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The State..



198 1.772 1,263


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of them are exhausted, and only one or two show signs of a failing supply. Large deposits of excellent iron-ore are being worked at Sa

194,619 154,869 89,870 lida, in Chaffee County; and in the San Luis Valley, in Las Animas, Boulder, Jefferson, El Arapahoe.

38,615 29.853 9,292 Paso, and Arapahoe Counties, there are im- Bent.


9,746 measurable stores of the metal awaiting future


6,510 5,247 demand. Even in the Leadville silver-mines, Clear Creek.

7,846 5,204 2,642 iron-ore is yielded, as an incidental product, in Conejos..

5,605 4,720

2,710 sufficient quantities to supply a large part of Custer..

8,032 7,009 1,073 the demand of the Pueblo Iron and Steel Works. Douglas..



1,709 1,889 820 Of oil-wells the State has at present but three

El Paso..


6,973 -one, nine miles south of Cañon City, 1,448 Fremont..

4,004 feet deep; one, six miles north of the same


6,139 3,774 2,715 city, now only eighty-five feet deep; and one

8,237 6,690 1,547 other, in the same vicinity, which was bored Hinsdale.. to the depth of 1,200 feet, and then abandoned, Jefferson..

6,510 5,560 1,250 .though not until oil was obtained in small quan

16,615 7,169 tities. It is the opinion of experts that great Larimer

4,892 oil discoveries are yet in store for Colorado.

8,904 The State is growing rapidly in agricultural


2,670 Park...


1,024 importance. The soil is naturally of high fer- Pueblo.

7,615 6,718 tility, and, through the cheap and effective

1,944 method of irrigation by which the farmer is


1,973 1,707 able to make a stream of water follow the plow almost at will, the risk of damage from long



5,646 4,918 droughts is reduced to a minimum. The wheatlands are made to yield twenty-five bushels to The population of the principal cities in 1880 the acre, and the luxuriantly growing native is here given: grasses furnish an abundance of excellent hay Denver.

35,718 | Trinidad.

2,226 and forage. The extremely cold weather of Leadville..

1,975 the winter of 1880-'81 caused an unprece

1,893 Colorado Springs. 4,279 Cañon City.

1,849 dented mortality among the herds of cattle on

3,317 Breckenridge the plains. Herdsmen estimate the loss at


8,210 South Pueblo
Boulder City..
3,176 Greeley.

1,303 nearly thirty-three per cent of the total stock Golden

2,781 Ouray.

1,004 in the State. The tax-list of 1880 showed a

Central City

2,626 total of 541,563 head of cattle in the State, The records of the Auditor of State show but, as it is well known that about one third the assessed valuation of Colorado for the year of the herds escape the assessor, the actual 1881 to be $96,059,985.48. The valuation of number was probably quite 850,000. The 1878 was $43,072,648.26; for 1879, $59,590,number at the close of the year 1881 was es- 761.30; for 1880, $73,050,761.89, showing a timated at not over 600,000, with a valuation steady annual increase of about thirty per cent. of $16,000,000. The early spring and fine The number of acres of assessable land in the summer enabled the stock-raisers to make up State is 2,155,340, which, with improvements, for their winter losses in the year's sales, which is valued at $15,168,790. The State Board of surpassed those of any previous year, the price Equalization, in April, increased the assessbeing 'from eight to twelve dollars higher per ment-rate on the main lines of railroads runhead than in 1880. Sheep also suffered se- ning through the State by $500 per mile. verely in the storms of March and April, from This makes the rate $6,500 per mile on broadforty to seventy-five per cent of the flocks gauge and $5,000 per mile on narrow-gauge perishing, according to location and the degree roads. With 1,584 miles of railroad in the of exposure. The estimated number of sleep State, this gives a valuation of $11,638,055. in the State is now 1,000,000, and their valuo The other items of the tax-list are as follows: is $3,000,000.

Merchandise, $6,674,322; capital and manuIt was believed that 100,000 buffalo skins factories, $865,626; town and city lots, $32,would come from the Yellowstone region in 910,993 ; horses, numbering 70,133, $2,732,568; 1881. This is without precedent in the fur mules, $458,128 ; asses, $6,558; cattle, numtrade. The last season 30,000 were received bering 411,970, $4,611,359; sheep, numbering from the same region. The winter of 1880-'81 634,542, which is far below the real number, having been very severe and long, immense $1,000,041; swine, $19,102; goats, $5,277; all herds of bison concentrated in the few valleys other animals, $30,247 ; musical instruments, where they could find subsistence. Their de $239,230; watches and clocks, $250,513; jewstruction continued during several months. elry, gold and silver plate, $106,866; money

The population of the State, by counties, and credits, $3,473,847; carriages and vehicles, with the native and foreign distinguished, as $767,753 ; household property, $607,138 ; ali returned by the census of 1880, is as follows: other property, $13,354,120; bank and other

1,628 1,413




shares, $882,780; insurance premiuins, $186, The railroad system and railroad business of 669. The number of business failures was 107, the State developed with surprising rapidity against 78 in 1880. The total liabilities were during the year. In the ten months ending $763,000, and the assets $502,000, a net in- November 30th, the Denver and Rio Grande crease in loss sustained of $57,000 over the road, the most important line in the State, laid preceding year. The increase in the number 629 miles of steel rails, and built 374 miles of of dealers was about one fourth. The total new road. In that period its net earnings State debt on November 30, 1881, was $330,- were $2,158,693, against $1,372,468 in the cor185.78, against which there was a balance in responding ten months of the preceding year. the Treasury of $15,064.97.

The Union Pacific Railroad's Omaha and DenThe following is a statement of the opera- ver Short Line was completed, bringing the tions of the State Treasury for the year ending two cities fifty miles nearer together than by November 30th, showing receipts amounting any other route. The wheat-crop of the State to $373,302.31, exclusive of cash in the Treas- was about 1,600,000 bushels, against 1,425,104 ury, and an expenditure of $395,384.33: in 1880, and 258,474 in 1870. Congress, by RECEIPTS.

various acts, has granted to the State of ColoBalance in Treasury on November 30, 1880. $67,146 99 rado 713,322 acres of land, divided as follows: Receipts of general revenue (four-mill tax).. 243,40 26 For internal improvement, 500,000 acres; for. Agricultural College (one-fifth mill tax). Insane Asylum (one-fifth mill tax).

11,543 69 public buildings, 32,000; State penitentiary, Mute and Blind (one-fifth mill tax).

12,3-4 48 32,000; State University, 46,080; miscellaneSchool of Mines (one-fifth mill tax).

12,350 58 Round-up and inspection, one mill on value, Deat

ous, including salt springs, 46,080; school lands,

3,737 20 57,152. For 420,596 acres of these lands the University of Colorado (one-fifth mill tax). 12,821 98

State has already received patents from the Military poll-tax (fifty cents per capita).

6,710 63 Penitentiary labor..

17,803 59 United States, and is in possession. State Board of Medical Examiners.

1,925 00 Colorado is becoming a favorite resort for Secretary of State, office-fees..

4,143 00 Sale of printed laws...

invalids, its many mineral springs and ex

1,119 90 Agricultural College receipts.

174 35 tremely salubrious atmosphere giving it a high Fines for violating fish law.

078 90 reputation among the world's sanitaria. The Sale of school lands..

10,909 75 Sale of lands for internal improvement

47 00 subjoined table gives the elevation above the Lease of lands for internal improvement.

2,350 95 level of the sea of some of the prominent towns Lease of land, interest on sales and interest on school investments...

15,597 14

in the State: Lease of other State lands. Colorado Land and Mineral Association.

Alamosa ...

7.000 Green Lake.... 10,000 Other sources....


11.044 Hot Sulphur Springs.. 7,715 Black Hawk

7,975 Idaho Springs.. 7,500 Total...

$140,449 80

5,586 Lake City.
9,674 Leadville..

10,205 Cañon City.

5,260 Magnolia.. Agricultural College.... $12,928 26 Caribou..

6,297 Agricultural College (special)

6,300 Montezuma..

10,295 Insane Asylum.

16,502 18 Cheyenne.


5.922 Mute and Blind. *2,617 18 Chicago Lakes.. 11.500 Nederland

8.268 School of Mines 12,858 00 Colorado Springs. 5,028 Oro ('ity.

10,217 University of Colorado..

12,500 00 Del Norte.

7,750 Ouray

7,640 Military poll-tax..

6,224 Pueblo..

4.679 Cattle round-up and inspection..

4,196 83 Divide.

7,210 Rosita

8.500 Penitentiary labor.

1.950 09 Estes Park.

8,000 Saguache. School-fund apportioned.

13,569 96
9,964 Silverton.

9,405 Interest on warrants paid.

17,840 92 Garland.

4,146 Sunshine..

7.000 Wolf-scalps

2.535 50 Georgetown.

8,400 Trinidad.

6,15 Hawk-heads

4,375 50 Golden..

6.729 Twin Lakes..

9,857 Mountain-lions.

Gold Hill.

8,463 Veta Pass.. Skunk-scalps...

49 75 Greeley..

4,776 Paid on account for general revenue and appropriations.

276,448 98 A system of sewerage, on what is known as Cash now in Treasury.

45,064 97 the Waring plan, has been begun in Denver, Total.....

$440,449 30 and is being rapidly pushed forward. The The following arrests were made by the Unit- death-rate of the city for the year was only ed States Marshal at Denver during the year:

17:50 per thousand; the total number of deaths Violation of internal revenue laws

was 698, divided, in respect to diseases and

27 Robbing United States mails..

3 causes, as follows: zymotic diseases, 213; conObstructing United States mails. Embezzling Post-Office funds..

istitutional, 148; local, 223; developmental, 27; Embezzling letters...

violence, 57. Forging signatures to money-orders..

COMMERCE AND FINANCE, AMERIOpening mail-bags... Sending obscene circulars through mails.

CAN, IN 1881. The grandeur of the present Breaking into United States Post-Office.

i epoch of American commerce and production Larceny on Indian reservation... Murder on Indian reservation...

can be measured by the magnitude of the agriEmbezzlement from army department..

2 cultural exports which are its chief cause and Embezzlement as Indian agent...

i characteristic. The total value of the exports of Perjury before United States Receiver of Land-Office. Bigamy:


breadstuffs for the three years ending June 30, Counterfeiting.

4 1881, was $749,470,445, having been $265,Cutting timber on United States mineral lands.

45 561,328 in 1881, $282,132,168 in 1880, and Total....

108 $201,776,499 in 1879. The exports of wheat

8415 55 552 65

5 86


9,905 Manitou

174 85


6.752 88

260 00

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and flvur were 185,000,000 bushels in 1881, lent in the first part of the year; and a net about 180,000,000 bushels in 1880, and 143,- importation of specie exceeding considerably 000,000 bushels in 1879, aggregating for the that of the first year of resumption. The exthree years 508,000,000 bushels, valued at cess of exports over imports exceeded that of $591,524,024. The exports of 1880-'81 thus any other year except 1878–’79. The imports exceeded those of the previous year, not with. exceeded in value, and greatly exceeded in standing the better crops in Great Britain and quantity, those of the years preceding the Western Europe. This was owing to the de panic, which consisted largely of railroad-iron, pletion of stocks as well as to an increase in etc., which left an adverse balance of unprececonsumptive capacity. A reputation for Amer- dented magnitude, and which, it was thought, ican brands of flour has been established in were far beyond the natural consumptive England with such success that 8,500,000 more powers of the people, and would not be equaled bushels of wheat were exported in the manu- again in many years to come. The export factured form in 1881 than in 1880. Prices movement was so heavy in the earlier part of ranged lower in 1881 than in the year preced- the calendar year, as soon as the railroads were ing, so that while the quantity exported was free from obstructions and the canals open, 5,500,000 bushels greater, the total value was that in the month of June they fell off nearly $13,000,000 less, or $211,277,588, against $224,- $9,000,000. The high price of provisions was 705,803 ; while the value exported in 1879 was the cause of much lighter shipments under only $155,540,633. A calculation of the aver- that head. The table on page 122 affords a age export prices gives $1.15 per bushel in comparative survey of the foreign trade move1881, $1.25 in 1880, and $1.09 in 1879. Wheat ments for the past twenty-one years. exports for the last six months of the fiscal Including the specie imports and exports, the year 1880-'81 were unusually large for that total foreign commerce of 1880-'81 amounted portion of the crop year, being 11,000,000 to $1,675,024,378. The increase of exports bushels in excess of the exports for the corre over those of the preceding year was $66,738,sponding half of 1879-'80. While the good 688. Since 1876, when the exports began to crops of the West of Europe did not, therefore, exceed the imports, the aggregate excess of lessen the demand for wheat, the exports of exports has been $1,180,668,105 for the six rye and oats showed a great falling off from years. The total value of the exports of dothose of the preceding fiscal years. The rye mestic merchandise in 1880-'81 was $883,exports were 1,928,355 bushels, against 2,912,- 925,947, exceeding those of the preceding year 744 bushels in 1880, and 4,848,249 bushels in by $59,979,594. The exports of breadstuffs, 1879; the oat exports, 358,250 bushels in $270,332,519; cotton and its manufactures, 1881, 710,890 in 1880, and 4,654,794 in 1879. $261,267,133; provisions, $151,528,268; minThe exports of Indian corn were about 91,000,- eral oils, $40,315,609; tobacco, $20,878,884; 000 bushels in 1881, against 98,000,000 in 1880, wood and its manufactures, $18,600,312; iron and 86,000,000 in 1879. The only cereal of and steel and their manufactures, $16,608,767, which the exports form a considerable portion and live animals, $16,412,398—constituted 90 of the crop is wheat. While the normal ex per cent of the total domestic exports, the eight port demand will probably prove considerably items summing up $795,943,890. The grain Iess when crops are fair in Western and Central exports fell below those of 1879—'80 $17,704,Europe, there must be a constant and increas- 316. In the exports of raw cotton there was ing demand for American wheat, which can be an increase of $36,159,841; in the value of much more cheaply grown on the prairie provision exports, $24,485,026 increase; in pehumus than on the heavy and manure-requir- troleum, $4,096,984; in tobacco, raw and manuing soils of Europe. If the American producers factured, $2,436,611 ; in wood manufactures can adjust themselves without hardship to the and timber, $2,362,932; in iron and steel and normal demand, there will continue in action a their manufactures, $1,892,243; in live anifavorable stimulus even after European rents mals, $530,278. A comparison of the returns have, to a considerable extent, vanished; while of 1880-'81 with those of 1870–71 shows that any cheapening in the cost of transportation over four fifths of the total increase, amountwill give the American producer a new ad- ing to considerably more than 100 per cent, is vantage. Counting the crop of 1880 at 480,- made up of the increased exports of bread000,000 bushels, the exports of 1880–81 consti- stuffs, provisions, and tallow, cotton, live anituted about 383 per cent of the total wheat mals, leather, and wood and manufactures product.

thereof. The increase in the annual exports The trade returns for the year ending June of these commodities in twenty years amounts 30, 1881, show a larger total commerce than to $374,059,476; and four fifths of this colany previous year; a larger exportation of lective increase is due to the increased exports merchandise by 8 per cent than the preceding of breadstuffs, provisions and tallow, and live year, the next largest on record, and 33 per animals alone. The products which have thus cent larger than the average of the last five swelled the export trade are chiefly products years previous; merchandise imports almost as of the Western and Northwestern States. The great as those of 1879-'80, when they were increase in the exportation of the products of stimulated by a mania for speculation preva- that part of the country is traced by the Chief

Value of Imports and Erports of Merchandise from 1861 to 1881, inclusive-Specie Values.


Total exports.


Excess of exports or imports.

Total imports and


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$508, 64,375 894.027,178 447,3061,962 47,255,271 404,774,83

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443,250,898 793,671,59 690,267.987 639.3 9.839 703,624,176 829,780,176

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Imports, $69,756,709
Exports, 1,813.824
Imports, 89,371,363
Imports, 157,609,-95
Imports, 72,716,277
Imports, $339,139,995
Imports, 67,627,965
Imports, 95,932,"44
Imports, 101.: 54.935
Imports, 76,433,341
Imports, 181,3-5, 682
Imports, 43,196.640
Imports, $437.266,262
Imports, 67,433,272
Imports, 77,409,506
Imports, 152,417,401
Imports, 119,656.259
Exports, 15,576.699
Imports. 19,562,725
Imports, $340,163,312
Imports, 76,032,062
Exports, 79,613,451
Exports, 151,152.094
Exports, 257,111,234
Exports, 261.61.666
Exports, 167,653,912
Exports, $920,955,987
Exports, 184,191,077
Exports, 259,712,718

963,043,562 1,070.772,663 1,164.616,182 1,133.€ 1,8-2 1,046,444,147

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$5,398 070,1-6


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1,001,125, 561 1,053,799,- 46 1,181,917.293 1,156,217.216 1,603,598,404

Total five years.



$5, S16,652,125 1,169,980,425

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of the Bureau of Statistics to the recent exten- there was a reduction of 39.45 per cent in the sion of railroads and the great reduction in the freight charges of those roads, and of 32:51 per cost of railroad carriage from the West to the cent on the rates of the New York canals, Atlantic sea-board. Of the total receipts of while the decrease in the average prices of the grain in 1880 at New York, Baltimore, Phila- prime necessaries of life in the same period was delphia, Boston, and Portland, amounting to only 12.32 per cent. The wheat exports have 319,696,057 bushels, 76.97 per cent was brought increased under these changed conditions from by rail, and only 22-24 per cent by the Erie $17,171,229 in 1870 to $167,698,485 in 1881; canal. The average freight-rates for trans- the value of maize exported, from $1,287,575 to porting gram from Chicago to New York for $50,702,669; of provisions, from $29,175,539 the last three years compared with the aver. to $151,528.268 ; of live animals, from $1,045,age rates for 1870, 1871, and 1872, show a re 039 to $16,412,398. The value of all the exduction in this charge of 9.8 cents on a bushel. ports of agricultural products in 1881 amountThe average reduction in the railroad transpor- ed to $729,650,016, an increase of $43,688,925 tation rates amounts to 14:4. The mean re over those of 1880. Their value constituted duction in the cost of carriage between the two 82.55 per cent of the total exports of domestic points is about 13 cents per bushel. This is merchandise. It was seven times the value of equivalent to 11.7 per cent on the export price this class of exports in 1850, nearly thrice the of wheat and 23:55 per cent on the export value of such exports in 1860, and more than price of Indian corn in 1881. According to the twice their value in 1870. The growth of the researches of Joseph Nimmo, Jr., Chief of the total export trade has been at about the same Bureau of Statistics, the tonnage on twelve of rate of progression. The ratio of agricultural the leading railway lines increased between products to the whole value of the exports 1873 and 1880 from 45,557,002 to 78,150,913 does not deviate, in comparing the years 1830, tons, or 71.5 per cent, while the freight re- 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1881, more than 3 ceipts increased from $112,004,648 to $143,- per cent. 388,178, or only about 28 per cent. The aver Of the total value of imports in the fiscal age rate per ton per mile was reduced from year 1881, aggregating $642,664,628, the im1.72 cent to 1.07 cent, a decrease of 39.5 ports of sugar and molasses constituted 14:53 per cent.

The tonnage transported on the per cent, amounting to $93,404,288; the value New York Central, Erie, and Pennsylvania of the imports of coffee amounted to $56,784,Railroads was three times as great in 1880 as 391, or 8-84 per cent of the total; of iron and in 1868, while the average freight charges were steel and manufactures thereof, to $46,439,747, 60 per cent less. Between 1870 and 1880 or 7-23 per cent; of silk, raw and manufactured,


Per cent of


Per cent of domestic ex ports.

Per Per

cent of cept of

imports foreign

and exports.




27.15 54.01 19.97 42.43 10.86 10.16 23.59 10.61 8.25 7.79 7.21 7.97 5.56 8.87 20.07 4.83 9.50 1.24 1.98 4.81 8.21 1:03

4.02 1.96 4.03 8.49 8.17

.90 2.92 8.03 2.08 8.47

1.80 1.81 1:02

• 17 1.84 1.30 1:04 10.69 1.26 2.80 . 10

1.22 92 1.42 101 1.20 2.21





-96 95

United States of Colombia..

.24 .95

93 1:03 1.13


92 .59 .30 .01 •50 • 200


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Hawaiian Islands.

. 50 • 45 .92



.80 26 72 .17

19 .33 .49 .18 .39

.06 .65 .60 .87

12 . 49 • 13 - 26 .88

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Central American states.

British Guiana..


. 20 . 22 .40 23

to $42,944,965, or 6.68 per cent; of chemicals,
drugs, dyes, and medicines, to $36,590,473, or
8.69 per cent; of the imports of cotton manu-
factures, and cotton, to $31,976,637, or 4.97 per
cent. The total value of these seven classes,
$349,000,895, constituted 54:30 of the total im- Great Britain and Ireland..
ports of merchandise.

· The excess of exports decreased in the last Dominion or Canada.
half of the calendar year, due mainly to the Cuba..
smaller supply of breadstuffs for exportation.

Belgium. The wheat crop, though only 400,000,000 bush- Netherlands els, against 500,000,000 in 1880, yielded about China 3 per cent more to the farmers. The total value of imports of merchandise British East Indies.

Spain.. entered for consumption in the United States

Japan. amounted to $650,618,999. The value of duti- Russia on the Baltic and White able merchandise amounted to $448,061,587.95; British West Indies. merchandise free of duty to $202,557,411. The total amount of duties collected upon imports Venezuela

Minor Spanish possessions amounted to $193,800,879, and constituted 43.25 Mayti per cent of the value of the dutiable merchan- Dutch East Indies dise entered for consumption. Of the total

British possessions in Australasia amount of duties collected on imports the Argentine Republic. duties on sugar and molasses amounted to

Uruguay $47,984,032, or 24•79 per cent; the duties on Porto Rico.. wool and woolen manufactures to $27,285,624, Hong-Kong..

Portugal... or 14:10 per cent; the duties on iron and steel and manufactures thereof to $21,462,534, or Sweden and Norway. 11:09 per cent; the duties on manufactures of British possessions in Africa.. silk to $19,038,665, or 9.84 per cent; the French West Indies. duties on manufactures of cotton to $10,825,- Russia on the Black Sea.. 115, or 5.59 per cent; the duties on flax and Dutch West Indies. manufactures thereof to $6,984,374.90, or 3.60 Chili... per cent. The duties collected on these six com- Newfoundland and Labrador. inodities and classes of commodities amounted Countries in Africa not named. to $133,580,347, and constituted 69.01 per San Domingo cent of the total duties collected on imports. Danish West Indies :

.07 There was collected at the port of New York Turkey in Africa.

.08 $136,211,127.38, or 70-28 per cent of the total British Honduras

Turkey in Europe. import duties received during the year by the Peru. Government. The aggregate balance of trade French possessions in Africa. in favor of the United States in the commerce French possessions, all other... of the year with those countries which received Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verd American exports in excess of the value of the imports from them, was $441,675,687. The Dutch Guiana. aggregate adverse balance in the commerce

All other countries in South with those countries from which the United spanish possessions in Africa...

America. States imported merchandise to a greater Minor British possessions.. amount than the value of the exports to them, Miquelon, Langley, and St. Pierre was $181,962,969. The countries which re Liberia.. ceived American exports largely in excess of Russia, Asiatic

Greenland, Iceland, and the Fatheir imports into the United States, are the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Nether- All other countries. lands, Germany, Russia, Spain, and Denmark.


100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 The countries the imports from which largely exceeded American exports taken by them, were Cuba, Brazil, India, China, Japan, Span The proportion of each of the principal seaish possessions other than Cuba and Porto ports in the total export and import commerce Rico, and the Dutch East Indies. The sub- of the year, as compared with 1879-'80, is joined table gives the percentage of the total shown in the table below, which gives the per. imports of the year furnished by each country, centage of each port in the total merchandise the percentage of the domestic exports taken trade each way. The gain of the minor ports by each, also the foreign exports, and the per- not named is explained by the increased cotton centage of each one in the total import and shipments. An increase in the imports of one export commerce of the United States, accord- or two lake ports in October was due to shiping to values :

ments of Canadian grain, attracted by the spec

- 10 .09 .48 09

.87 .87 .84 .83 .81

28 • 27 .27 - 26 - 24 • 24

23 • 19 • 19 -13 .12

11 08 -07 .07 .06 .06 06 05 05 05

19 . 17 . 29


. 19
. 10
• 10


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04 *02 -04



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