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The French, on leaving the right This action, for the time it lasted, fide of the Rhine, had provided and from the mutual animosity of the fortrets of Kehl with a garrison, the combatants, was reputed the composed of select officers and fol most destructive of any

that had yet diers. Moreau's intention was to happened during this war. Such find the Austrians such employment, was the fury of both the French and in the fiege of this important plee, Auftrians, that they were wholly that they hould not have leisure to intent upon Daughter. Few pritern their attention to any other ob- foners were made; and the killed ject in that quarter. His project and wounded, on both fides, was fucceeded fo well, that, till the computed at four thousand, the loss commencement of the ensuing year, being nearly equal. their whole time and strength were The month of December was conSpent in efforts to reduce this for- sumed in operations of this kind, tress. Herein they lost numbers of which occasioned the loss of numthrir beft men. A very serious ac- bers, and served only to exercise tion took place on the twenty-le- the skill and bravery of both parcond of November. The garrison ties. It was not till the opening made a general (ally, and, driving of the next year, that, after a valiant the beliegers from their line of cir- defence of two months, the fortress cumvallation, spiked all their can- of Kehl surrendered to the Austrinon, and, after making a great ans, who thereby became poflessed flaughter, carried off a large number of a heap of rubbish and ruins. The of prisoners.

garrison carried away the very palliIn order to balance this check, ladoes, and left nothing worth the the Auftrians attacked, on the thir- taking. The works at the head of tieth of November, the fortification the bridge were in like manner evathat covered the head of the bridge cuated time time after, and a final of Huninguen, on their fide. The termination put to the operations of attempt was made in the middle of the campaign in this quarter. the night, and the French were The French and Austrian armies, driven from their works. Recover- on the lower Rhine, harrassed by ing, however, from their disorder, the incelant fatigues they had unthey fell upon the assailants, retook dergone, came allo to the determitheir works, and defeated them fonation of concluding hoftilities durcompletely, that they were obliged ing the winter. An armistice took to retire, with the utmost speed, to place between them, about the mida great distance, furiously pursued dle of December, by which they by the French, who New and took mutually agreed to retire into canrast numbers, though not without a tovnents, and to remain there peacelevere loss on their side, at the first ably, till the suspension Moali be onlet, which was very unfavour- formally declared at an end. able, and had nearly put the enemy The ternination of a campaign in pofleffion of the head of the so unfortunate in its commencebridge, whereby the communication ment, and so far

. Jurable in its terwith Kehl would have been cut off, mination, to the Austrian interet and its reddition accelerated. in Germany, totally revived its in. Vol. XXXVIII.



fluence over the diet of the em- the readiness they had manifested to pire at Ratisbon. The consterna- treat with the enemy. - They now tion that had overwhelmed, it at the were equally solicitous to regain the near approach of the victorious ar- good-will of the Imperial court, mies of Jourdan and Moreau, had and addressed it in terms remarkbeen marked by circumftances de ably submissive and thankful for the noting more defpondency than be- protection they had received from came so respectable a body of men, its armies, and the preservation of and subjected them, in fome mea- the empire, by the expulsion of the fure, to the censures of the public, French, through the valour and particularly of the court of Vienna, exertions of the archduke. which expressed high displeasure at

CHAT. ( H A P: X.

State of Parties in France.-- A Revival of the Reign of Terror threatened in

the Southern Departments by Freron.-The Directory defert and oppofe the Jacobin Interes.-Conspiracy of Jacobins.--Discovered and defeated. Arrangements rejpeeling the Efiales of Emigrants.- Influence of the nonjuring or refractory Clergy troublesome to Government. - Scandalous Negleft of the Execution of Jublice.-Criminal Trials: -- Voney and Finance.The same Impojitions laid on the People of the Aufirian Netherlands as on those of France.- New Plots and Injurrections.---Lar for recmciling the different Fudions in France, by the Extinction of Terror.-Propojul for repealing a Lurr which appeared to fome to bear too hard on the Relations of Emigrants.-Rejected. -- But an equitable Alleration inade in that severe Law.--This a Matter of Triumph to the moderate

Parly. IT

T was the policy of the direc- men, bred in times before France

tory, as above observed, to fe- was seized with a rage for innovacure their own power, by enga- tion, whose prejudices were all in ging the French nation in continued favour of monarchy, though not per-, military exploits, by which the pub- haps unlimited; and of others too, lic mind might be occupied other- who, though they had originally fawise than in inquiries into their voured the principles of the reown past or present conduct; and volution, longed now, abore all by which they might acquire popu- things, to enjoy the blessings of larity, in proportion to the succes peace. When this peaceable party, and glory of the French arms. Yet whether inclined to monarchy, or there was, in the midst of all the republicanisın, reflected that all the successes of Buonaparte, in the heart golden dreams of the reformers had of France, a very numerous party in palled away like visions of the night, opposition to the measures of the go- and been followed by nothing but vernment; and this party, by the the accumulated evils of war; horrepulse of the French from Ger- roron horror, disappointment on nany, was daily encrealed. The disappointment. When they looked French, at this period, might be back on former times, plentiful and divided into two great calles: the tranquil; a period too, when they one bustling and intriguing politi- were younger than now, knew more cians, never satisfied while there was happiness, and law every thing anything to be done or undone; for around them in the light of joy and ever in motion, and incapable of gladness; they were lensible of the rest: the other puty, composed of liveliest anguish and regret, and ar

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dently dently wished for a return of such struments of his tyranny, and of the times as they had formerly enjoyed. many cruelties exerciled upon them. This party was the most numerous They executed these schemes to in France, but they were forced to their full extent; and many of the conceal their sentiments, and they guilty agents, in the atrocities comwere not united. They were of mitted among them, were sacrificed course, as utually happens in all to their revenge. countries, kept under by a smaller The moderation that governed number, in pofleffion of the powers the councils of those who succeeded of government. But, in the capital, to the power of Roberspierre, put where the minds of men were stimu- a stop to those executions. The lated and fortified in their senti- prudence of the commissioners fent ments and deligns, by mutual inter- to pacify these departments, had alcourse, and which had so long been most restored them to peace and the seat of intrigues and attempts of mutual conciliation, when, unforopposite parties, there was a great, tunately for their repose, a man was number of discontented individuals, levt to represent and to exercise the waiting for opportunities of pub- supreme authority of the state in licly avowing their fentiments, in op- those parts, who had already fignapolition to those of the present rulers, lized himself there hy his enormiand to support them by open force. ties. The vigilance of the directory ob- This was the famous Freron, a viated their designs, and contained man of courage and abilities, but of them within bounds. So restless a fierce and fanguinary difpofition. and determined, however, were the The people in those departments enemies to the present government, had filled the places of administrathat, farther to secure the public tran- tion, in their respective districts, with quillity, they thought it expedient to persons of their own chusing. add another minifter to the fix al. These were immediately displaced ready appointed by the constitution, by Freron, who substituted to them to whom was given the official title individuals notorious for their crimes of minister of the police.

and the blood they had fhed. He Through precautions of this na- reinstituted the focieties, and renewture, peace was maintained at Pa- ed those revolutionary committees ris, but disturbances broke out, occa- that had filled France with such fionally, in several parts of the re- horror; and he authorized them to public. The southern departments, break those members of the various long a prey to that warmth and iin- municipalities whole principles difpetuolity of temper which charac- ferred from their own. terize their inhabitants, were at this During several months, the optime plunged into confusions that pressed inhabitants of those deparirequired the immediate interposition ments were compelled to fubinit to of government to suppress them. the tyranny of Freron and his parti

As the people in those parts had zans, who strove with indefatigable been particularly ill treated by the zeal to re-establish the reign of terrorjacobin party, they had, ever since ilm. But the directory, who felt the fall of Roberspierre, meditated the necessity of putting an end to Ichemes of vengeance against the in- the influence which the jacobins Here endeavouring to recover, re- nioft violent rancour of that restless called Freron, and commiffioned and daring party: but, heedless of two men of moderate principles, their hatred and menaces, governIfward and Jourdan, to inquire, in ment alleged these as realóns for conjunction with others, into the putting a period to their meetings, causes of the discontents and disture and shutting up their places of rebances that had happened in those fort. They represented them to the departments. But the jacobin party public in the most odious light, exlaboured so earnestly to fruftrate this horting all good citizens to watch commission, by calumniating the their motions, as full of danger and members that composed it, that, not- malevolence to the state. They withstanding their accufations were procured laws to be enacted, obviformally declared malicious and ill- ously levelled at them : thole, for founded, it was judged requisite, in inttance, that made it a capital crime order to prevent feuds and animo- to hold leditious meetings, or to atfities in the two councils, to diffolve tempt the re-establithment of the the commiffion. Goverument was conftitution under Roberspierre. apprehentive it would make disco- Those members of the late convenveries that might involve perfons tion and committees, reputed the high in office, and occasion jea- heads of this party, were ordered to lousies to be revived, which might leave the capital, and the major defeat the conciliatory views pro- part of those in offices of trust were posed by the new constitution. The dilmifled. inquiry was, therefore, entrufted to It was not without pressing mothe dírectory, which wisely deter- tives that the directory acted with this mined to drop retrospective mea- severity towards the jacobins: they fures, and, by lenient means, to re- were labouring to diffeminate a spí. fiore tranquillity to the departments rit of disobedience through all the in question.


civil and military departments in the The jacobins were highly offend- metropolis. They had feduced into ed by the moderate councils which open rebellion a hody of the latter, they now perceived the directory known by the appellation of legion of was resolved to pursue. They ac- the police. It consisted of men selectcased it of having abandoned thole ed from various corps of the army, democratical principles on which and ordered to Paris for the fupport the republic was founded, and bale- of the convention when the Parisians ly betrayed those from whom it de- opposed that article of the conftiturived its power in the state. But tion, which ordained a re-election the directory unintimidated by their of two-thirds of its members to the threats, steadily adhered to its deter- new legislature. minations, and gradually introduced As they amounted to ten thouinto office individuals of their own fand men, such a force appeared too opinions, in preference to the jaco- formidable to be left in the hands of bins, who had hitherto enjoyed al- the jacabins, who had to perverted most exclusively the first places un- them, that they were no longer to der government.

be trusted. They were directed to This defertion of the jacobin in- repair to their respective regiments. terest subjected the directory to the Upon their refusal to obey, a power

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