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eral convicts, it is put down for the most part mer, with warm rains, and a warm, unclouded as “good.” Out of 53 employed by the New- fall, which perfectly ripens while thoroughly castle Coal Company, the conduct of every developing sweetness. The amount of taxes one is reported "good.” Out of 46 employed received into the State Treasury for the year by C. T. Pollard, only 2“ bad” are reported for ending September 30, 1881, was $562,500. the two years. Out of 87 employed by Colo. This sum consisted entirely of taxes on real nel T. Williams, the report for the two years and personal estate. About one half the shows 28 “bad.” The number of deaths dur- amount was paid by the eleven counties of ing the two years was 60; number escaped, Montgomery, Dallas, Mobile, Lowndes, Hale, 26; number discharged by the expiration of Bullock, Wilcox, Perry, Pike, Marengo, and sentence, 274; number pardoned, 29. Among Lee. The board for the assessment of the railthe deaths was one suicide. A necessity has road property in the State increased the valualso arisen for the enlargement of the Insane ation over the preceding year by $2,068,695. Asylum, and the Legislature appropriated for The amount of additional revenue which the that object $50,000 for two years.

State will receive from this increase is $13,446. The supply of coal and iron in the State is The assessment made for 1877 was $10,627,comparatively inexhaustible. During the last 559. For the year 1878 it was $10,297,023. ten years the iron industry has increased about For the year 1879 it was $11,023,389. For 700 per cent. The production of coal has also the year 1880 it was $14,526,769, and for the increased with great rapidity. In 1874, 49,889 year 1881 it is $16,595,462. In the last three tons were mined; in 1878, 194,268; in 1879, years, therefore, the tax valuation of the rail200,000 tons; while in 1880 the aggregate ran road property of the State has increased very up to 340,000 tons. This growth has been nearly 60 per cent. The amount of revenue made in the face of many obstacles, the chief the State will derive from the roads this year of which was the want of railroad facilities, and will be $120,271, which is about one sixth of a general impoverishment of the people by the the entire sum derived from taxation on proplosses of the war. The value of the output in erty. If all other property in this State was 1880 was $2,000,000, while it is believed the taxed as near to its value as the railroads, the year 1881 will show a product in Alabama of revenue would be much larger than it is, and $3,000,000. In various localities of the State there would be no difficulty in lessening the the manufacturing industry is rapidly increas- rate of taxation. ing, and the abundant water-power brought The population of the State, according to into use. Numerous cotton-mills have been the census of 1880, divided into several classes, constructed and are in operation; likewise oil- has not yet been fully compiled at the Census works, blast-furnaces, etc. The number of Office. The following is the population by spindles used in cotton manufacture in the counties. State is 55,072, and the number of bales of

Population. | COUNTIES.

Population. cotton used during the census year was 14,887. Autauga.....

13,108 Jackson...

25,114 The acreage of cotton in the State during the Baldwin..

8,603 Jefferson..

28,272 same year was 2,329,577 acres, and the num

9,487 Lauderdale.

21,035 ber of bales made by the crop was 699,576, Blount.

15,869 Lawrence

21,891 which is an increase of 62.9 per cent, or 270,

29,066 Lee.


19.649 Limestone 094 bales, over the crop of 1870, that amounted

19,591 Lowndes. to 429,482 bales. There are 32,000,000 acres

23,440 Macon

17,871 of land in the State, of which about 14,961,

87,625 10,793 Marengo.

80.690 175 acres are in farms, 5,082,204 are under Choctaw cultivation, 9,878,971, owned by individuals,

17,806 Marshall Clay..

12,988 | Mobile. lying idle for want of some one to cultivate Cleburne..

10,976 Monroe them, and 5,200,000 acres of government lands, Coffee.

8,119 Montgomery

52,356 which yield no taxes. Continuous effort is

16,153 Morgan.
12,605 Perry..

80,741 made to have the Legislature publish these facts in the interest of immigration, and as the Covington..

5.639 Pike. 11,726 Randolph.

16,575 State had (September 30, 1880) $286,990.14 Cullman..

24,837 in the vaults of the Treasury, a call was made

12,677 St. Clair..
48,433 Shelby..

17,236 upon legislators to use part of this sum in de

26,728 veloping the agricultural interests now lying Elmore

17,502 Talladega.


Escambia dormant. Immigrants in the north of Alabama

5,719 Tallapoosa

23,101 15,398 Tuscaloosa.

24,957 have increased taxes so largely that they will Fayette.

10,135 Walker.... in a year or two swell the Treasury receipts

9,155 Washington.. $10,000. In that section grape-culture is the

4,203 principal business. An acre of cuttings will in

18,761 Total...... two and a half years yield 200 gallons of wine. Henry

1,262,505 The soil, like that of California, seems pecul The population, valuation of property, and iarly adapted to the grape, possessing chemical debt, of some of the cities, were as follows: and physical qualities that insure success. The Mobile, population, 31, 205 ; valuation, $12,climate also conspires to growth-a dry sum- 991,795; debt, $2,609,250. Montgomery, pop


83,979 Lamar..




21,600 $1,176

19,108 Madison..




9,864 14,585 48.6.13 17,091




15,113 Pickens.

21,479 20,640

6,855 Russell.



12,675 Sumter

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alation, 16,714 ; valuation, $5,506,994; debt, District. $559,650. Selma, population, 7,529 ; valua

Gillette, Republican.....

5,595 I. Herndon, Democrat.

1.000 tion, $2,500,000; debt, $323,609.

Threatt, Republican.

2,303 The vote the State at the presidential elec

Mott, Greenback

730 Strobach, Republican.

8,54 tion in 1880, according to the returns of the II. Herbert, Democrat.

13,271 Secretary of State, was as follows:

Townsend, Greenback.

52 Mabson, Republican.

6,636 III. Oates, Democrat.

Hancock. Garfield.
Zachary, Independent.

69 Smith, Republican...

6,650 Autauga.

IV. Shelley, Democrat.

9,301 Baldwin

Stevens, Colored Republican..

1,633 Barbour

2,773 1,200


v. No opposition.... Bibb..

• Williams, Democrat.

9,219 Blount..


No opposition..

VI Hewitt, Democrat.

10,043 Butler.

Clements, Democrat.

9,973 Calhoun


Bingham, Republican.

5,111 Chambers.

Forney, Democrat..

12,553 Cherokee.


| Lowe, Republican...

12,765 Chilton

7 Wheeler, Democrat.

12,808 Choctaw,


820 702 Clarke.


The vote for State officers at the same elecClay


52 174 Cleburne.

tion was as follows: 904

117 Coffee

764 Colbert. 1.287 1,072 167


H. M. Judge, Greenback.

87,618 Coosa.

W. W. Screws, Democrat.

121,875 Covington..

Turpin, Greenback...

975 Crenshaw.


231 Cullman




294 Dallas

Paul L. Jones, Greenback... 1,794

25,691 1,108 DeKalb. 759

H. C. Tompkins, Democrat..

121,375 Elmore.

1,467 1,889



22 Etowah.

1,217 847

William T. May, Greenback......

38,009 Fayette.

J. H. Vincent, Democrat....

121,701 Franklin.




6 Greene..

J. H. Cowen, Greenback...

89,852 Hale.

J. M. Carmichael, Democrat

124,781 Henry


278 Jackson

2,059 599 956 Jefferson..


ALASKA. Some important facts respectLauderdale.

1,743 1,228

88 ing the population and resources of Alaska Lamar..


172 Lawrence. 1,555

have been obtained by the late agent, Mr. Ivan

1,414 558 Lee...


Petroff, for taking the census of that region. Limestone

1,600 1.623

56 The entire Alaskan country as far north as the Lowndes.


2,899 Macon..


Yukon was examined, and tabulated reports Madison...

2,808 8,062 439 are given, village by village, of the inhabitants. Marengo.


1,625 Marion


The people of the Territory may be divided as Marshall


follows: 1. The Innuit or Esquimau race, which Mobile.

3,784 3,239 201 Monroe.

predominates in numbers and covers the littoral 1,087

821 Montgomery.


5,469 89 margin of all Alaska, from the British boundMorgan.

1,420 644 275 ary on the Arctic to Norton Sound, of the lower Perry..

2,278 2,082 Pickens.


Yukon and Kuskokvim, Bristol Bay, the AlasPike.. 2,827

kan Peninsula, and Kodiak Island, inixing in, Randolph.


456 Russell

also, at Prince William Sound. 2. The Indians 1.678

1,402 Shelby


proper, spread over the vast interior in the St. Clair..


north, reaching down to the sea-board at Cook's Sumter

1,787 1,897 Talladega

1,639 1,757


Inlet and the mouth of Copper River, and Tallapoosa


lining the coast from Mount Saint Elias southTuscaloosa..

1,856 807 Walker


ward to the boundary, and peopling AlexWashington.


61 ander Archipelago. 3. Least in numbers, but Wilcox 1,565 1,264

first in importance, the Aleutian race, extendWinston


ing from the Shumagin Islands westward to Total

56,221 4,642 Atto-the ultima Thule of this country. The

grand total of population is: whites, 392; The Legislature chosen at the same election creoles, 1,683; Aleuts, 2,214; Innuits of Kowas composed, in the Senate, of 33 Demo- diak, 2,196 ; of Togiak, 1,826 ; of Bristol Bay, crats; in the House, 94 Democrats, 4 Inde- 2,099; of Kuskokvim, 3,505; of Yukon, 3,359; pendent Democrats, 1 Greenbacker, and 1 of Behring Sea, 1,533 ; of the Arctic coast, Republican.

2,990; Indians, 8,401—total, 30,178. The State was entitled to eight members of ALEXANDER, E. B., died March 15, 1881, Congress, and the vote at this election was as being a colonel in the United States Army. follows:

This meritorious officer, of whose death the



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War Department was informed, became gray that of a grand duke in a collateral line, which in the service of the Union. He was weil seemed his destined lot when in the cradle. known throughout the country, but more par- His earliest training was directed by his ticularly in Missouri, having filled the office of mother, Alexandra Feodorevna, a sister of the Provost-Marshal-General of that State in an present German Emperor; but his father soon able, firm, and upright manner. His head- withdrew bim from the care of the mild, requarters were in St. Louis in the year 1865. fined Czarina, and sought to inculcate in his Colonel Alexander belonged to the old-school beir the thoughts and ways of a soldier. The class of army officers, and, like many others, gentle, kindly, easy-going character of the was outstripped in the race for rank by junior Czarevitch, different from the arbitrary and officers who entered the lists full of ardor and passionate temper usually characteristic of the vigor at the outbreak of the civil war. He Romanoff family, afforded poor material for a commanded the l'tah Expedition until relieved military martinet. His tutor, the poet Shuby General Johnston, when Grant, Sherman, kofsky, instilled in him a love of literature and and McClellan were simply lieutenants, and the contemplative science in vogue in Gerhis service extended through a period of forty many. He was endowed with the linguistic years. Graduating at the West Point Military talent of bis race in a marked degree, and acAcademy, June 30, 1823, he was the next quired a familiar acquaintance with the prinday promoted brevet second-lieutenant of the cipal modern languages. The ceremonial obSixth Regular Infantry, and on the 25th of servances, incumbent on the heir to the throne December, 1827, was made a full lieutenant and nominal commander in the army, formed He attained the rank of captain of the Third the chief part of his public activity. At the Infantry, July 7, 1848; was brevetted major, age of sixteen he was declared of age, and apApril 18, 1848, for gallant conduct in the bat- pointed Iletman of the Cossacks and Comtles of Contreras and Churubusco. At the mandant of the Guards. In 1836 and 1837 he close of the Mexican War he was promoted to traveled through Northern Russia and Siberia, be colonel of the Tenth Infantry, after which where he procured the alleviation of the hard he served the Government at Santa Fé, New lot of political exiles. In 1839 and 1840 he Mexico, and other points. At the beginning visited various countries of Europe. In 1841 of the civil war, Colonel Alexander was sta- he was married to the Princess Maximiliane tioned at Fort Laramie, and offered his ser Maria of Hesse (see MARIA ALEXANDREVNA vices, and that of his regiment which was in “Annual Cyclopædia” for 1880). From much devoted to him, again and again to the this marriage came six sons (the Grand Dukes Government, but was retained on the frontier Nicholas, Alexander, now Alexander III, on account of his influence with the Indians. Vladimir, Alexis, Sergins, and Paul), and MaIn the spring of 1863 he was ordered to St. ria, now Duchess of Edinburgh. In the folLouis as Acting Assistant Provost - Marshal- lowing years he traveled in Southern RusGeneral, the business of which office was to sia, the Caucasus, and Armenia. On one of superintend the district provost-marshals, to his tours he took part in an expedition against be informed on the condition of the State, a tribe of Circassian robbers. He held the execute the draft, arrest deserters, and to post of Director of the Military Schools, but superintend the mustering, in and out, of the the duties were performed by his assistant, troops. This duty was usually assigned, in General Rostoftsef, who afterward took a the respective States, to old and tried army prominent part in the emancipation of the officers, and Colonel Alexander's performance serfs. The Czarevitch was president of one of of it, in a manner at once able, honest, and the commissions appointed to inquire into the faithful, is well attested. After a life of un- condition of the serfs, but gave little attention questionable integrity and devotion to duty, to the investigation, and favored rather the this lamented soldier was in 1869 placed upon proprietors than the peasantry. Nicholas was the retired list, having been breveited a briga- disappointed in his son, who was overawed by dier-general for his services in recruiting the his father, as was nearly every one who came army during the war.

in contact with that majestic autocrat. “My ALEXANDER II, Emperor of Russia, was son Shasha is an old woman,” Nicholas once assassinated by Nihilist conspirators, March said ; " there will be nothing great done in his 13th, at St. Petersburg. Born April 29, 1818, time.” Had he not wisely kept aloof from Alexander Nicolaevitch's prospects of succeed: state affairs, Alexander, from his very differing to the throne seemed the remotest possible. ent habits of mind, might bave given his Four years afterward his uncle Constantine in father a better opinion of his strength of charfamily conclave renounced the succession, and acter by coming into unhappy conflict with in his seventh year Alexander I Pavlovitch the "Iron Czar." He is said to have earnestly died in the prime of his life, murdered it is protested against the advance on Turkey in supposed, and was succeeded by Nicholas, the 1853. The military schemes of Nicholas, to third son of Paul I. The infant Alexander, which he had sacrificed all the best interests the Czar's eldest son, was now heir-apparent, of the empire, came to naught, and the Embut, during the thirty years of his father's peror died of shame and disappointment after reign, his life was almost as unimportant as the loss of the Crimean War. Alexauder II

mounted the throne of the exhausted empire The courage with which he persisted in the reon March 3, 1855.

actionary policy, offending the most intelligent The spread of education in Russia had as section of the people, and standing in hourly its concomitant an extension of liberal ideas. danger of assassination, was equal to that with The impressionable religious character of the which he had faced the wrath of the aristocRussian mind causes a reform movement in racy in abolishing serfage. He probably made Russia to rapidly break out of the bounds up his mind tardily that the autocratic princiof the timely and the practicable. Relieved ple was essential to the unity and happiness of from the repressive tyranny and the military Russia, and that he had imperiled it and must code of the reign of Nicholas, Young Russia rescue it at all hazards. The heterogeneous indulged in dreams of social regeneration races in Europe and Asia, standing on very which were too bright to be realized. The different planes of civilization, could hardly be new Czar was in thorough sympathy with the made the recipients of equal rights of repreprogressive spirit of the time. The reforms sentation in a constitutional state without which he instituted in the earlier part of his swamping the culture of the very classes who reign seeined in the minds of the enthusiastic were clamoring for a constitution. Then the revolutionists, who formed three quarters of idea of the autocracy is so bound up with the the educated people of Russia, to open an era religious sentiments of the mass of the people of liberty and enlightenment which was to that Alexander II probably recoiled from the place Russia in the van of all the nations. responsibility of subjecting their faith and Alexander was not carried away with the ex morals to the strain they would have to travagant enthusiasm which was rife; but, undergo upon his abdicating his traditional auwhile proceeding with caution, he showed thority, and breaking off his paternal relations himself disposed to follow to the farthest to his people. practicable extent the path of social and politi Prudence and benevolence were the leadcal refort. On the 3d of March, 1863, he ac ing traits of Alexander's character. Without complished by his fiat one of the most gigan- being endowed with profound sagacity, he tic and far-reaching revolutionary events of sought conscientiously to make up his own all history—the emancipation of the Russian mind in every juncture, and in every course serfs. This was the one popular reform of his which he chose was carried by circumstances reign which he never sought to modify or re farther than he foresaw. He had far-sighted call. As he was revered in his life-time by the men to advise him, but, instead of implicitly liberated peasantry as the Czar Emancipator, trusting to their genius, he followed in great so he will live in history by the same title as matters his independent judgment, from a sense one of the most illustrious of his line. Besides of duty rather than from self-confidence. Ho the great act of his reign, he instituted internal was never carried away with enthusiasm, nor reforms of great importance. To strike off over-hopeful of grand results, but was easily the shackles of thought, to open the press for influenced by popular sentiment, which he the free expression of opinion, and to rid the gave way to as far as his cautious nature would universities of the drill-masters who subjected admit. In the emancipation of the serfs his professors and students to the discipline of the heart was thoroughly enlisted, and he acted in barracks and exercised a ruthless and ignorant advance of public opinion; in everything else censorship over the studies, was one of the he followed hesitatingly, and always feeling his earliest acts of the reforming Czar, and one of way. The power of Russia was rapidly exthe first to be revoked. The system of educa- tended in Asia during the whole of Alexantion was in many particulars improved. The der's reign. In 1860 a favorable treaty was army and navy were reorganized. Trade and struck with China, by which Manchooria was industry were specially encouraged. New secured. In Central Asia one khanate after commercial routes were opened. A revision the other was put through the gradual process of the laws was taken in hand. A judicial which ends in absorption into the Muscovite system on the French model was instituted, the dominion. In Europe, Russia was silent for penal code was framed, and the methods of civil many years. She was not “sulking, but reand criminal procedure were greatly simplified. cruiting,” Gortchakoff declared. In 1863 the A new system of municipal administration Polish rebellion might have been successful was introduced. Limited rights of local self- but for the aid of Prussia. Then Prince Gortgovernment and taxation were accorded to chakoff informed the Western powers that districts and provinces, to be exercised by elec- Russia would listen to no intercessions on betive assemblies. It was hoped and expected half of the “ kingdom of Poland.” During the that Alexander would end by conferring a con- Franco-German War the keen diplomat imstitution upon Russia, and confide to the people proved the situation and repudiated the stiputhe control of the national destinies. Sudden- lation in the Treaty of Paris forbidding Russia ly the Czar stopped short in his progressive to maintain a naval armament in the Black course, reintroduced the harshest of the repres- Sea, on the ground that treaties are only bindsive regulations which he had abolished, and ing so long as both parties are agreed! This devoted the rest of his life in vainly striving to cool declaration placed Russia again in her lay the spirit which he had himself invoked. traditional attitude. But for the events of

which it was the prelude the Chancellor was that the sword of Nihilism was suspended over not responsible. He, as well as the Finance his head. He did not shrink from the task of Minister, and other members of the Cabinet, trying to extirpate the dangerous growth. earnestly tried to dissuade the Czar from his The measures taken are described in the last attitude to the Slav agitation which led to the two volumes of the “ Annual Cyclopædia.” Turkish War. The Emperor had no sympathy In April, 1879, the school-master Solovieff fired with the Panslavistic cause. Between him four times at the Czar in the palace garden at and the Philoslav party there were only mutual St. Petersburg. In November the dynamite distrust and repulsion. But he refused to mine was exploded on the Moscow Railroad, check the belligerent proceedings of the Sla- which, owing to a change in the programme, vonic Benevolent Society and the Moscow Sla- destroyed the baggage-train instead of the carvonic Society, or to forbid his officers to volun- riage in which the Emperor was traveling. teer in the Servian War, because his sympathies In February, 1880, explosives fired in the cel. were with the Turkish Christians, and he could lar of the Winter Palace would have destroyed not in his conscience disapprove the intense the Czar and his guests while at dinner, had he popular feeling of the time. The traditional not by a rare chance been a few minutes late. duty of the Czar to protect the Orthodox Melikoff's administration of the extraordinary Christians of Turkey was present in his mind, powers confided to him seemed to be success. not the desire of founding a Panslavic em- ful in unearthing the Nihilist conspirators and pire or of forcing the Eastern question and checking their activity. There was a prospect conquering the Bosporus. He was drawn that a man of his liberal ideas and popular into the war without anticipating it. The sympathies might eventually find out a remedy speech which he made at Moscow, in which for the disorder more effective than mere rehe declared that, if Europe would not secure a pressive violence. But the murder of the better position for the oppressed Slavs, Russia Ozar altered the situation. The plot was laid would act alone, he expected would serve as a this time so that the Emperor could hardly menace which would be sufficient to bring escape and his assassin must surely be captured. Turkey to her reason. He was with the army Four conspirators were posted along the street until after the capture of Plevna, visiting the through which the Czar was driving home hospitals frequently and winning the hearts of from a review. Each bad ready to cast a the soldiers by the sincere sympathy and kind- small bomb of certain and terrible explosive ness which he showed for the sick and wounded. power. Confederates in the throng gave the The grief which he felt for the misery caused signal. The second petard proved fatal. The by the war was recognized by the people. He particulars of the plot and the disclosures of was called the “Martyr" and the Guardian the trial of the conspirators are recounted in Angel." Yet he refused to listen to advisers the article Russia. who urged the conclusion of peace before the ANGLICAN CHURCHES. The clerical list Turkish power was broken.

of the Church of England for 1880 contains The first attempt on the Czar's life was in twenty-six thousand names, showing a gain 1866. The following year he was assaulted of about six thousand clergymen since 1859. with murderous intent in the Bois de Boulogne More than six thousand clergymen are not in at Paris. After the conclusion of the Berlin pastoral work. Treaty, the flames of Nihilism burst out all over According to the report of the Ecclesiastical Russia. It became evident that every branch Commissioners for England, four thousand sevof the public service, every social circle, even en hundred benefices were augmented and enthe higher ranks of officials, the first families dowed by them between 1840 and 1880. The of the aristocracy, and probably the imperial increase in the incomes of benefices, from the family itself, contained agents and friends of augmentations and endowments made by the the revolution. A mania for desperate con

commissioners or through their instrumentality, spiracy seemed to rage. Heterogeneous dis- amounted on October 31, 1880, to about £756,affected elements sought to attain their various 500 per annum, representing the income froin objects through a political cataclysm; but the a capital sum of about £23,000,000. authors and perpetrators of the revolutionary The eighty-second annual meeting of the deeds were the Russian socialists, the most Church Missionary Society was held in Londaring and resolute political conspirators of don, May 3d, the Earl of Chichester presiding. any age. Every arrest and condemnation for The total receipts for the year had been £207,political crime was & provocation for acts 508, of which £189,685 were applicable to the more flagrant and defiant. In 1879 the Em- general expenditure, the rest having come in peror knew that his death was compassed by special contributions. Besides the European the Nihilistic committee in St. Petersburg, the missionaries, 110 native clergy and 1,720 lay central source of terrorism. The Czarina died teachers were employed in the missions, and in 1879. The relations of the Czar to the 1,000 schools were attached to them. The rePrincess Dolgorouky, his determination to port stated that between three and four thoumarry her morganatically, and the vehement sand well-instructed adult converts were bapopposition of his children, were the cause of ad- tized each year through the society's labors. ditional unhappiness at the time when he felt The missions in India absorbed one half the mis

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