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being able to overturn the republic, and restore the monarchy.

But thofe, who had led them forth to this defperate attempt, did not despair to excite them to a fecond undertaking of the fame nature. They held out every motive that had formerly been prevalent; attachment to their religion, love of their kings, hatred to the prefent innovations. Multitudes were induced accordingly to lift again under their banners: but the greater part remained quiet in their habitations, and the flower of the infurgents was not, as antecedently, compofed of the Vendeans, but of the mixed and numerous mafs of the inhabitants of the feveral provinces of Britanny, Poitou, Maine, Anjou, and others lying on the banks of the Loire.

Thofe who chiefly figured among them, were that body of men known by the appellation of Chouans, and whofe origin and primitive tranfactions and character have already been noticed. From thefe, the whole infurrection now borrowed that denomination; and, as many of their actions had been marked with blood thirstinefs, as well as rapacity, thofe who were united with them, incurred the like imputation; whence they became equally dreaded and abhorred, and acquired the general name of plunderers and murderers among the adherents to the republican party, of which their detefiation was no lefs notorious, as well as their zeal and readiness to doom its partifans to extermination.

This reciprocal dil; ofition was of courfe productive of many atrocious deeds. The republican foldery fhewed them little mercy, confidering them in hardly any other light than that of highway robbers. It became at laft a war of reciprocal

deftruction, not only of men, but of whatever they poffeffed. Slaughter and conflagration went hand in hand, and the country round prefented a picture of death and defolation. No man nor family were fafe in their houfes: the republican foldiers broke into them, and maffacred all they found. The oppofite parties waylayed each other on the roads, and gave no quarter. Their whole attention was employ ed in framing and perpetrating thofe horrors, and executing every fcheme of public and private vengeance.

The pretext, for the commiftion of all thofe enormities, was the fame on both fides: the royalifts charged the republicans with having violated the late treaty, and thefe retorted the accufation. The truth was, that neither party much ap proved of it, and had acceded to it, rather as a fufpenfion of hoftilities, than as an abfolute pacification, intending to abide by the conditions agreed to, no longer than they found it convenient. Hence no confidence was established on either fide, and they both watched each others motions with equal fufpicion of their malevolence.

After a long fluctuation of fortune between the contending partics, the principal commander of the royalifts, the famous Charette, encountered a strong body of the republicans near Roche Suryan, on the twenty-eighth of December, 1795, and was totally defeated. His men were fo completely routed, that he was unable to rally them. They fled from the field in various directions, and were fo clofely purfued, that they difperfed on every fide, and he was never able again to embody them. He was compelled, for his own fafety, to difguile himfelf like

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a peafant. In this drefs he wandered about the country without a companion, in hope of efcaping his purfuers, and gaining the fea fide, where he might find an opportunity of flying to England. But the fearch made after him was fo ftrict and inceffant, that he fell into the hands of a patrole that was in queft of him. He was tried and fentenced to be fhot. His execution took place at Nantes on the twenty-eighth of April. His affociate, the well known Stoflet, who had alfo been made a prifoner, fuffered death in the fame manner, about two months before him.

The fall of thefe two principal chiefs of the infurrection, especially the former, gave it a blow from which it did not recover. Nei ther the Vendeans, nor the Chouans who had joined them, feemed to have been overcome by defpondency on this occafion, and they ftill continued to maintain their ground with as much obftinacy as ever: but whether none of their remaining leaders were of equal ability, or that their people did not repofe the fame confidence in them, their defeats be came continual, and fuch numbers were flaughtered, that the generality of the infurgents began to loofe courage, particularly after the loffes of thofe who commanded them. No less than thirteen of their principal chiefs fell in battle, and ten others were taken and condemned to be fhot.

The death of thefe officers proved an irreparable lofs: they were men of confpicuous refolution, and had long conducted the affairs of their party with remarkable kill and perfeverance in the arduous trials they had to frequently experienced. None at this period feemed capable fupplying their place; but what

chiefly accelerated the fubmiffion of the infurgents, was the lenity with which the government came to the refolution of treating all those who laid down their arms. A proclamation had already been iffued, during the heat of hoftilities, inviting the infurgents to return to obedience, under a folemn promife of burying their revolt in oblivion, and of granting them every juft conceffion they could require: the directory availed itfelf of the advantages it had obtained, to convince thofe who had been concerned in the infurrection, that the only ufe the government would make of the fituation to which they were now reduced, would be to deprive them of the means of exciting difturbances; and that, provided they acquiefed in the injunctions laid upon them, they would be placed on the fame footing with their fellows citizens, and enjoy fimilar rights.

So anxious was the directory to imprefs them with this perfuafion, that it publifhed a circular addrefs to the commanders of the troops employed in fuppreffing the infurrection, ftrictly enjoining them to keep the intentions of the government in conftant view, and not to exceed them by needlefs acts of severity.

But the animofity of the republicans against the infurgents was fuch, that they occafionally exercised great rigour over them, to the ferious concern of the directory, which reprehended, with marked severity, those who had been guilty of these excefles. It anxiously reiterated its orders to abftain from all harfhnefs, and to receive all who fubmitted with a generous forgiveness of the paft; confidering them as deluded brethren, whofe attachment it was the duty of their conquerors to win [G2]. through

through mildness and conciliation, which were the only effectual means of reftoring them to the bofom of their country, and converting them into good citizens.

In purfuance of these maxims, every diftrict that furrendered its arms, and punctually conformed to the conditions' prescribed, was immediately placed under the completeft protection of the laws, and no infraction of thefe fuffered to their detriment.

The measures thus taken, by the directory, availed them more than military coercion would have done. The dread of punishment had kept feveral bodies of the infurgents together: but the moment they found that a pardon would be granted to them, on acceding to the terms of the proclamation that had fo long been circulated; and to which government was yet willing to adhere, they repaired in crowds to the head quarters of the republican generals, declaring their readinefs to accept of the conditions proffered to them.

Thefe fubmiffions gradually took place in the courfe of March and April. By the clofe of this month, the infurrection was fo far quelled, that no apprehentions were entertained from the few ftraggling parties that remained, and which were looked upon as people determined to lead a predatory life, rather than in arms for the caufe they had embraced, and of which no hopes any longer exifted.

After fubduing this dangerous infurrection by force of arms, the next meafure was to pacify the minds of thofe who had fo obftinately perfifted in it, and yielded at length only from the impractibility of any farther refiftance. To this end, in addition to the punctual obfervance

of the promifes made to the infur gents, to induce them to lay down their arms, a number of publications, fuited to the capacity of those for whom they were defigned, were diftributed in the diftricts where the infurrection had taken place: and those individuals on whofe fidelity and attachment to republican principles the government could depend, were encouraged to take all poffible pains to inculcate the propriety of uniting with the majority of their countrymen, and of unfeignedly abjuring those fentiments that had coft them fo many lives, and plunged their families into so much mifery.

The neceffity of acting conformably to this advice, became fo apparent, that even the royalift generals thought themfelves bound no longer to obftruct the fubmiffion of the infurgents, convinced that it was the only means left them to efcape deftruction. A proclamation to this purpofe was iffued and figned by vifcount Scepeaux, the principal in command in the weftern department. After lamenting the fruitless efforts to restore monarchy and the Catholic religion, it acknow ledged that to perfift in this attempt would only be conducting the infurgents to the flaughter. It exhorted them, therefore, to defift, and yield to fuperior force, in order to fecure their lives, and be permitted to dwell in fafety at their homes.

An exhortation of this kind did not fail to convince them of the inutility of any farther oppofition: and, by the latter end of July, the country of the infurgents was for thoroughly pacified, that martial law was repealed, and civil government restored.


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Addrefs of the Directory to the French Armies.-Determination to carry the War into Italy.-Difficulties to be encountered in carrying this Plan into Execution.-Buonaparte.-The French Army, under his Command, makes rapid Progress in Italy.-The Aufirians, under General Beaulieu, confantly repulfed, yet not difpirited.-Various Actions.-Sufpenfion of Arms agreed on beleeen the French and Piedmontefe Armies.-General Beaulieu re-croffes the Po, for covering the Countries to the North of that River. At Paris, Negociation for Peace between the King of Sardinia and the French Republic.-Treaty of Peace between France and Sardinia. ratified by the Legislative Bodies of France.-Exultation and Confidence of the French.Improved by Buonaparte, for the Purpofe of leading on the Army to farther Exploits.-Address to the Army-General Object and Tendency of Buonaparte's private Converfation.-Homage paid to the Merit of Buonaparte and the Army, by the Directory.-Buonaparte puts his Army in Motion.-Craffes the Po, and leaves General Beaulieu to break up his Camp.-Armistice between the French Army and the Duke of Parmą. -The French advance toward the Capital of Lombardy.-Balile of Lodi.The Auftrians retreat to Mantua.-The French proceed to Milan, where the French General allows his People fome Days of Repofe,

WHILE the armies of the republic were fuccefsfully employed in fuppreffing thofe internal commotions, the directory was anxioully taken up with the plans that were to be profecuted, as foon as domeftic difficuties were overcome. In the end of April, they thought themfelves fo completely delivered from all apprehenfions at home, that they began immediately to turn their attention to thofe two undertakings, on the fortunate termination of which the future fecurity of the republic would be eftablifhed beyond the poffibility of being fhaken by any external force. The events of the laft campaign had been fo different from thofe of

France, as well as in other parts the preceding, that many people in of Europe, began to confider the enthufiafm of the French as confiderably abated. But the fanguine difpofition of the generality of the the Rhine folely to the unfkilful French attributed their defeats on management of their generals; and ftill remained convinced, that, had they been judicioufly commanded, they would have been victorious as before.

fuafion, the directory published an In order to encourage this peraddrefs to the different armies, prewas conceived in very animated viously to their taking the field. It terms, and recalled to their notice the


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the various exploits they had performed in the two foregoing years, the patience with which they had borne not only the hardships of the field, but the preffures of want, and the privation of every convenience and comfort, and the invincible for titude with which they had perfifted, amidst all these difficulties, to difcharge the duties of brave foldiers. It exhorted them to perfevere as they had done: fresh toils and victories were expected from them by their country, before its enemies would confent to reasonable terms of peace. It held out the most flattering hopes of fuccefs; and that they were at the eve of terminating their patriotic labours, the ilue of which would procure fafety to their country, and glory to themfelves; who then would return to its bofom, to enjoy the love and gratitude fo jufily due to them from their fellowcitizens, and fo nobly carned by their fervices.

This addrefs was fent to all the military bodies of the republic, and read to them with great folemnity. It was received with much refpect and fatisfaction. The officers and foldiers formally renewed their af furances of fidelity to the republic, and their readiness to lay down their lives in its defence.

The object which the directory had now chiefly in contemplation was to carry the war into Italy. The Auftrians were prepared to pals the Rhine in great force: the attachment of the Belgians to their French conquerors might waver; the fate of another campaign was uncertain; much was to be loft, nothing gained, in the Netherlands, by an appeal to arms, on a queftion, which, if the authority of the republic fhould be confirmed by the

lapfe of even a few years, they might confider as already decided. In this fituation of affairs they determined to divert the energy and attention of the emperor from his Belgian territories, where his authority had been fo often difputed, to his Italian dominions, where his will was a law, and from whence he drew ftill greater fupplies. While they cut off the emperors refources in Italy, they would add to their own. They did not doubt of reaping immenfe benefit from the poffeffion of that country, the inhabitants of which were known generally to have little affection for their prefent fovereigns. The people of the duchies of Milan, Parma, and Modena, were peculiarly difaffected, and, the nobility and clergy excepted, feemed rather to defire, than to dread, a change of mafters. The commonalty, in the republics of Venice and Genoa, profeffed no attachment to their rulers. In Tufcany, and the papat dominions, there were numbers of difcontented; and in the kingdom of Naples the number was still greater.

Among these multitudes there were fome individuals refolute enough to declare their diffatisfaction at their refpective governments, notwithstanding the perfonal dangers to which they ex pofed themfelves by fo daring a conduct. But what was more, fome had the courage to entertain a private correfpondence with France, and explicitly to folicit fome of the principal perfons in the re public to invade Italy, where, they affured them, they would find more friends than foes among the natives, and meet with no oppofition but from the Austrians, and their few adherents, among the polleflors of places

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