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4,775 115.019 283,181

11.55 56,937 16,316 22,936

89,653 40,026 156,110 851,070

9.31 89,795 16,711 12,348


57 106.816 44,129 86,400 24,706

The value of the imports from the United


1879. States it is impossible to determine with precision, Panama being a free port of entry, and Bark.


40.500 bales..

18.576 no official record being kept of imports there


59,466 to; but Consul Wilson estimates that value at Coffee .


191,561 $450,000 for the year mentioned. The commod- Indigo... .Zeroors..

7,439 .bags..

184.596 ities received from the United States are chiefly Rubber ...

.. bales..

16.860 canned goods, fruits, jellies, corn, beef, beans, Sugar.. ..bags..

15,011 etc.; bacon, hams, lard, butter, breadstutt's prints and other cotton fabrics. Since 1878 the

The quantities and destination of the coffee trade in American dry goods appears to have received at Panama from Central America greatly increased, from one half to two thirds (principally Guatemala and Costa Rica) in the of the entire quantity imported being of Ameri- first four months of 1879, were as follows:

DESTINATION. can manufacture, while formerly the supply was

Panama almost exclusively from Europe (Great Britain, South Pacific ports...

5,094 France, and Germany). Panama merchants Aspinwall...

Europe (by British steamers).. attribute this change to the present superiority Europe (by Gerinan steamers) of quality and style of the United States prod- Europe (by French steamers). ucts, together with their comparative cheap- United States (by American and British steamers).. ness, but more particularly to the quality and Total.....

.... 219,742 style, since they find our fabrics to be preferred The port of Aspin wall, with a population to all others, even at equality of prices. of some 3,000, imports now from the United

As all merchandise in transitu is carried States almost everything it requires of foreign over the Panama Railway, an idea of the extent production, except liquors and cigars. Heretoof the trade may be formed from the total fore, scarcely anything went from us save cottonnage of that line for the years 1876–79, as ton fabrics, and these under guise of a British shown by the following schedule:

brand! The value of the imports from the Unit

ed States, in 1879, was estimated at $800,000. MONTHS. 1876. 1877.

1879. The exports to the United States from As

pinwall, in 1879, were as follows: January 12,165 7,50846 14,20138 11,76128 February

8,91528 10,16227 12,62118 12,954% March.. 14,49438 18,17038 10,7658 14,853

$152,551 85 April.. 13,451 14,746 18,95748 Cocoa-nuts.

13,177 99 May. 11,8852 16,0957% 14,571 14,7261

1,392 27 June. 9,6713 11,291 18 12,2458

124,459 48 14,9033

Ivory-nuts July 8,7781% 12,043-0 11,91428

55,519 85 12,86927

Rubber. August.. 7,305,3 11,62833 11,1773 12,8792%

6,510 00

Tortoise-shell September.. 8,718 13,746% 11,079 12,214,6

Wood October 7,76618 12,0471% 13,97837 18,88537

1,513 60 November 6,91813 12,80223 12,07433 12,80618 Sundries.

86,614 14 December 8,09223 13,500 18,10015 12,45028


$891,511 40 Totals..... 113,78144 146,94299 152,4773% 161,74318 Cartagena, the finest and the only natural har

bor in Colombia, bas, besides its own local trade, Here follows a table exhibiting the quanti- that of the Sinu and Atrato Rivers, for which ties of the principal commodities received in it is the port of entry, and the prospect of contransitu at Panama from Central and South trolling before long much of the commerce now America and transported by the Panama Rail- carried on through Barranquilla. This diverway in 1877, 1878, and 1879:

sion will be effected by means of a canal which,






773 72

Old rope


Number of




Number of



tapping the Magdalena at Calamar, connects From examination of the foregoing statistics that river with the harbor of Cartagena, and the general impression derived would be that which, reopened to navigation by the national the trade between Colombia and the United and State governments, was under repairs as States is less than that between Colombia and early as 1879, by an American engineer, and Europe. But there are figures to demonstrate already navigable by craft of five feet draught. that such is in reality not the case.

For exThe cotton fabrics are almost exclusively from ample, let France and Great Britain be taken Great Britain and Germany: those from Man- as points of comparison, and we find the folchester alone, in 1878, were of the value of lowing elements: $100,000.* United States products are little in Colombia imported from Great Britain in 1878... $5,098,000 demand, and the few articles received are re

France * in 1878.... 5,104,000 garded as inferior to similar coinmodities from

the United States in 1879 5,585,000 Europe. French butter, for instance, brings Total....

$15,787,000 $1 per pound; American, but 60 cents. The

Colombia exported to Great Britain in 1878.. $4,534,000 imports and exports at Cartagena for the year

* France * in 1878..

2,592,000 ending August 31, 1879, were as below:

" the United States in 1879.. 7,187,000 IMPORTS. Total...

$14,813,000 Quantities

Thus our exports to Colombia were, though SOURCES. packages. (pounds).

slightly, in advance of those of either of the United States. 88,194 2,106,688 $210,058

other two countries; but we imported from Germany..

12,772 676,510 70,901 her more than both of the others together. England

17,507 1,313,106 290,542 France.

The chief imports by Colombia from all 7,148

479,864 99,182 Cuba.

552 93,130 18,433

three countries last mentioned were as folCuraçoa..

259 45,622 4,559 lows: Italy

16,560 401,164 8,053 Venezuela


COMMODITIES. Aspinwall.. 2,425 141,983

Great Britain. United States.


95,418 5,159,060 $737,559

Cotton fabrics...

$601,000 $3,606,000 $664,000 Linen fabrics

92,000 882,000 EXPORTS.

Woolen fabrics.

774,000 222,000

14,000 Wearing apparel..

753,000 162,000 76,000 Hardware and cutlery

90,000 11,200 DESTINATION.


Iron, wrought and packages. (pounds).


47,000 69,000 45,000

Leather and manufactures United States.. 884,800 3,279,688 $157,920 of...

50,000 1,026,000

82,683 Germany. 24,645 2,841.572 230,736 Arias, ammunition, etc.

48,000 466,000 England. 4,007 3,604,686 167,980

Earthen, china, and glass France. 1,417 101,400 4,264

64,000 85,000 52,000 Cuba.. 1,549 427,090 87,484 Machinery, etc.

23.000 289,000 Curaçoa. 8,084 16,036 785

Sundries.. Italy..

1,747,000 416,000 3,885, 117 3,880 248,400 7.476 Aspinwall. 10,688 150,858 7,543

Totals Costa Rica. 21,686 2,251.640

$5,104,000 $5,098,000 $5,635,000

17,469 Totals..

460,256 12,920,870 $631,557 Four lines of steamers make Panama their Through the port of Sabanilla the trade with terminal port, namely: 1. The line from Panthe United States is steadily increasing. The

ama to San Francisco; 2. That from Panama

to Central America and Mexico; 3. From value of the exports to the latter in 1879 was Panama to the South Pacific as far as Valpa$2,464,668, against $2,071,131 in the year im- raiso; 4. From Panama to Guayaquil. The mediately preceding, as follows:

two first-mentioned lines are owned and manCOMMODITIES. Quantities.

aged by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company,

of New York; the two latter by the Pacific Bark.. bales.. 80,893 $1,141,746 60

Steam Navigation Company, of Liverpool, Coffee


34,298 760,555 07 Hides

, loose.. 115,353 446.336 38 England. The line from Panama to San FranTobacco. bales.. 2,085

42,191 40 cisco runs two and, during the coffee season, Tobaccot..


5,103 Balsam, .boxes.. 743

25,281 95

three steamers a month each way, calling at Fustie.. .. tons.. 1,419

20,455 40 Punta Arenas, Costa Rica; La Libertad, SalRubber. .. bales..

2,547 00 .boxes.

vador; San José, Guatemala; Acapulco, Man

882 00 bales..

2,035 90 zanillo, San Blas, and Mazatlan, Mexico. The Cigars.


20 00 Mineral..

Central American and Mexican line runs three bags.

30 00 Ivory-nuts.. .bags. 691

6,534 30 steamers per month, each way, calling at Punta Dividivi.. .bags.. 157

860 00 Arenas, San Juan del Sur, Corinto, Amapala, loose.. 6,800

186 00

1,892 00

La Union, La Libertad, San José, Champerico, Cacao boxes..

2,400 50 Port Angle, and Acapulco. The line from packages..

9,733 46

Panama to the South Pacific runs weekly each Total..

$2,464,667 90 way from Panama to Callao, calling at the * A single Manchester firm, it has been said, sent to Me * About $1,000,000 of the imports from France were from dellin, in Colombia, prints of the value of $750,000 in the other countries and in transit through France; and perhaps

a like proportion of the exports to France were likewise for t shipped via New York for Europe without invoice. other countries.






Horns.. Cedar..


87 90

same year.

ports of Buenaventura, Tumaco, Guayaquil, upper and lower Magdalena. The Colombian Payta, connecting at Callao with their line to Guard, by their energy in forwarding these Valparaiso, and calling at eighteen different works, have increased their already numerous ports along the coast. The line from Panama claims to national recognition. They can justto Guayaquil runs one steamer per month, ly boast that their sappers are the best roadeach way, calling at Ballenita, Manta Bahia, makers in the country; five hundred and sixty Esmeraldas, Tumaco, Buenaventura.

of these are now working on the Girardot and The port of Aspinwall is visited by steamers Cauca lines. Engineers are now surveying the making seventeen regular monthly arrivals and railways of Subachoque, Samacá, and Pacho, as many departures, as follows:

in the valley of the Andes, and the reports al1. The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, ready furnished on the first two are highly from Southampton ; nine steamers; four arri- satisfactory. That of Samacá, which is the vals per month.

joint work of the national and of the local 2. The West India and Pacific Steamsbip government of Boyacá, is spoken of as “an Company, from Liverpool; twelve steamers; honor to America." The Scientific Exploratwo arrivals per month.

tion Commission, instituted by legal appoint3. The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, ment, is now fully organized, and will shortly from St. Nazaire and Havre; three steamers initiate its valuable investigations. The dredgper month.

ing and deepening of the river Magdalena are 4. Hamburg American Line, from Hamburg; progressing rapidly under the favorable auspices seven steamers; two arrivals per month. of scientific organization and ample funds.

5. Harrison Line, from Liverpool; sixteen The national elections for the renewal of the steamers; one arrival per month.

legislative and executive staff, as well as those 6. Atlas Steamship Company, from New for the partial renewal of a part of the staff of York; two arrivals per month.

government officials in some of the States, 7. Pacific Mail Steamship Company (Amer- have now taken place, and have been characican); three steamers per month from New terized throughout the republic by perfect York.

freedom of expression and tranquillity. Dr. Of the seven lines but one is American. Zaldua is the Federal President-elect of the

The shipping movements at the port of Car- Congress, and he will be supported by able tagena for the year ending August 31, 1879, representatives of every shade of political were as follows:

opinion. The result of the elections may be regarded as highly favorable to the existing national policy of the present Government. This sketch of political consolidation, and of slow but sure industrial and scientific develop

ment, is not without its draw backs. The in5,006

5,006 155 153,678

habitants of the towns south of the Tolima,

and some in the center of Cundinamarca, are The number of passengers carried by the experiencing the ravages of small-pox; while Panama Railway in 1876 was 22,940; in 1877, the locusts, which have not yet abandoned the 22,110; in 1878, 24,921 ; and in 1879, 23,729. Atlantic coast, still desolate the Cauca, and

There were, in 1880, 1,850 miles of telegraph have appeared on the other side of Chicamocha, in the republic, the number of dispatches hav- in the State of Santander. The seaport town ing been 150,204. The post-office returns for of Buenaventura was almost completely de1879-'80 were as follows: Letters, 463,832; stroyed by fire in April, 1881. printed matter, 413,350 packets.

COLORADO. The Legislature met on JanIn the department of public instruction the uary 4th and adjourned on February 15th. In spirit of reform persists with its characteris- his inaugural address Governor Pitkin called tic energy. An industrial feature has of late attention to the mistaken policy of mining been imparted to the educational system, for corporations in issuing an excessive amount of the development of knowledge in the direction capital stock, that practice having a tendency of technical professions; and the conversion to create a prejudice against mining investof all the higher schools into schools of mines, ments. Upon the subject of Chinese immigracommerce, and agriculture is seriously talked tion and the Chinese residents of Colorado he of in the right places.

spoke at considerable length and with much The construction of the four national rail- earnestness, dwelling upon the unwholesome ways is being assiduously carried on, writes a social and personal habits of the Chinese, and native journalist. The Honda and Girardot upon the evil consequences of bringing their lines are far advanced. The Honda section labor into competition with American labor. avoids the falls of Magdalena River, and will He deprecated violent outbreaks, such as ocbe the first whose valuable services will be curred in Denver in the fall of 1880, but deavailable. The link line which has been run clared that the State, through its Legislature, along the east bank of the Magdalena is now should unite with the Pacific coast States in completed, and is already rendering important demanding congressional action prohibiting aid as a means of communication between the further Chinese immigration. He referred to














101 101


the death of Lieutenant-Governor George B. the people. The Constitution of 1876 contained Robinson, who died on November 29, 1880, a provision that the capital should be at Denhaving been shot by mistake by one of the ver until the first general election of 1881, when armed guards stationed at his mine, as sug- the electors of the State should by ballot desiggesting the propriety of some legislative re nate their choice for the permanent seat of striction upon the power of private corpora- government. The total vote on the capital tions to employ armed guards for the defense question was 45,497, of which 695 were cast of their property. He thought it would be for Salida, 2,788 for Canton City, 4,790 for wise to impose a severer penalty upon persons Colorado Springs, 6,047 for Pueblo, and 30,guilty of “mine-jumping,” which would in 248 for Denver, which city, having thus repart remove the necessity for armed guards. ceived a majority of all the votes cast, became He recommended the establishment of a re- the permanent seat of the State government. form school for boys in connection with a The vote for Governor in the election of 1880, State farm.

as officially declared in the Legislature, was: Very few important bills were passed by the Frederick W. Pitkin (Republican), 28,465 ; Legislature. Some local feeling was excited Hough (Democrat), 23,547. Owing to the over a new apportionment law passed near death before his inauguration of the Lieutenthe close of the session, in which the ratio of ant-Governor-elect, George B. Robinson, the representation in the State Legislature was Lieutenant-Governor of the previous adminisfixed as set forth in the following sections: tration, H. A. W. Tabor, continues to fill that

Section 2. The ratios for the senatorial apportion- position. In 1880 the vote for Garfield was ment shall be : First, one Senator for the first 5,000 27,450, Hancock, 24,647; Garfield's majority, population ; second, one Senator for each 9,000 popu- 1,368. lation thereafter, with one Senator for fractions over

By the removal of the Utes and the Uncom7,000 population.

Sec. 3. The ratios for representative apportionment pahgre Indians from the Colorado reservation shall be : First, one Representative for the first 1,000 to Utah the State is rid of several thousand population ; second, one Representative for each 5,000 very undesirable denizens, and vast tracts of population thereafter, with one Representative for frac- the most fertile lands in Col do are made tions over 3,000 population.

available for settlers. By the terms of the The representation of certain counties was fur- agreement between the United States and the ther specifically prescribed in the bill. Ara- confederated bands of the Utes, as set forth in pahoe County was allowed eight Representa- the act of Congress approved June 15, 1880, it tives and Lake County four, the former having is provided that “the Southern Utes agree to & population of 38,607, and the latter 23,787. remove and settle upon the unoccupied agriIn behalf of these counties there were many cultural lands on the La Plata River in Coloprotests against the reapportionment. A law rado, and if there should not be a sufficiency of was passed forbidding, under severe penalties, such lands on the La Plata River and in its ang person to engage in, promote, or aid any vicinity in Colorado, then upon such other unlottery, gift-enterprise, or any similar scheme occupied agricultural lands as may be found on in the State, or to advertise in a newspaper or the La Plata River or in its vicinity in New otherwise any matter relating to a lottery. A Mexico." As no such quantity of lands as was law was also passed authorizing the Governor contemplated in this agreement could be found to appoint a State Fish Commissioner, with a in the locality indicated, its terms were changed salary of $500 per annum, holding office for and the Indians were induced to consent to a two years, and the sum of $2,500 was appro- transfer to equally fertile and desirable lands priated to purchase grounds and erect a build- in the Uintah reservation in the Territory of ing for a fish-hatchery. For the expenses of Utah. The Ute Indian Commissioners, Messrs. maintaining the hatchery during the year end- Mears, Russell, and McMorris, had several paring June 1, 1882, the further sum of $3,500 leys with the braves in the course of the sumwas appropriated, and for the second year mer, and found them not disposed to keep their $3,000. Under this law the Governor appoint- agreement. The commissioners named the 25th ed Wilson E. Sisty to be Fish Commissioner. of August as the day for removal. The White A fish-hatchery was erected on the river Platte, River Utes went peaceably enough, but the about three fourths of a mile from Denver. Uncompahgres were inclined to fight. Under It was opened on the 14th of December and the orders of the Secretary of the Interior, the stocked with 400,000 brook-trout eggs from assistance of General McKenzie and a force of the Old Colony trout-ponds at Plymouth, Mas- 800 troops was invoked by the commissioners. sachusetts. The hatchery has fifteen troughs, Though they outnumbered the white troops with a capacity of 1,000,000 eggs.

and were equally well armed, the Indians deThere were no political conventions held cided to obey, and on the 28th they started for during the year, and no general election took the Utah reservation. During the autumn place, the balloting on November 8th being months there was a good deal of complaint that for district judges, district attorneys, and in the Indians returned to the valleys of the La one district (the sixth) for State Senator. At Plata and Uncompahgre Rivers to hunt, and this election the question of the permanent lo- that they annoyed settlers and interfered with cation of the State capital was submitted to the surveys of the Utah extension of the

Denver and Rio Grande Railroad then going view to a production within reasonable limits, forward. This matter was the subject of a but constant, rather than in the foolish bope correspondence between Governor Pitkin and of sudden and enormous gains. Instead of isSecretary Kirkwood. The Secretary called at- suing an excessive amount of capital stock and tention to the fact that as yet settlers have no trying to pay a dividend on the first batch of rights upon the old reservation lands, for the ore smelted, mine-owners are now beginning protection of which they can properly invoke to put faith in the wiser policy of moderate the aid of the Government, as those lands have capitalization, with a sufficient amount paid not yet been formally opened for settlement. up to develop the mine and put it in order Nevertheless, white settlers flocked upon them for uninterrupted and productive working. In as soon as the Indians retired, and for the most fissure-mining, for instance, experience has part the issuing of patents will be subsequent proved that a manager can not undertake to to taking possession. In the valleys of the pay dividends before the shaft has been sunk streams on the reservation there is land enough 500 feet, with four or five levels at intervals of for 1,500 ranchmen and stockinen, and the from 75 to 100 feet; and, until adequate boistgreat fertility of the soil, the mildness of the ing and pumping machinery has been provided, climate, the abundance of fruit, vegetables, for- and a large reserve of ore is on hand or in age, fish and game of all kinds, will cause the sight, no prudent manager will attempt to diwhole region to be rapidly peopled. But few vide any money among the share-holders. It Indians now remain in Colorado, and these are was through following the old, reckless methin such close proximity to the whites, in the ods of mining development that the state of extreme southwestern portion of the State, that things described in the following paragraph there is very little fear of any disturbance from from an article in a Denver newspaper was them. The Uintahs and White River and Un- brought about: compahgre Ctes are now located together along

The records of each mining county, and those of the Vintah River in Utah.

the Secretary of State, are burdened with mining corIn the annual report of the Director of the porations with capital' stocks ranging from ten thouMint, Colorado is credited with a production of sand to twenty million dollars. Outside of Leadville $3,400,000 in gold and $15,000,000 in silver for very few of these have paid any dividends at all. It the fiscal year ending June 30, 1881, a total of never will pay dividends as at present organized and

is safe to estimate that ninety-five hundredths of them $18,400,000. The production of the previous conducted. Å large proportion of them are conceived fiscal year was somewhat larger, being $3,200,- in fraud and full of iniquity from top to bottom. A 000 in gold and $17,000,000 in silver, a total of great many are dangerous schemes, to be avoided by

honest men. $20,200,000. Local estimates put the total bullion product of the calendar year 1881 at The horizontal veins in the vicinity of Lead$23,500,000, of which more than half, or $13,- ville have thus far yielded large returns. It is 170,576, was turned out by the smelting-works the opinion of the State Geologist that upright in and about Leadville. There was more hard, or inclined fissures will ultimately be found in intelligent, and well-directed work done in the the granite formation beneath the volcanic mines of Colorado in 1881 than in any previous rock in which ores are now being mined. year. The falling off in the out-put was due This theory is confirmed by discoveries lately to failure of one or two leading mines pre- made in various parts of the State. Some of viously yielding large amounts of ore, and the the telluride veins are of enormous richness. closing of half a dozen others through the in- One mine yielded ores which, for nearly two cessant flow of water in their best workings. years, gave an average of over five thousand Some new mines were opened, but nothing in dollars per ton in gold, and some ores yield as the nature of a “bonanza” was brought to high as eighty dollars per pound. light. A more serious falling off in the aggre Coal, iron, and petroleum are now among gate production was prevented only by a bet- the products of Colorado, the two former beter system of working existing mines, the avoid- ing turned out in considerable quantities. At ance of wasteful methods, and a more careful Rico, coking coal of a high quality is found in attention to small results. By the use of bet- great abundance. A valuable lignite is proter machinery the cost of treatment was in duced at Como, in the South Park; and unmany cases materially reduced ; grades of ore limited quantities of anthracite and bituminous which were formerly considered worthless, and coal are found at Gothic, Irwin, and Rugby were thrown into the waste-dumps or left in mining-camps. The lignitic coals, found in heaps in the mines, were taken out and treated the northern part of the State, are very dense, with fair profits. Not only in and around jet-black in color, of a high luster, and without Leadville but throughout the mining districts any fibrous or woody structure. They have an there was evidence that the era of wild specu- average specific gravity of 1:33, are remarkably lation and extravagant expectations is rapidly free from sulphur, the average admixture not passing away. There is a growing disposition exceeding one per cent; and they burn readily to take a more sober and sensible view of the and freely, with a high heating power, and a business of mining, to be content with returns small residuum of ash. Some of the mines which would be recognized as liberal in any from which these coals are obtained have been other business, and to manage a mine with a worked continuously for twenty years. None

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