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the two countries is to be solved. Let the manufac- would, it is said, be within sight. There is, we agree turers begin by making their own markets accessible, with a correspondent of a contemporary, something and asserting the principle of free interchange, without more tangible in the prospect here than we have at which unlimited production is simply ruinous. Let present with the Turks. But no progress-we would them seek to exchange for our copper and wool upon remind this correspondent and other critics—is likely equitable terms, as in former times; then may they to be made by indulging in mere abuse of the comcertainly reckon upon us as permanent consumers of inittee of Peruvian bondholders. The letter from that their products. We will pay them for their ma- body, which we publish elsewhere, proves their anxiety chinery, hardware, and dry goods with our wool, to have done with controversies and wrangling with niter, and copper. Efforts to augment the various the Chilian Government or any one else. But it is mere agricultural and manufactured products of a country fatuity to call in question the credentials of the comwithin the natural limits imposed by soil, climate, mittee, or to speak of them as “impotent." Never geographical position, and the grade of civilization was a committee appointed by a more indubitable enjoyed, are always laudable.

vote. Out of a total of £32,000,000 bonds no less

than £26,000,000 were registered or deposited, and The attitude assumed by the Chilian Gov- £21,000,000 were voted on. The fact that the bondernment toward the holders of Peruvian bonds holders paid the assessment on their bonds sufficiently was alluded to in detail in our volume for matter, and how little foundation there is for the at

demonstrates how much they were in earnest in the 1879. The following extracts from the Lon- tempt to discredit their committee on the authority of don “Times” and from a British financial anonymous “ large”' bondholders. If there was any journal will throw the necessary light upon pressure put on the bondholders to deposit their bonds that question as it stood in the summer of caused it to be announced that their not registering or

and vote, it was applied by the Chilian minister, who 1881. * It may be added that, down to the end depositing would deprive them of their right to parof that year, little hope was entertained by the ticipate in the proceeds of the sales of the guano. most sanguine of an early dividend. The net The attacks on the committee are baseless clamors. proceeds of thirteen cargoes sold on account of the Chilian Government, and to be applied message read by President Pinto at the open

The subjoined additional extract from the in favor of the bondholders, was reported by ing of the Chilian Congress on June 1, 1881, the London consignees to amount to but £17, will serve to complete the sketch of affairs in 828 108.! The total claiın represented by bonds that country in that year: is £32,000,000.

FELLOW-CITIZENS OF THE SENATE AND CHAMBER OF With regard to the reports in the market to the DEPUTIES : It affords me pleasure to be able to inforin effect that the Chilian Government are going to as

you that our relations with friendly powers are on a sume the burden of the Peruvian debt at a smaller footing of perfect cordiality: rate of interest, the truth appears to be that some large

A slight modification which circumstances appeared bondholders here, seeing that the committee are prac to me to warrant has taken place in our relations with tically impotent and that some other combination must Spain.* You are aware of the eagerness with which be formed to protect the bondholders, have made a

Peru and Bolivia hastened to sign a treaty of peace proposal to the Chilian minister to accept what, in with Spain, in the belief that by this means they would fact, is a composition, the bondholders agreeing in be able to obtain warlike elements to use against us. return to renounce all their rights. The Chilian The Peninsular Government, after entering into a minister, we believe, is inclined to listen to the pro- treaty of peace with our enemies, maintained, howposal, whatever it may be, but nothing can be done ever, the strictest neutrality, notwithstanding that the now respecting it without conferring with Messrs, A. truce with Chili subsisted and still subsists. In conGibbs and Sons, with whom communications have formity with this lofty policy, it ever showed itself been opened. In any case the Chilian Government disposed to deny to our enemies all favors which it are not likely to agree to any arrangement which could not grant to us also. These antecedents, added would cause them loss, which would probably be the to the friendly attitude assumed by the Spanish comresult of their promising to pay £2 per cent on the munity at Iquique on a sad occasion, induced me to Peruvian debt. The most favorable estimate by the think that it would be proper to show that, on our best judges is that there will not be a net revenue part, we were not insensible to these conciliatory from the guano sales of more than one per cent on the actions. Believing, therefore, that I faithfully intertotal amount of the Peruvian debt, and the realization preted public feeling in the matter, I issued the deof even that amount depends upon the possibility of cree of January 31st last, opening our ports to Spanobtaining sufficient guano of a marketable quality. ish vessels. In conformity with the law of January On this head very considerable doubts are entertained. 12th of last year, which empowered me to give in the

There has been a great deal of excitement in Peru- adhesion of Chili to the Postal Union, I applied, dipvian bonds on the circulation of various rumors which lomatically, to the Swiss Federal Council for the inseem to be mostly devoid of authority. It is eminent- corporation of our country into that convention from ly improbable that the Chilian Government will adopt the first of April of this year. the course which some ardent admirers of its gen While devoting, as you may suppose, particular erosity have been suggesting. There is no reason attention to the requirements of the war in which we that we can see why Chili should take upon her the are engaged, the different branches of the public servPeruvian debt, and guarantee two, or any, per cent ice have not been neglected. to the bondholders. She does all she can fairly be The advancement of our frontier, both north and expected to do when she gives the bondholders access south, has rendered necessary the creation of new to the property hypothecated to them in security for provinces and departments, and several bills having the foreign debt of Peru. Sanguine views have, this object in view will shortly be submitted to you. however, been in the ascendant, and the price of the The public roads have been duly attended to with bonds has had a substantial rise. There is this much the sums provided for in the estimates, and with prito be said in their favor, that even at one per cent (if vate donations. I have issued decrees giving to the it were sure) the bonds would be cheap at their pres- inhabitants of provinces some participation in road ent market quotations. Calculating on the basis of affairs, which will have the effect of improving the the vessels chartered and loading, on their way or arrived, allowing for only twenty more ships during * A treaty of peace between Chili and Spain, after fifteen the rest of the year, nearly two 'per cent on the loan years' interruption, was concluded in 1881.



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management of those matters, and will be a guarantee The area and population of the other parts for the legitimate outlay of the money expended on

of the empire were as follows: them.

Important improvements have been carried out on the existing lines of telegraph for the purpose of af


Square kilometres.

Population. fording greater facility for communication. The prolongation of the line of telegraph to Ancud


963,880 12,000,000 Mongolia...

8,877,263 2,000,000 is being actively pushed on, and in a few days more


1,687,898 6,000,000 the forts lately constructed in Arauco will be connect- Soongaria..


600,000 ed with the rest of the republic by telegraph.

East Turkistan.


550,000 In conformity with the provisions of the act of Jan- Corea...

286,784 8,500,000 uary 14th of the present year, surveys are being made for the plans and estimates of a railway from Angol

Total tributary countries. 7,789,058 29,680,000 to the province of Valdivia, and at an early date I shall

Total Chinese Empire... 11,813,750 409,800,000 apply for power to commence work on the first section of that line.

A bill, framed by the committee charged with the The estimates of the population of Peking revision of the civil code of procedure, providing for vary between 500,000 and 1,650,000. The popthe resort of cassation, will be laid before you. ulation of the treaty ports, according to the

The Council of Education is discharging its labors with commendable zeal, and it has submitted to the

“Returns of Trade at the Treaty Ports for government plans of studies for the course of " hu- the Year 1880,” were as follows: manities" and mathematics, and a plan of examinations for use in superior and secondary educational

Foreign. establishments. Notwithstanding that during last year the war at Canton



Tientsin tained its greatest spread and development, trade nas


179 continued its regular and progressive course. The



Hankow. circumstance of our having been able to carry military Shanghai..


272,284 1,980 operations into the enemies' territory from the very Ningpo...

260,000 commencement of hostilities, thanks to our naval su Takow and Faiwan.

235,000 periority, a fact worthy of being remembered in every- Chinkiang..

130,000 thing relating to the security and future of the repub- Tamsui.

90,000 lic, has, by maintaining open their sphere of action, Amoy,


292 been the cause of trade and industry having been freo Newchwang

83,000 from uncertainties and fears which would have para- Kiukiang


48,000 lyzed or hindered their progress. On the contrary, Woohoo


17 the war itself, by its constant successes, has opened up Cheefoo..

35,000 new fields to enterprise by the conquest of extensive Tchang.

88.560 territories which have been sources of revenue to the


80,000 state, and of labor and wealth for private individuals.


80,000 Pakhoi..

25.000 (For treaty of limits, see ARGENTINE REPUB


5,219,794 8,995 LIC; and for narrative of the war, Peru.) CHILI, PERU, AND THE UNITED STATES.

The number of foreigners of each nationality (See Peru, CHILI, AND THE UNITED STATES.) CHINA, an empire in Asia. Emperor,

in the treaty ports, and the number of business Kwang-Su, formerly called Tsaeteen, born in houses belonging to each, were as follows in

1879: 1872, à son of Prince Ch’un, and grandson to the Emperor Tau-Kwang, who died in 1850; he succeeded to the throne in 1875.


Population. The area and population of the provinces of



2,070 the empire were estimated as follows in 1880: American



864 Square kilometres. Population, French


Spanish. Chihli

148,357 28,000,000

Russian.. Shantung

139,292 29,000,000

Danish.. Shansi..

170,853 17,056,925

Japanese.. Honan..

173,850 29,069,771


103,959 37,800,000
Swedish and Norwegian..

'i Nganbwui*

189,875 84,200,000


177,656 23,000,000

17 Fokken and Formosa*

157,320 14,800,000

Belgian. Chihkiang*

92,883 26,300,000

Other nationalities. Hupeh*

179,946 27,400,000 Hunan..


Total. 20,048,969


8,996 Shensi.

210,340 10,309,769 Kansuht.

674,928 9,285,377

The possibility of a war with Russia has Szechuen...

479,268 35,000,000 Kwangtung and Hainan*

269,923 19,200,000

caused the Chinese Government to consider Kwangsi..

201,649 8,121,327 plans for the reorganization of the army, and Yunnan

817,162 5,823,670 Kweichow.

172,898 5,679,128

it has actually begun the work of reform. Ac

cording to the plan adopted, three armies are Total China proper..... 4,024,690 890,000,001

to be organized : 1. The Army of Mantchooria, * According to “ Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports for comprising 30,000 men, and located between the Year 1879." By the Inspector-General of Customs, Shang Mukden and Tsitsikhar, with its headquarters hai.

† Population in 1880, according to official reports in at Mukden. 2. The Army of Mongolia, 20,000 “Deutscher Reichs-Anzeiger,” April 25, 1881.

strong, which is intended to defend the roads


17 127 10 11







1 16 5 2

153 79 78 61 85 85 28


9 874





1 corvette..


11 207


6 3

1 steainer.....

leading through Mongolia to the Russian fron- the “Revue Maritime et Coloniale," January, tier. It is stationed in the neighborhood of 1880, it contained the following vessels : Kalgan, and is placed under the command of the military chief to whom is intrusted the defense of Peking. 3. The Army of Turkistan, 2 frigates

1,200 numbering 40,000 men, which is intended to protect the western frontier. Besides these 47 gunboats.

2 steam-sloops. armies of operation, there is to be another 8 transports.. army of about 100,000 men which is to occupy the border provinces, and still another of about 56 vessels...

5,560 the same strength for the defense of Peking, and the preservation of order, in the interior. Nothing definite is known about the reveThis would make a total of about 300,000 men, nues of the Government, which are estimated which in time of war could be increased to at 79,500,000 taels of Haikwau (1 Haikwau 1,000,000 men.

tael = $1.40). The customs receipts in the The Chinese fleet is composed of the three treaty ports have been published since 1861. squadrons of Canton, Foochow, and Shanghai. The amounts received have been as follows (in According to a report of Captain A. Bocard, in Haikwau taels):


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In 1874 the Chinese Government contracted


Exports. the first foreign debt, amounting to 13,500,000 taels; of this amount 7,000,000 taels have been 1975.


68,912,929 paid, leaving a debt of 6,500,000 taels.



80,850,512 73,283,896

67,445,022 hoine debt amounts to 30,000,000 taels.



67,172,179 The foreign commerce of China with the 1879.


72,281,262 1880...


77,883,587 United States, Great Britain, Russia, and other countries of Europe, etc., during the years The imports from and exports to the differ1875-'81, was as given in the annexed table ent countries in 1879 and 1880 were as follows (values expressed in Haikwau taels).

(values expressed in Haik wau taels):

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The principal articles of import and export were as follows in Haikwau taels):

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Tientsin. Chefoo...











123 201

The commerce of the treaty ports in 1880 court, and entirely remote from public affairs, was as follows (in Haikwau taels):

because the natural authority of a father and

the homage of a subject are, according to Chi

Exports. nese conceptions, absolutely incompatible. Newchwang


The controversy with Russia regarding the 1,191,000

4,240,000 restoration to China of the province of Ili, and 651,000

its capital, Kulja, seemed likely in the summer Hankow

28,000 7,644,000 Kiukiang

269,000 of 1880 to result in a war, which would have Chinkiang


proved most disastrous to China. The influShanghai.

56,046,000 86,179,000 Ningpo..



ence of the Marquis Tseng and of Colonel GorFoochow


9,184,000 don barely prevented the war party, headed Tamsui (Formosa).


116,000 by Prince Ch'un, the father of the Emperor, 1,236,000

1,815,000 Amoy

5,412,000 8,635,000 and by Tso-Tsung-t'ang, Governor-General of Swatow.


1,240,000 Eastern Turkistan, and reputed subjugator of Canton

2,940,000 12,803,000 Kiunchow



Kashgaria, from plunging their country into Pakboi ..


211,000 the unequal conflict. The moderate progressist Total.. 81,639,000

party, which exerted its influence in favor of 77,884,000

peace, although it was led by the most eminent Re-exports 2,346,000

statesmen of China-Ch'un's brother, Prince

Kung, and the great Viceroy, Li-Hung-chang The movement of shipping in the Chinese and had more moral weight among the manports during the years 1879 and 1880 is shown darins, lacked the power and prestige which by the following table (entrances and clear- the support of the Empresses-regent gave their ances being taken together):

opponents. The warnings of Gordon and Tseng 1879.

sustained the peace party, and prevented a colFLAGS.

lision after the rejection of the Treaty of Liva

dia. The Government remitted the sentence 10,609 8,126,004 12,397 9,606,156

of Chung-how, the negotiator of the repudiated German

1,907 721,046 1,501 632,044 treaty, who had been condemned to death, American.


287,869 and expressed its willingness to resume negoFrench

154,995 Japanese.


167,902 tiations. Russia was reluctant to redeem her Chinese.

4,860 4,206,771 5,835 4,699,255 promise to retire from the occupied province Others.. 2,781 309,565 2,838 831,419

whenever the Chinese Government was in a Steamers.

14,509 12,260,132 17,300 14,572,718 position to govern it, without some substantial Sailing-vessels. 6,900 1,667,059 5,670 1,301,634

recompense. The contingency of China's reTotal .. 21,409 | 13,927,221 22,970 15,874,352 asserting her sovereignty in Turkistan seemed

remote at the time when Russian troops occuThe first attempt to introduce railways was pied Kulja. The Russian Government were made by the construction of a short line from apparently desirous that China, without having Shanghai to Woosing, forty miles in length. a cause which would appear reasonable to EuOne half of this line, from Shanghai to Kang- rope, should be provoked into commencing wang, was opened for traffic June 3, 1876, but hostilities. This would enable the Russians closed again in 1877, after having been pur- to seize upon a strip of the Corean coast, which chased by the Chinese authorities. There are would give the Muscovite Empire the coveted four lines of electric telegraph, having an maritime foothold on the Pacific. aggregate length of thirty-nine miles.

The failure of the Marquis Tseng to obtain Tsze An, known as the Eastern Empress, satisfactory terms, which the folly of his one of the Empresses - dowager who were predecessor and the indifference of Russia renjointly clothed with the imperial authority dered extremely difficult, brought the martial during the minority of the Emperor, died in element again to the front in the winter of March. Her co-regent, Tsze Hi, lay danger- 1880–81. If Russia had the intention of harryously ill for some time. Had her death fol- ing China into a declaration of war, she defeated lowed, there would have supervened a political her purpose by her own active preparations crisis, which might have resulted in a dynas- for the encounter. For it was the dread of her tic revolution. The selection of the present naval power displayed on the sea-coast, and the infant Emperor has constantly been held by appreciation of her superior military strength, many in authority to have been contrary to which enabled peaceful counsels to prevail the constitutional precedents and religious again at Peking. principles of the empire. There are also seri Troops were sent forward toward the fronous irregularities in the present regency, to tier. The fire-eating Tso, who had the credit which the orderly minds of 'the Chinese are of having reconquered the dominion of Yawith difficulty reconciled. The regency should koob Beg, although he had actually contributed have been resigned by the Empresses-regent to nothing toward the achievement, and who was the widow of the late Emperor; and it was one of the loudest denunciators of the Treaty imperatively incumbent upon the father of of Livadia, was summoned to Peking to add his the present Emperor to keep him away from support to Prince Ch'un and the war party.

The Chinese troops in Central Asia were under the tact of the Chinese plenipotentiary in St. the nominal command of Liu-Chang-yo, who Petersburg, brought the international difficul. had bis headquarters at Kashgar, and had from ty to a peaceful issue. By the Treaty of St. Pe20,000 to 30,000 men in his own command. tersburg, Russia consented to restore nearly Besides these there were about 30,000 troops the whole of the territory in dispute, including garrisoned in Soongaria, or engaged in main- the important Tekes Valley, which Chungtaining the long lines of communication be- how had agreed to surrender, and the comtween Kashgar and Kansu, under command of mand of the passes of the Tien-shan. China Generals Kinshun and Liu-Chang-yo. There agreed to pay to the Russian Government a were large numbers of disbanded soldiers till- large sum as an indemnity for the cost of paciing the soil, to furnish supplies to the troops. fying and occupying the province. The other The Government was concentrating troops at stipulations look toward the improvement of Shan-Hai-Kwan. The military efficiency of commercial relations and the extension of the the troops which the Government in its igno- overland commerce, and their effect is likely rance was prepared to put against trained to be for some time to come simply a moral European soldiery was contemptible. They one. The abatement of the jealousy and enlacked the first elements of tactical training, mity with which Russians are regarded by the and were armed for the most part with worth- Chinese may be effected by a conciliatory polless natchlocks. The Russians with a few icy, and the knowledge of Russia's military thousand men could have cut off the army of strength might influence the Chinese Govern60,000 troops in farther Kansu, and the new ment without a breach of friendship; whereas dominion from all communication with China, a war would result in the overthrow of the and would have had them entirely at their dynasty, and leave no means of resisting the mercy.

purposes of Russia which would be permitted General Gordon, who had been summoned by other powers, and would excite an animosby the Government to advise them in their ity which would rankle for generations in the difficulties, discovered that the Chinese had hearts of the people. A friendly Chinese Govdeceived themselves as to their boasted prog- ernment may permit the Russians to establish ress in the military art. The superficial ac- themselves in the really independent Corea. quirements of the most recent improvements of But the project of commercial supremacy in military science-torpedoes, gunboats, steam- Eastern Asia, which is the practical object of transports, heavy artillery, modern fortifica- Russia in advancing eastward in the interior tions, rifle-practice, etc.-only deluded them and in seeking to establish stations on the Painto the belief that they were on a par with cific sea-board, would be defeated entirely by European countries, when their military or- an embittered conflict with the Chinese people. ganization was really as defective and primitive The fleet which Russia concentrated at Vlaas before. Gordon left with Li-Hung-chang, divostock at the critical stage of the Kulja neas he returned to Europe, a memorandum upon gotiations was the most powerful ever sent to the military power of China, and the best mode the Eastern seas. Had hostilities broken ont, of its development. He advises the retention of the two northern provinces of Corea would the old system of tactics and organization, as probably have been occupied by the Russians, better suited to the character of the people. He giving them a position on the Yellow Sea warns the Chinese that they can not stand up be- which would always be within easy striking fore solid bodies of European soldiery, and ad- distance of the capital and northern ports of vises them never to attempt pitched battles. China, besides the inuch-desired harbor of Yung They should cultivate skirmishing; and, with Hing, better known under the Russian name their facility in throwing up earth-works, and of Port Lazareff. The harbor of Port Lazareff power of quick movement unhampered by pack on the Sea of Japan is one of the finest in the and baggage, they might by their numbers, world, being perfectly sheltered and containfrugality, and hardihood, harass and wear out ing anchoring-ground for any number of vesan enemy with whom they could never cope in sels of the deepest draught. It lies only about regular warfare. Their naval defenses should one hundred miles south of the Tumen River, consist of numerous and small armed craft, and which divides Corea from Russian Tartary. plenty of small and cheap torpedoes. The army Russian statesmen have desired for generations should be armed with breech-loading rifles, and to secure a harbor which should be open all should not attempt to handle heavy field-guns or the year round on the Pacific, and have already be burdened with any equipments which would been disappointed in two which have been hinder its movements in the skirmishing tactics tried. This port, which lies at their door, and of irregular warfare on which it must rely. can be annexed at any time without a blow “China needs," he concluded, “no Europeans and with small risk of serious complications, or foreigners to help her in carrying out this answers perfectly the commercial and strategic programme. If she can not carry out what requirements. is recommended herself, no one else can." The Treaty of St. Petersburg, by which the

The moderation and election of a pacific retrocession of Kulja to China was accorded, policy on the part of Russia, no less than the secured to Russia in return extended commerinfluence of the wiser Chinese statesmen and cial privileges in China. The development of

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