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an active overland trade with the Chinese Em- the Chinese navy by Armstrong in the sumpire is the only peaceable object which would mer. Like the nine which had before been yield adequate returns for the Russian opera- furnished, they are of diminutive size, and are tions in Central Asia. The monopoly of the entirely unarmored; but, unlike the rest of Chinese trade has been one of the traditional the fleet, they carry large guns of a penetraaims of the Russian Government. The new tive power only equaled by those of the huge treaty opens another free passage through the new English and Italian ironclads. They are Great Wall besides Kalgan, which has been the fleeter than any armored craft; are so small terminus of the Russian caravans for two hun- that they can not be easily hit, and if hit are dred years. The new entrance at Souchow, not likely to be disabled, as their vulnerable near the western end of the Great Wall, will parts are under water. not probably. transfer the business of the old The clearing out of the obstructed waterroute to that town, but will open up a new ways of the metropolitan province has been trade of uncertain value. The Russians will undertaken at the instigation of Tso-Tsungnot be allowed to conduct their caravans be- t'ang, who proposes to employ several thousand yond Souchow, but will have consular repre- veteran soldiers on the work. Prince Ch'un sentatives in that place, in Turfan, and at other and Li-Hung-chang supported their political points. The country which is commercially opponent in this costly but necessary improvetributary to the new route is not, however, ment. The net-work of rivers which intersect one of very rich resources. Souchow lies west this part of China flow through the vast alluof the province of Kansu and within trading vial plain with a current so sluggish that they distance of Kulja, Kashgaria, and the neighbor- become filled with silt if they are not periodicing states. The portion of the province of Ilially dredged out. Neglect to do this for many which was retained by Russia is a tract which years past has occasioned frequent and destruchad been colonized by Russian subjects. It tive inundations. extends from the post Boro-Kudzir to the The Chinese Government seem to have river Kargos, being the northwest abutting grown more earnest in their efforts to suppress corner of the Kulja district. The indemnity the opium-vice. In England a growing popupayable by China is ten million rubles. The lar sentiment demands the stoppage of the Incommon frontier between the Ohinese and dian supplies of the drug. A smaller proportion Russian dominions, extending from Kashgaria of the opium consumed in China comes from in the west to the river Tumen-Dham in the India than has been commonly supposed. In east, has a length of nearly five thousand miles. Western China, where the habit is almost uni

The difficulties experienced in transporting versal and is indulged in openly, the entire suptroops and preparing for the Russian invasion ply is locally produced, and in the eastern provwhich seemed imminent during certain stages inces the lower classes use the coarser Chinese of the Kulja controversy, have had the effect product. In Eastern Sze-Chuen, Kwei-Chow, of arousing the practical administrators in China and Southwestern Hu-Pei, and other parts of to the necessity of disregarding the prejudices the west, there is an enormous production, of the court and the academy against rail- larger considerably than is reported to the Govroads and telegraphs, and of providing their ernment. The province of Yunnan has been country with the defensive advantages of mod- restored to cultivation, the leading crop being ern means of transport and communication. a winter growth of poppies. A large contraApart from the conservative opposition to bar band trade is carried on with the eastern provbarian innovations, there have been physical inces. In Eastern China also there are opium difficulties in the way of the utilization of the districts on the border-land of Chihli, Ho-Nan, telegraph by the Chinese, owing to the com- Shantung, and Kiang-Sa. The crop is seven plexity of their alphabet. This difficulty would times as remunerative as grain, but is less sure. be removed by the adoption of the autograph- In famine years the officials sometimes destroy ic system, or still better by the employment of the poppy-crops according to law, but at other the telephone, the improvements in which in- times there is usually no interference with the strument are watched with great interest in culture. In the treaty recently concluded with Ohina. The Government has authorized Li- Russia, as in the commercial treaty with the Hung - chang to construct a telegraph from United States, the Chinese Government inPeking to Tientsin and Shanghai. The Gov- serted a clause prohibiting the importation of ernment has also taken into consideration a opium. These provisions indicate an intention project, approved by the principal officers of to reopen the subject of the Indian imports of the army, to build a railroad from the capital opium, either with the design of stamping out to the port of Tientsin, seventy miles distant, the vice, or of preventing India from draining and thence to the Yangtse River, five hundred from China through the opium monopoly sums miles farther south. The latter section, if the huge enough in the aggregate to pay a large plan is adopted, can not probably be under- proportion of the enormous expenses of her taken soon in the present state of the imperial government. The reports of the trade for finances, at least not until the Russian indem- 1879 show that the imports were larger than in nity is cleared off.

any previous year, and about 15 per cent in Two additional gunboats were completed for excess of those of the preceding year, being

82,927 piculs in all (1 picul=1334 lbs.). There British cotton-millers for this important trade were 2,300 piculs of Persian opium, which which the high reputation of their goods places has been much used of late years to mix with within their grasp. The import of American the other sorts. The rest of the importation drillings fell off from 633,000 pieces in 1879 to was exclusively of Indian production. The do- 172,000 pieces in 1880, while British drills rose mestic product, whether the culture is for- from 387,000 pieces in 1879 to 628,000 pieces in bidden, connived in, or encouraged by the 1880. American sheetings continue in demand local authorities, is equal to the total imports at prices which tempt American exporters; several times multiplied, and acquires larger but they are being imitated and undersold by an proportions annually. The Treaty of Tientsin inferior Lancashire fabric. The warning given fixed the maximum tariff which the Chinese by the marked preference of the consumers for Government might impose upon Indian opium. unadulterated goods in the years of American China has persistently endeavored to obtain the competition has been heeded in England. rescission of this clause. The income derived There was a much smaller proportion of by the Indian Government from the monopoly heavily sized goods imported into China in of the opium manufacture has increased mean- 1880 than in previous years. The importawhile from £4,000,000 to £9,000,000, and the tion of the Manchester staples, gray shirtings cultivation of opium in India is still spread- and T-cloths, in which there has never been ing. Financial considerations, supported by the any competition, increased from 3,130,000 usages of international law, would explain and pieces in 1865 to 7,519,000 pieces in 1875, justify China's attitude in demanding the re- and 8,260,000 pieces in 1880, while the prices moval of the restriction upon her right to have fallen. regulate her own tariff. There are evidences, CHLOROPHYL, PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION however, of sincerity in the present efforts of. The conversion of the carbonic acid of the of the Chinese authorities to discourage and atmosphere into living protoplasm in the green gradually exterminate the pernicious babit of organs of plants may be considered the startopium-smoking. The Indian traffic inight ing-point of animate nature. The first living properly engage their attention pre-eminently organisms which appeared upon the planet on account of the spread of the vice among the must have been chlorophyl-containing plants. respectable classes, who use the Indian-grown All the phenomena of life are consequent and article only. The number of persons in China dependent upon the constructive operations who suffer from the opium-habit is estimated by which the primary gases and their simple by the inspector-general of customs, Mr. Hart, compounds are transformed into highly comat not over 2,000,000, or $ of one per cent of plex substances within the bodies of plants, the total population. The Secretary of State chief of which is the formation of hydrocarof China recently addressed a letter to the bons by the leaves. Animals, and the few British Government, in which he described the plants which are without chlorophyl, only subpernicious effects of the traffic. There are sist by the destruction and resolution into indications that when the demand to rescind their lifeless elements of the substances thus the oppressive clause in the treaty with Great built up by green plants. The nature of this Britain is urged, the power of public opinion primary and fundamental process in the chemin England will compel its abrogation, notwith- istry of life is a mystery. The green coloring standing the grave problem in the finances of matter of the leaves has seemed to be the chief India, from one sixth to one third of whose agent in vegetable alimentation, and its action revenues are drawn from this ignoble traffic. seems to be excited by the sunlight. The

The total foreign commerce of China in 1880, results of the German botanist Pringsheim, as returned at the treaty ports, was 157,000,- who has devoted several years to an investi000 taels, a larger amount than ever before gation of the office of chlorophyl, even if his reached. The share of the British Empire theoretical deductions are not conclusive in all amounted to at least 120,000,000 taels, and points, throw a new light upon the properties that of Great Britain alone to 49,000,000. The and action of chlorophyl and substantially forproportion of the carrying trade conducted in ward the solution of the greatest problem of British ships is as great, 73 per cent of the organic chemistry. exports and imports being carried in British Careful observations of the optical properbottoms. The coastwise trade, 40 per cent of ties of chlorophyl confirmed the findings of which was once done by American vessels, is previous investigators. Chlorophyl solutions now equally divided between native and Brit- of various degrees of density were found by ish craft. The extraordinary quantities of spectroscopic analysis to absorb the blue and American cottons brought into China in 1878 violet rays in a much greater measure than the and 1879, which caused a tremor in British red, yellow, and green. The structure of the commercial circles, ceased to be exported as chlorophyl corpuscles has been established for soon as better prices ruled in the United States. the first time by Pringsheim. They consist of The high average prices obtainable in the do a honey-combed spherule of some solid submestic market seem to deter the American stance, probably an albuminoid, whose cavimanufacturers from extending their facilities ties are filled with an oil containing the chloand entering into serious competition with the rophyl in solution. In the chlorophyl corpus

cles he has found a new substance, to which of analysis, and then its claim as the product of he gives the name of hypochlorin. · When assimilation can be better considered. Pringschlorophyl-cells are placed for twenty-four heim's supposition that it is a compound poor hours in dilute hydrochloric acid, and then in oxygen is rendered likely by its ready comwashed with water and laid in glycerine, in a bustion under the influence of focalized sunshort time brownish drops are seen to ooze light. Its generation in the chlorophyl-granout of the chlorophyl-granules. These con- ules, and the little that is known of its chemsist of hypochlorin, which has been drawn out ical behavior, are indications in favor of its beof the interior of the granule, probably by the ing the radical developed by the assimilative mechanical action of the acid. After a space process, if there be but one, which, by a more of time, long spiral needles, which seem to be moderate oxidation in the living cells, passes imperfect crystals, form from the drops of over into the hydrocarbons, oils, and other orhypochlorin. No hypochlorin is obtained from ganic compounds. It is always associated with chlorophyl tissue which has been strongly chlorophyl. In the seedlings of angiospermheated. Wiesner found that chlorophy) is de ons plants which have been kept in the dark, stroyed by intense sunlight. Pringsheim has neither chlorophyl nor hypochlorin are found. shown that excessive sunshine destroys not After they have been exposed to light awhile, only hypochlorin as well, but breaks down they begin to turn green, and not till then do other constituents of the living plant-cell. The they show any traces of hypochlorin. A redestruction of these substances, he found, by markable exception to the general rule is presubjecting the parts of plants to concentrated sented by seedlings of the conifers, since these · sunlight, and interposing different coloring produce both chlorophyl and hypochlorin, matters, takes place in the cold blue rays as though kept in a place where no light has acwell as in the warm red rays-much faster, cess. indeed, in blue light. The decomposition was CLAYTON - BULWER TREATY. (See clearly due to a peculiar action of light, and PANAMA CANAL.) not to the heating effect of the sun's rays. CLIFFORD, NATHAN, born at Rumney, New Further experiments showed that it only took Hampshire, August 18, 1803; died at Cornish, place in the presence of free atmospheric oxy- Maine, July 25, 1881. "In thé Haverhill Acadgen. It was therefore a process of oxidation emy he received a common-school education, excited by light. It was known that the pro- and afterward graduated at the Hampton Litcess of oxidation, analogous to the breathing erary Institution, being indebted to his own of animals, took place in plant-cells, not only exertions for this advantage. He studied law, in the dark, but in the light as well; though it was admitted to the bar, and commenced the was believed to be more rapid in the dark. practice of his profession in York County, Pringsheim's observations prove that light Maine, 1827. In 1830 he was elected to the greatly accelerates the process. Light seems, State Legislature as Representative from the then, to perform two distinct and opposite town of Newfield, as a member of the Demoparts in vegetation, one in the reduction of cratic party, of which he was considered one carbonic acid to substances poor in oxygen and of the ablest leaders. He served until 1834, highly combustible, the other in the combustion having been elected Speaker of the House in of certain of these assimilated materials. If 1833. By Governor Dunlap Mr. Clifford was the assimilation did not proceed more actively appointed Attorney-General of the State of than the process of oxidation, plant-life would Maine, which office he filled with distinguished be impossible. The fanction of chlorophyl ability. In 1838 he was nominated for Conseems to be, then, to act as a shield or screen gress as a Representative from York district in to prevent excessive oxidation, protecting the place of Mr. John Fairfield, who was then the combustible products of assimilation from the Democratic candidate for Governor. After an action of light, which appears to excite and in- excited contest, he was elected by a large matensify the oxidation.

jority over Mr. Nathan D. Appleton, Whig. The first step in the nutritive process of In 1840 he took the field as an advocate of Mr. plants, the primary assimilation product formed Van Buren's re-election, and met in public from inorganic matter, is an interesting sub- discussions some of the most distinguished ject of speculation. The laws of arithmetical Whig orators, being recognized as one of the proportion, which govern the combination eloquent champions of the Democracy. He of analogous organic compounds, have led to was re-elected to the Twenty-seventh Congress, the prediction of numerous substances before receiving nine hundred majority of votes over they had been obtained in a separate state. Daniel Goodenow, Whig. The theory of Baeyer, that formic aldehyde, On Mr. Polk's accession to the presidency, CH,O, is the primary assimilation product, Mr. Clifford was appointed Attorney-General which forms the basis of the various hydro- of the United States. In this high position he carbons, is, therefore, not without justification. acquitted himself in a manner which received Pringsheim advances the hypothesis that hy- the commendations of the bar and of the Supochlorin is the product of the assimilative preme Court. As a member of Mr. Polk's process. It will probably be obtained separate Cabinet his talents were acknowledged by his from other bodies and in quantities admitting party, and, when the Mexican War was draw

ing to a close, and the complications of General guished for diplomatic and legal talents of a Scott, Mr. Trist, and Governor Marcy threat- high order. ened the success of much that had been won CLINTON, J. J., died May 25, 1881, at Atby our arms, Mr. Clifford was sent to Mexico lantic City, New Jersey. He was the senior with full powers to conclude a treaty. Super- bishop of the conference of the African Zion seding all the functionaries as commissioner Methodist Episcopal Church. Bishop Clinton of the United States, he arranged the treaty of was born about the year 1820, and enjoyed peace by which California became an integral school advantages which were at that time deportion of the United States. After bringing nied to most of his race, and, although not a about this important piece of diplomacy, and graduate of any university, he received an exhaving ratified the treaty with the reorganized cellent academic education, and by his unusual Mexican Republic, he received the appoint- natural abilities soon rose into prominence. ment of minister to Mexico as a testimonial for He commenced his ministerial labors as an achis valuable services. He remained there long credited preacher in Philadelphia in 1839, and enough to cement the new peace, and to secure as local preacher in 1840, entering the itinerthe cordial and complete execution of the arti- ant sphere in 1841. He was ordained deacon cles of the treaty, when he resigned, and went in 1844, elder in 1846, and was elected and conback to the practice of his profession in Port- secrated to the episcopal office in May, 1864. land, Maine. Although he did not again ap- As a worker for the African Zion Connection, pear as a candidate for office during seven years, he was among the first, and during the forty he found time to advocate the principles of years of his labors traveled through almost Democracy and State Riglits on all important every State in the Union. He was Missionary occasions. At the bar of Maine he won an Bishop to the South during and subsequent to enviable reputation for forensic skill, and com- the war, and accomplished remarkable results manded a large and lucrative practice. In in establishing missions and annual conferences January, 1858, President Buchanan appointed which were the life of the colored Methodist him Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Church in the South. As a contributor to the the United States, and the intelligence of his press he was forcible, eloquent as a public elevation to this dignity was received with speaker, and in his preaching wonderfully efgeneral satisfaction throughout the country, fective. Possessed of rare executive ability, it especially in Maine. He had been the first was conceded by both white and colored peomember of the Cabinet taken from that State, ple that as an episcopal officer he had few suand the only representative she ever had in the periors. His death resulted from paralysis, Supreme Court.

and memorial services were held by all the The many years of his service on the bench churches of the conferences in his honor. were marked by a stern devotion to duty, as COLOMBIA (REPÚBLICA DE COLOMBIA ). well as by integrity and capacity, and his ap- For statistics relating to area, territorial dipointment to the presidency of the famous vision, population, etc., see “ Annual CyclopæElectoral Commission was everywhere re- dia” for 1877. Concerning the boundary quesgarded as most appropriate. He was a firm tion with Costa Rica, an extract of resolutions, believer in Tilden's title, and his position made passed in the Colombian Congress in 1880, was it necessary for him to sign the decisions given in our volume for that year. It has been of the commission. The preparation of the stated that toward the close of 1881 undoubted papers in the Florida case fell to Senator Hoar, information had been received at Washington on account of Senator Edmunds's illness, and of a treaty said to have been signed between their completion was delayed until within a the two republics, intended for the purpose of few minutes of noon of the 4th of March. By securing European arbitration in the disputed insisting upon a rigid personal scrutiny of the question of isthmian territory. By the terms papers Judge Clifford could have put off their of the treaty, several arbitrators were proexecution until too late for the inauguration posed: First, the King of the Belgians; next, of Mr. Hayes. He did not, however, throw in case of that monarch's refusal, the King of the smallest obstacle in the way of the work, Spain; and, finally, should the latter too debut showed almost eqnal anxiety with Mr. cline, the President of the Argentine Republic. Hoar in hurrying it forward, and promptly Neither of the disputants had made official affixed his signature as soon as the documents communication of the treaty to the United were completed. During the administration States Government. It was hoped that the of Mr. Hayes, however, he never went to the proposed arbitrators would refuse to act; for, White House. In October, 1880, he was at- if they accepted the offer, the Washington tacked with a serious illness, which was so Government would, in the opinion of the ausevere that it not only incapacitated hiro from thor of the report, protest—"the United States work, but affected his reason ; despite a robust claiming the rights of a virtual protectorate and hardy constitution, a complication of dis- over the States upon the Isthmus of Panama orders arose, gangrene supervened, and it was as far as to the northern boundaries of the found necessary to amputate one of his feet. province of Chiriquí, and not disposed to reFrom this illness he never recovered, and in linquish that quasi-suzerainty, whatever the dehis death the country has lost a man distin- cision of a European arbitrator might be. It


J. E, Otalora.



W. Ibañez.


D, Cervera.

is understood that M. de Lesseps is the author $4,500,000; and it is anticipated that the necof the arbitration scheme, with a view to con essary and increasing development of our incentrate upon the Isthmus a European influ- dustry and commerce will swell this return ence as against the United States, whose gov- within two years to at least $6,000,000.” ernment is antagonistic to the Panama Canal.” The national debt was reported as follows,

The President of Colombia was General Ra on August 31, 1880: fael Nuñez (from April 1, 1880, to March 31, Foreign debt.

$9,957,000 1882); and the Cabinet was composed of the

7,526,189 following ministers : Foreign Affairs and Pub


$17,483,189 lic Instruction, Señor R. Becerra (ad interim);

The subjoined communication on the sub. Interior, Señor O. Calderon; Finance, Señor ject of the debt was published in London, in S. de Herrera; Commerce, Señor A. Roldan; 1881: Public Works, Post-Office, etc., Señor Gregorio Obregon; War and Marine, General Eliseo lombia may congratulate themselves upon the era of

SIR: The bondholders of the United States of CoPayan.

prosperity now dawning on that country. ColomThe chief magistrates of the nine States were bia, favored by nature and the world's commerce, is as follows:

destined to become, via the Panama Canal, the conAntioquia. Señor P. Restrepo.

necting link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Bolivar,

B. Noguera.

and the medium of the commerce of two hemispheres. Boyacá..

The Colombian Government, recognizing the imporG. E. Hurtado.

tant position thus assigned to it, has decided to re-esCundinamarca

tablish its credit by recognizing at once its obligations Magdalena

N. Campo-Serrano. to its foreign creditors, and has, by a circular, dated

March 3, 1881, agreed hereafter to pay all coupons on Santander

S. Wilches. Tolima..

J. Santos.

its foreign debt as they fall due, and will pay imme

diately the coupon due October 31,.1879, in arrear, Each of the foregoing functionaries has the and also fund six quarterly coupons in arrear, giving, title of president, except those of Cundina- bonds bearing 5 per cent interest. The secretary of marca and Tolima, who are styled governors.

the Foreign Bondholders' Committee has called a The Colombian Minister Plenipotentiary to

meeting for the 17th instant, to enable the bondhold

ers to accept and ratify the above arrangement. The the United States is General R. S. D. Vila; and position of each bondholder will then be as follows: the Colombian Consul-General at New York is each holder of £100 stock will receive interest quarSeñor Luis de Pombo.

terly, on and from July 1st next, at the rate of 4: per The United States Minister Plenipotentiary cent, and will receive in addition one coupon in arrear

cent per annum, hereafter to be increased to 5 per to Colombia is General Manney (accredited in in cash, and six coupons in arrear in stock, making 1881); and the United States consuls at Bogotá the nominal value of his holding £111 68. 3d. for each and the chief Colombian seaports respectively £100, bearing interest at the rate of 41 and 5 per cent, were as follows: Bogotá, Mr. B. Koppel ; Pa- the present price of which is 45. Colombia, with such

a future before her, necessitating her borrowing in the nama, Mr. John M. Wilson; Aspinwall, Mr.

money markets of the world for the construction of James Thorington; Cartagena, Mr. Edmund W. railroads and other public works, has the strongest P. Smith; Sabanilla and Barranquilla, Mr. E. P. incentives to maintain her credit. Hence her creditors Pellet; Rio Hacha, Mr. N. Davies (vice-con- may be of good cheer. sul).

March 10, 1881. The regulation strength of the army in time In September of the same year, however, of peace is 3,000, and in time of war each of the Council of Foreign Bondholders communithe nine States is required to furnish a con cated that they had received authentic infortingent of one per cent of its population. The mation from Bogotá, under date July 6th, that total number of officers in the Guardia Colom- the Colombian Congress had closed without biana was officially given at 1,927 in 1880. any steps having been taken to secure the rati

The revenue and expenditure of the repub- fication of the convention of the 3d of March, lic for the fiscal year 1879—'80 were officially 1881, with the bondholders. The resumption reported at $5,651,905 and $5,773,575, thus of payment was consequently indefinitely postshowing a deficit of $121,670. In the budget poned. for the same year, the revenue and expendi The foreign trade of the republic, in the ture were estimated at $4,910,000 and $8,634,- year 1879–80, was of the total value of $24,571; while in the President's message to Con- 391,984 (of which $13,804,981 was for exports), gress, on February 1, 1880, the revenue was against $24,499,165 (of which $13,711,511 set down at $10,469,291.071, and the expendi- stood for exports). ture at $9,926,013.521; but in these last figures The chief export staples are gold, silver, Pemust have been included items of expenditure ruvian bark, coffee, skins, tobacco, Panama extraordinary and loans to cover deficits. hats, India-rubber, and cotton.

“Owing to the peace which has been main The trade carried on through the port of tained, and which still reigns throughout the Panama is of two kinds, local and transit. Of country,” observes a Colombian newspaper the former, we shall here mention only that correspondent, "a considerable rise is notice- with the United States, whither the exports able in national stocks. The custom-house for the year ending December 31, 1879, were department, for example, will produce in this of the classes and values exhibited in the anfinancial year (1881–82) from $4,250,000 to nexed tabular statement:


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