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kave been employed in personal the feet of their haughty fovereign. ambition and a grandizement; or, The moral philofopher exclaims, on what is woric, "for the aggrandize- a review on the great qualities of ment of abfolute monarchs, whole Julius Cæsar, precarious smiles were preferred to the steady and dignified regards of
Curse on his virtues! they've undonc
his country.' true glory. A Charles of Sweden lacrifices his people to animosity, The great and good qualities of pride, and revengo A Richelieu general Washington were displaylays his countrymen in chains at ed in a great and good cause: the
would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who mould labour to fubvert these great pilars of human happiness, these firineft props of the duties of men and citizens The notre politician, equally with the pious man, ought to refpect and cherish them. A vo. lume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be neked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the renie of religoes obligation defert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in the courts of jaitice? And let us with caution indulge the fuppofition, that national morality can 1 bit without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined oluca tida, on minds of a peculiar Itructure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that eational morality can prevail, in exclusion of religious principles."
The legiflator and patriot proceeded to warn his countrymen against inveterate antipathies against particular nations. On this subject he makes these remarkable observa. tions, of which many will, no doubi, make, at the present moment, particular applicaLions. " The nation, prompted by ill will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the b. ft calculations of policy. The government fometimes participates in the national propenáty, and adopts, trough parton, what reason would reject; at other times, it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hoftility, inftigated by pride, amhit.on, and other finifter and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes, prhaps, the liberty of nations, has been the victims." On this point, of an equal and just regard for all nations; and, on the other hand, on the infidious wiles of foreign influence, general Waihington descants at a greater le neth than on any of the other topics on which he touches; and, if possibly, with greater carnefiness. It is not difficult, from hence, to conjecture, what was at the time, tlie principle obje&t of his solicitude--foreign influence, particularly that of the French republic ,
The world has had many political teftamentis ; ronie real, some counterfeit ! none that breathes such pure morality, such sublime and found policy, is the address and the exam. ple of general Washington. The ityle of his paternal le:ters and speeches, exhorting bis countrymen to preserve union among themselves, and peace, good faith, and fincere good-will towards all nations, as well as the sentiments, shining forth with milt! radiance, not in fiery flame, were contrasted with certain pailionare pertoatives to war. How much to be preferred is found sepse, fimplicity, and arcerity of intention, felf-command and muderation of temper, to the most thining talents and accomplishments without them! Yet, though we cannot rank general Washington in the firft clars of literary geniufes, he was not deficient, but greatly above par, in the most useful kinds of kno vledge, and a.ro in the art of writing. His thoughts are clea:lv arranged; he manages with great kill, the march of bis hearer's or reader's sentiments and Ipirits; his largare is per. featly gramatical and pure, and altogether free irom any provincial Nang, and cockney er metropolitan barbarisms, which, itkuing from the hours of commons and newspapers, has adulterated the English tongue, and threatens, in its progress, to render it to future ages unintelligible. A like observation may be extended to the writings of Dr. Frankland, Mr. Adams, and other American writers.
cause of his country, and of the hu- mighty power of France: the geman race. He pursued the coblest neral maintained the independence ends by the noblett means: the dige of his countrymen, in opposition to nity and happiness of mankind, by that of England: both were remarksublime genius and heroic courage. able for coolness and cantion; but
The most distinguished charac- remarkable also for firminels and ters, in many instances, have been intrepidity, under every circumfound to have derived the enthu- 'stance of danger, and every critic fiasm that prompied them to un- cal moment of action. They never dertake and persevere in the exe- thunned a decisive engagement from cution of great defigns from an any other motive than that of pruadmiration of other illustrious cha- dence: nor were they wiler in counracters, which inspired a degre of cil than brave in the field; though imitation. Achilles emulated Bac- their final success was more owing to chus: Alexander, Achilles: Julius judicious retreat, and renewed preCæfar, Alexander; and Frederick II. parations for actions, than to daring of Pruslia, with other heroes, Julius impetuofity. The character given Cæfar. So too, Charles XII. of to the pretender, in 1745, and apSweden had Quintus Curtius, in plied to general Washington in his his earliest youth, always in his familiar letters to general Mercer, hands, and had learned his stories may, with equal propriety, be apof Alexander by heart. In like plied both to king William and to manner Gustavas III. the late king of himself. They were the most cauSweden, was infamed with a love of tious men in the world, not to be glory, by contemplatirg the actions cowards; and the bravest, not to of both his paternal and maternal be rash. It may be added, that their anceftors; particularly of Gufta- fortitude, in the eye of true moral vus Vasa and Guitaris Adolphus, criticism, none forth with greater and of the renowned Prufian mo- splendour, when veiled in the garb narch, who was his uncle. If gene- of caution, than when confeffed to ral Wallington was roofed to any the eyes of ail, and covered with duft grandenr of design, cr, in his pul- and biood in the field of battle. lic condue, political and military, There is an active fortitude, and had
any model of imitation, it seems their is a paflive fortitude: the latter to bave been king William III. not certainly less, but in some reprince of Orange, and king of fpeéts fuperior to the former. In England. The grund on which the conflict and agitation of danwe liazard this conjecture is, his ger, quickly to be over, or quickly arlmiration frequentis expreiled of to fpend its utmost fury, the mind that great prince, 'boti in his of the patriot and hero is awakened leiters and in private convelation, by an excitement of his spirits, and compared with the tenor of'nis own the attention and tympathy of all actions. The causes and circum- around him. In the calms of torpid ftances in which they were both filence, nay, and under the chilling engaged were similar : thcir con- blaits of reproaclı, whilst be fill reduct allo fimilar. The prince main- tairis his unfhaken purpose, the eclat tained the independence of his of his virtue is leis, but the proof countrymen, in opposition to the of its constancy greater : greater in
the inverse ratio of the magnitude foundness of their judgement, which of the difficulties and dangers to be readily discerns certain common inovercome, to the indifference with terests and passions, that tend to which they are regarded. It is the unite men in common sympathies firmness of both the heroes that and common purluits. It was a - forms the subject of this brief pa- common and striking trait in the rallel, after their retreats, under in- characters of both king William lll. numerable disadvantages and hard- and general Walhington, that they fhips, that, in the whole of their both poletid the happy art of recharacter, is the just object of the conciling and uniting various difgreatest admiration.
cordant parties in the prosecution There was also a striking coinof common objects. cidence, not only between the cir- . But every parallel is foon termicumstances and lituation and the nated, by the wonderful diversity public conduct of thele great men, which characterizes every individual political and military, but also, in of the human race. Washington had Tome points, between their natural no favourites, but was warm in bis tempers and difpofitions; particu- affections to his own family and near larly in an habitual taciturnity and relatives: William was not a little reserve. A degree of taciturnity addicted to favouritism; but cold is, indeed, inseparable from a mind and inditferent to the fincere attachintent on great and complicated de- ment and devotion of his queen: a ligos. Minds deeply occupied in princess, by whose right he was the contemplation of great ends, raised to a throne, and a partner and the means necesary for their worthy any sovereign prince, for accomplishment, have as little lei- erery accomplishment of mind and fure as inclination either to enter- perfon. The calm, deliberate, and tain others with their converfa- tulid characer of general Waihingtion, or to be entertained by them, ton did not exclude a turn to Mofi great men, when profoundly contrivance and invention. He was engaged in important atlairs, are re- judicious, not duit; ingenious, not marhably filent. Buonaparte, though chimerical. In this respect, his tanaturally aftable, in the midst of those lents and turn, like huis virtues, were circumstances of unprecedented no- carried to the line beyond whici velty, complication, and alarm, in they would have cealed to be tawhich it has been his deftiny to be lents and virtues, and no farther. placed, is, on the whole, reserved He knew how to distinguish diltia and filent. Henry IV. of France, culties from impoflibilities, and what though naturally affable, humour- was within the bounds of human gus, and facetious, became thought- power, in given Gituations, from ful and silent, when he found him- the extravagancies of a healed and self involved in projects of great bold imagination. He was neither difficulty as well as importance. terrified by danger, nor leduced by
It is not by a multiplicity of words repole, from embracing the proper - and common-place compliments that moment for action. He was mo.
men attain an ascendency over the deft, without diffidence ; fenfible to minds of other men; but by the the voice of fame, without vanity; weight of their character and the independent and digniñed, without pride. He was a friend to liberty, character of envoys; hut, in reality, not licentiounefs : not to the ab. as firebrands of discord and fedition. stractions of philosophers, but to The grand object of their mision those ideas of well-regulated free was, that the French republic Phould dom, which the ancestors of the acquire such an influence and alAmericans had carried with them cendency in North America, as he from England, and confirmed by the already poffefled in Venice, Genoa, revolution towards the end of the and the Swiss cantons: to divide eighteen century. On those prin- the North Americans into two great ciples he fought and conquered; political parties, or rather governconquered—but not for himself. He ments; to play the nothern states, was a Hannibal, as well as Fabius; where the French interest prepona Cromwell, without his ambition; derated, against the southern; to a Sylla, without his crimes. weaken, and so to obtain an influe
As the children of men, in youth ence and authority over the whole. or the vigour of inanhood, are more As the patriotism, prudence, and healthful and vigourous than those firmness of general Washington had in the decline of life, lo general contributed lo largely to snatch his Washington dcfcended and formed, country from the grasp of the British by the lpirit of England, in the legislature, so now they contributed purest and most flourishing period of equally to fave it from a connection English freedom, polletled a juster and subordination, still more to be and higher fpirit of liberty than dreaded, with the French republic. what might, probably, have been The magnitude of the danger, bred by an emigration in the prefent from which general Washington, be. times. When we refiert on the fore his resignation of the presidency, conte between monarchial power, faved his country, will sufficiently on the one hand, and the spirit of appear from the mention of one insubordination, on the other, which, circumstance, that Mr. John Adams, at the present moment, divide Eu- the vice-president of the congress, rope, we thrall find reason to con- the intimate and confidential friend gratulate mankind, that the example of general Washington, and, in eveof a happy medium between both ry respect, worthy of so great an hohas been set, and is likely to be nour, was chosen his successor, by a' more and more enforced, by the majority of only three votes above growing profperity of America. In the number that appeared for Mr. this view, general Washington ap- Jefferies, who was at the head of pears in the light of another Noah; the French party: which passed on the pilot, who, failing in the middle, the 8th of February, 1797. between the dangers of Sylla and also be observed, to the fame end, Charybdis, guided the ark that that the treaty for an amicable and saved the human race from ruin. commercial intercourse beiween
The French agents, Adet, Fauchet, Great Britain and North America, Genét, and Dupont, had been sent was ratified only by the prefident's out, to the Ainerican states, in the casting vote.
JANUARY. royal highness was faluted with 2t
guns from Leith battery, and with 4th. AST night, the house the like number on his landing at in the county of Longford, was the boat by lord Adam Gordon and a attacked by a numerous party of part of his fuite, and conducted in Defenders, who demanded a sure his lordship's carriage to an apartrender of all the arms in the house; ment in his majefty's palace of Holybut, on Mr. Harman's refusing to rood-house, fitted upin haste for his comply with this demand, they de- reception; and, as he entered the termined to carry their purpose by palace, his royal highness was faaffault, and with some difficulty luted with 21 guns from Edinburgh forced open the doors. Mr. Har- Caftle. The Windsor Foresters and inan at the head of his domeftics, Hopetoun Fencibles were in readiendeavouring to repel the affail- ness to line the approach to the pa. ants, was fired upon and received lace, but, his royal highness churthe contents of a blunderbuss load- ing to land in a private manner, ed with flugs in his abdomen, and and with as little ceremony as pola in consequence of his wounds, died fible, that was dispensed with. The this morning. Several of the do- noblemen in his royal highness's meftics were also severely wound- suite followed in carriages provided ed; and the defenders having effec- for that purpose, and were contoally succeeded in obtaining all ducted from the outer gate of the the arms in the house, retreated in palace, by the commander in chief, triumph. Eleven out of the twelve to their apartments. ruffians who affallinated Mr. Har- highness and suite, conifting of a man have been taken, and are in number of French noblemen and Longford gaol; in the number is gentlemen, dined with lord Adam the person wbo was wounded by Gordon. Nis, Harman's piftol.
At Carlton house, between 6th.
Leitb. His royal highness the nine' and ten o'clock in the
count d'Artois, with his suite, morning, the princess of Wales was landed here from on board bis ma- delivered of a princess. The duke jesty's frigate Jafon, on the frigate's of Gloucester, the archbishop of coming to anchor in the roads, bis Canterbury, the lord chancellor, VOL. XXXVIII.