, March 7th, the resolution pose of making them salable, and of thereby conwhich had been approved by the Convocation verting public into private patronage. of Canterbury, for the appointment of a royal At a private conference of persons interested commission to inquire into the constitution in the work of the Church Defense Association and working of the ecclesiastical courts as held March 28th, the Archbishop of Cantercreated or modified under the Reformation bury presiding, a resolution was passed declarStatutes of the 24th and 25th of King HenryingVIII, and any subsequent acts, and the reso That in view of the strenuous and persistent efforts lution was adopted without a division. row being made to prejudice the public mind against
The Archbishop of Canterbury, with the the national Church, it is indispensable that a correadvice and consent of the bishops of both prov- tached to her, without distinction of religious or poinces, published a letter in September in an litical party, to take such steps as may be needful for swer to a memorial which had been presented putting diftinctly before the country the truth as reto the convocation in May, concerning what gards the work, history, and position of the Church further steps could be taken toward grappling of England. with infidelity and indifference to religion, and Efforts to add to the funds of the associaparticularly suggesting the extension, with tion were also resolved upon, in pursuance of sume modifications, of the plan for employing which the Archbishop of Canterbury shortly lay agents in directly spiritual work which had afterward addressed a letter to the clergy dialready been partially introduced in a few dio- recting their attention to the objects and operaceses. After reviewing what had been accom tions of the Liberation Society, and the necesplished so far by the employment of lay agents, sity of giving increased support to measures the archbishop recommended that in every for counteracting them. diocese laymen should offer themselves to the The twenty-first annual Church Congress parochial clergy for the distinct work of read- was held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, beginning Ocers; that the clergy should widely make known tober 4th. The Bishop of Durham presided. their desire to receive the co-operation of such The question of ritual was discussed under the laymen; and that when suitable men had topic of "The Limits within which Variations come forward and been approved, they should of Ritual may be permitted,” by the Dean of receive a formal commission from the bishop, Durham, Archdeacon Bardsley, Earl Nelson, solemnized by an appropriate religious service. the Dean of Chester, the Rev. Berdmore CompSuch lay readers, the archbishop advised, ton, and the Rev. P. G. Medd. The question should occupy a definite office, distinct alike of the Ecclesiastical Courts; the Principles from that of the ordinary lay helpers, and on which they should be constituted, and the from that of women engaged in similar work. Methods by which their Decisions can be made
The annual conference and annual meeting more effectnal,” was considered by the Hop. of the Society for the Liberation of Religion and Rev. W. H. Fremantle, Dr. H. Cowie from State Patronage and Control were held (Chancellor of the diocese), the Hon. C. L. May 11th. Mr. H. R. Ellington presided. The Wood, Sir W. Worseley, and others. Other executive committee, in its report, congratu- subjects which engaged the attention of the lated the friends of the society on the revival Congress were: “ The Relation of the Church of public interest in domestic questions, which of England to Churches in Communion with would be certain to prove advantageous to the her in (a) Scotland, (6) Ireland, (c) Americause of disestablishment. Three quarters of ca and the Colonies”; “The Duty of the a million copies of publications had been circu- Church in Respect to the Prevalence of Seculated, and about three hundred and fifty meet- larism and Spiritualism"; "The Organization ings had been held, during the year. Some and Development of Lay Work in Connection advantage had been and would be taken of the with the Church, that of Men and that of interest shown by the fariners in the question Women"; "The Connection between Church of tithes. The passage of the Burials Act and and State, what we gain hy it and what we its successful working were referred to in con- lose by it”; “The Adaptation of the Parochial gratulatory terms. Resolutions were adopted System and of Public Worship to the Require
ments of Towns and Rural Districts"; "The England, to which the property and interests Responsibility of the Church as regards the held by the Church might be transferred, and Opium-Trade with China”; “The Relation of to have provision made for the future maintethe Church to the Social Movements of the Age, nance of the churches which had hitherto enwith Special Reference to Trades-Unions and joyed the governmental endowments. The Co-operation, and to the Local Administration. bishop called a representative assembly, to of the License Laws”; “The Principles of consist of all the presbyters of the diocese and the English Reformation as bearing on Ques- two laymen for each presbyter, elected by the tions of the Present Day"; "The Temperance congregations, to meet on the 5th of July. Work of the Church, especially in Relation to On the meeting of the synod, differences arose its Parochial Organization ”; “ The Proper At- respecting the apportionment of delegates, the titude of the Church toward the Question of representatives of the Church Missionary SoSunday Observance"; "The Claims of the city claiming that it should have been made Revised Version of the New Testament to Gen- according to the number of members in the eral Acceptance"; "Modes in which Religious churches, and complaining that, according to Life and I'hought may be influenced by Archi- the actual allotment, their churches with six tecture, Painting, Sculpture, and Music"; and thousand members had only thirty-four delequestions relating to the diocese of Durhamn, gates, while the other churches in the island, and the Elementary Education Act.
with only seven thousand members, were alA judgment on the appeal of Mr. Mackono. lowed seventy delegates. A motion was made chie, a clergyman under censure for ritualism, to assert the incompetency of the Assembly against a decision of the Court of Arches, de- to deal with the questions before it, as it was priving him of his office, was given in the not a fully representative body. This being House of Lords, April 6th. The substantial ruled out of order, the representatives of the question in the case, which had been argued a churches of the Church Missionary Society few weeks before, was whether Lord Pen- withdrew in a body. Four trustees were zance had power, as Dean of Arches, to pro- chosen to take care, under the control of a nounce a sentence suspending Mr. Mackono. Central Board of Finance, of all the property chie, ab officio et beneficio, for disobedience to to be transferred by the crown; and provision a previous monition. The sentence of the was made for the election of a bishop in case Court of Arches had been upheld by the Court a vacancy in the office should occur before the of Appeal, and their lordships now affirmed Constitution of the Church is settled. A comthe decision of that court, and dismissed the mittee to consist of clergymen of all the shades appeal, with costs.
of theological thought, and one layman to bo The fourth meeting of the General Synod of selected by each clergyman, was agreed to by the Irish Episcopal Church was held in April. both sides, to which should be referred the The Representative Body reported a summary question of the organization of the synod. of its work during the past ten years. The Body ANGLICAN RITUALISTIC CONTROhad now in its hands a capital of £7,500,000, of VERSY. The controversy concerning the ritwhich £3,000,000 would be left after all claims ual, and with it the collateral question of the and annuities were fully discharged, for the jurisdiction of civil courts over ecclesiastical future re-endowment of the Church. Of this affairs, engaged attention in the Church of amount about £1,500,000 had been derived England above all other subjects. These quesdirectly from the composition of annuities, and tions, or points connected with them, were the about £2,000,000 from voluntary contributions subjects of numerous memorials to the bishops, made to church funds during the last eleven archbishops, convocation, and officers of the years. About £130,000 a year was provided Government, of many addresses and letters by by way of parochial endowment, which, with bishops, of public meetings, and of important parochial assessments amounting to £136,000, discussions in the convocations. would provide about £266,000 for clerical sus The Archbishop of Canterbury having intentation. About £12,901 per annum would vited those of the clergy who felt dissatisfied be secured for episcopal sustentation, and or alarmed at the present circumstances of the £25,000 would be set apart as the nucleus of a Church to state what they desired in the way fund to provide for aged ministers. Glebe- of remedy, the Dean of St. Paul's and about houses would be provided for 935 out of 1,140 three thousand clergymen and others addressed parishes, at a cost of £543,000. A resolution to him a memorial, as follows: was adopted looking to the revival of the bish First of all, and cspecially, we would respectfully opric of Clogher, which has been for a long express our desire for a distinctly avowed policy of time amalgamated with the primacy of Ar- toleration and forbearance on the part of our ecclesimagh.
astical superiors in dealing with questions of ritual. The British Government baving determined justice and by the best interests of religion. For jus
Such a policy appoars to us to be demanded alike by to discontinue the ecclesiastical subsidies which tice would seem to require that unless a rigid obscrvhad hitherto been paid out of the colonial ance of the rubrical law of the Church, or of recent revenues to the Church of England in Ceylon, interpretations of it, be equally exacted from all the requested the Bishop of Colombo to take steps from one party alone, and under circumstances which to have a trust body elected for the Church of often increase the difficulty of complying with the
demand. And, having regard to the uncertainties istration of the sacraments ought there to be granted which have been widely thought to surround some any toleration of the use of vestments and symbols recent interpretations of ecclesiastical laws, as well as avowedly introduced as exponents of doctrines which to the equitable claims of congregations placed in the we believe to be unscriptural, or which had been demost dissimilar religious circumstances, we can not but clared to be not in accordance with the plain intenthink that the recognized toleration of even wide tion of the articles and formularies of the Church of diversities of ceremonial is alone consistent with the England. We therefore respectfully but firmly eninterests of true religion, and with the well-being of treat your Grace to give no countenance to any atiempt the English Church at the present time. The imme to procure toleration for ritual practices, which for diate need of our Church is, in our opinion, a tolerant more than three hundred years, and until a very recent recognition of divergent ritual practice; but we feel date, were almost unknown to the Church of England, bound to submit to your Grace that our present and which, when submitted to the highest courts, have troubles are likely to recur unless the courts by which been declared to be contrary to the laws of the Church ecclesiastical causes are decided in the first instance, of the realm. and on appeal, can be so constructed as to secure the conscientious obedience of clergymen who believe the The archbishop, presenting the matter of constitution of the Church of Christ to be of divine these memorials before the Convocation of Canappointment, and who protest against the state's terbury, at its meeting February 8th, remarked encroachment upon rights assured to the Church of that there seemed to be a certain indefiniteness England by solemn acts of Parliament. We do not presume to enter into details upon a subject confessedly about those addresses which asked for a greater surrounded with great difficulties, bút content our amount of liberty in the matter of ritual, and selves with expressing an earnest hope that it may it seemed to have been overlooked that, while receive the attention of your Grace and of the bishops there was an innocent liberty, there was a libof the Church of England.
erty which degenerated into license. He had The archbishop replied to the memorial by no reason, however, to believe that those who republishing a letter which he had previously had asked this had any desire for the use in the addressed to Canon Wilkinson, in which he Church of England of any form of the Roman said :
Catholic communion which might be identified It is a peculiarity of the present troubles that the with the profession of Roman Catholic customs. clergymen who have fallen under the penalties of the The bishops in their dioceses, under whose julaw, in a way we all much regret, have come under risdiction these matters came, would not, he the authority of the Provincial Courts of Canterbury and York, as the result of their having positively supposed, be disposed to interfere with lawful refused to conform to the admonition of their bishops'; ornamental ritual not contrary to the doctrines and, indeed, so far as I know, no case of prosecution and principles of the Church of England; and for ritual has (at least for many years past) been he also supposed that the law was now so interallowed to proceed in the case of any clergy man who preted that great discretion was shown to be tainly may fairly be taken to show that there must be left to their lordships as to whether or not some exceptional difficulty in present arrangements prosecutions or suits against clergy in ritual when clergymen of otherwise unimpeachable character matters should proceed ; so that now the think it their duty to run the risk of having their use- bishops could refuse to sanction a mere vexaauthority of the law rather than yield to those set over tious attempt to interfere with a worship which them in the Lord that degree of willing obedience approved itself to the parishioners, and was which seems to most men to be enjoined alike by the not contrary to law. The did not think that traditions of their Church and the written words of the any more than this should be claimed, and it of the Church”), as wel” as by their promise of could not be expected that there would be any canonical obedience. I am quite sure I may under- legislation in the direction of legalizing those take for my brethren of the Episcopate that we are things which the Reformation had abolished. ready, very carefully to consider at the present junct- The convocation suggested a reference of the ure the grounds which appear to have led to so subject to a royal commission, and advised strange a result.
that authority be given to the bishops to settle The archbishop alluded to a petition em difficulties that might arise, and that they exerbodying the views of the memorialists, which cise such authority discreetly and kindly. had been presented to convocation in 1877, A memorial signed by nearly twenty-four referred to a committee, and reported upon by thousand laymen was presented to the Archthe same in 1879, and promised to call the at- bishop of Canterbury, April 2d, entering the tention of convocation to the report and the solemn and emphatic protest of the memorialsubject as soon as the forms of that body would ists against the toleration, within the Church allow. A memorial signed by several digni- of England, of any doctrines or practices fataries of the Church, among whom were voring the restoration of the Roman Catholic Bishops Perry and Ryan, and the Deans of mass or any colorable imitation thereof, any reExeter, Carlisle, Ripon, Chester, Gloucester, introduction of the confessional, or any assumpPeterborough, and Canterbury, was afterward tion of sacerdotal pretensions on the part of the presented to the archbishop, opposing the memorial of the Dean of St. Paul's and others. clergy in the ministration of the Word and sacThe signers of this address said:
The public attention was kept fixed upon the We have no desire to narrow the comprehensiveness ritualistic controversy by the proceedings in of the national Church, or to abridge that reasonable the courts in cases of ritual, by the fact of liberty which has always been conceded to churchmen in matters non-essential. We are, however, firmly the imprisonment of clergymen who had been convinced that neither in public prayer nor in adinin adjudged guilty of contumacy in violating the
law of ritual and in disregarding the inhibi- he was imprisoned in Lancaster Castle. Aptions of the courts, by the protests of the plication for a writ of habeas corpus with a friends of the imprisoned clergymen against view to his discharge was refused by the Court their imprisonment, by agitations for their re of Queen's Bench, April 6th. An appeal was lease, and by appeals to the public, the bishops, taken to the House of Lords and was dismissed, and the civil officers, in their behalf. The while the judgment of the Court of Arches was Rev. T. P. Dale, of St. Vedast's, London, and sustained. the Rev. W. R. Enraght, of Holy Trinity, Bor Mr. Green's case was taken up by the Endesley, had been imprisoned in 1880 for disre- glish Church Union, which represented that the garding monitions which had been served upon penalties to which he was subjected were inthem by the Court of Arches, ordering them ficted upon him because he obeyed his conto relinquish certain practices which had been science. It was said on behalf of the courts declared illegal by the Privy Council. They and the Church authorities that he could be both refused to submit to the decree of the released at any time upon his simply promising court, declaring that they could not do so to obey the writ of inhibition and to desist without violation of conscience. Mr. Dale from unlawful practices. The case was brought took an appeal, and was released pending the directly before the Convocation of Canterbury hearing of the appeal, promising as a condition at its session in July, when, an articulus cleri of his freedom that he would not conduct ser- having been adopted by the Lower House, ask. vices in his church, nor even attend the church ing the bishops to consider what measures could on Sunday. A release was offered to Mr. En- be taken with propriety to secure the release raght on the same conditions, but he refused of Mr. Green, the archbishop said that Mr. to accept it, on the ground that to do so would Green was in prison for refusing to obey the involve his obedience to the inhibition of Lord law, and he did not see how such a case could Penzance, a condition under which he would injure the Church. not rest for a longer or a shorter period, for it Mr. Green's counsel, Mr. Phillimore, pubwas the very ground of the contention. The lished a statement in August respecting his Bishop of Worcester was requested in January client's position, representing that the court for to take some steps to induce Mr. Enraght to contempt of which he was punished was one amend his conduct or resign his appointment that had been set up by Parliament only, withas an alternative to the bishop's taking a de out the approval of the clergy in convocation, cided course to uphold the authority of the and in the absence of any body through which Ecclesiastical Court. The bishop replied that the laity could make themselves heard — a he could see no reason to hope for such an end wholly secular, in no way spiritual authority, to the troubles as his correspondent desired. an authority of a kind which he could not conThe vicar had publicly declared his rejection scientiously allow to control him in the exerof all direction or control or advice from the cise of a purely spiritual function. To combishop, and the latter was not aware of any ply with the terms named as the conditions on power vested in a bishop by which he could which he could be released, would be to give uphold the authority of the Ecclesiastical Court. up his office and cease from ministering, at the Mr. Enraght was released from jail on account command of this secular authority-a thing of the detection of an error in the manner in he could no more do than the ancient martyrs which the writ against him had been dealt with could abjure their religion to avoid death. in the temporal court. Another order for his The Archbishop of York wrote to Mr. Green imprisonment was subsequently asked for, but in August, suggesting to him as a way in which he having taken an appeal to the House of he might obtain his release and perhaps save Lords, judgment on the application was post- future deplorable embarrassment without makponed. The appeal of Mr. Dale was dismissed; ing or causing any sacrifice of principles on but that clergyman having accepted an incum- either side, that he might write to his bishop bency outside of London, no further proceed- and express his readiness to abide by his supeings were had against him.
rior's advice in the matters about which the The case of the Rev. S. F. Green, of Miles suit had arisen ; adding that Platting, Manchester, attracted more interest than any other, and was the incident to which that your undertaking to act upon it would give the
It might be that the advice given would be such the agitations of the year most directly related. court an opportunity of relieving you from your presRitualistic practices were already observed in ent position, and that a clergyman could never rehis church when he took charge of it, and he proach himself for having done that which his very introduced others, with the approval of his ordination vows made a duty. patron and a majority of the congregation. A Mr. Green replied that to act as the archprosecution was instituted against him at the bishop suggested would be to adopt precisely instance of the Church Association; he was the course which he had rejected, he believed tried in the Court of Arches, inhibited, and on good grounds, two years before, and the assessed in costs. He refusing to pay the costs reasons now were as ten to one why he should or obey the inhibition, a bailiff was lodged in not do so. To surrender in the way his Grace his house. Afterward, on the 9th of March, a suggestedwrit de contumace was issued against hiin, and Would be simply to surrender the Prayer-Book.
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