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for the French, from the minds of all the people in Germany, when they faw with how little reafon they had expected to be benefit ed by the fucceffes of thofe licentious invaders. Nothing lefs than their infamous conduct to the people, who had long viewed them with benevolence, and had received them with cordiality, could have effaced the impreffion which had fo univerfally taken place in their favour. The Germans now became convinced of their error, in expecting that a foreign nation would be fincerely folicitous to rid them of their grievances, and would not rather make ufe of the opportunity of rendering them fubfervient to their own purposes.


by the way of the Danube, otherwife than through their connivance, which, according to the ufual policy of the court of Berlin, muft be purchafed by fome important conceffión. In a word, according to human views, the abafement, if not the ruin, of the house of Auftria feemed to be fast approaching; and the liberties of the inferior ftates already to have fallen. It was, therefore, with univerfal fatisfaction that Germany beheld the Pruffian monarch's affociates in thefe iniquitous defigns, difabled from giving him affiftance or countenance. The world indignantly beheld the affected moderation he affumed, by pretending to relinquish his ufurpations on the ground, that the inhabitants of the diftricts he had feized, would not confent to become his fubjects, nor the empire itself be prevailed upon to authorize him to accept of their fubmiffion. His ambition appeared altogether of a mean and ap-contemptible kind. It was evident he would have facrificed his common country to ftrangers, for the fake of promoting fome paultry interests, the compaffing of which would never have indemnified him from the danger he must have incurred by introducing fo formidable and restless a people into Germany as the French. Their interference in its internal affairs would, in all likelihood, have been exerted without confulting his inclinations and intereft, and might much more fhortly than he imagined, have been extended to his own con cerns, in a manner that would have affected him most detrimentally, and afforded him ample caufe to repent of the fordid motives that had induced him to act against his country.

But that confequence of the forced retreat of the French from Germany, which politicians efteemed moft deferving of confideration, was the immediate influence it had over the councils of the court of Berlin. While the French peared irrefiftible, it harboured and undertook defigns of a nature tending at once to revolutionize the whole empire, and to exact the dominion of Pruffia equally on the fall of Auftria and the ruin of the fmaller ftates of Germany. The movements and fucceffes of the French in Italy and on the Rhine, and the establish ment on the part of Pruffia of a great military force in Nuremberg, feemed to indicate a plan for furrounding the emperor, by a wide circle, at the fame time that they laboured for his deftruction, by in terior attacks. The French armies contracted more and more the quarters of the Auftrians on the Rhine; the pofition of the Pruffians, at Nuremberg, precluded the army under the archduke from retreating



France, though difappointed in the great projects it had formed in

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the expedition to Germany, fill perfuafions of a fimilar kind, that preferved its general preponderance were no lefs current among the peoagainft the coalition. The directory ple of its hereditary dominions in had, previoully to the opening of Germany, contributed wonderfully the campaign, published to all Eu- to animate them in the defence of rope a defire to terminate the war a family, that feemed, at all times, upon equitable conditions; but these the peculiar favourite of fortune, and did not appear fuch to the two re- deftined, however liable to tempomaining powers in alliance againftrary depreffion, ultimately to fucthe republic. They well under-ceed againft all its enemies, and to ftood, that the ceffion of the Ne-verify the epithet, beftowed upon it therlands would be required, toge- fo long ago, of fortunate. ther with the restoration of all the The inferior fovereigns, and petty conquefts made by the British army, ftates of the empire, had, in the in both the Indies ab auct beginning of the conteft hetween the coalition and the republic, wavered in their opinion concerning the juftice and propriety of requiring them to join against a people that had given them no provocation. Hence flowed thofe difcontents, and murmurs, againft the Imperial mandates, and requifitions, to that purpofe, which were gradually Auftria did not difplay lefs refo- that iffued them, and into good converted into an enmity to thofe Jution. It relied on that conftant wishes to the caufe againft which good fortune which had, in the cri- they combated. But this hoftile diftical occurrences of many ages, never pofition had no activity. A long permitted it to be reduced to dif- and habitual fubferviency to the potrefs, without finally providing it litics of the court of Vienna was with the means of deliverance. too firmly established among most of Hence, in the midft of difficulties, the fecondary princes, and Imperial the fpirit of that high-minded fa- cities, as they are ftyled, to be fhaken mily, though frequently ftaggered by transitory events. The court of at the reveries that befel it, and. Berlin, was more feared than rebending occafionally before unavoid- fpected, and its tergiverfation deable neceffityoftill remained un- ftroyed all influence but that which broken, and Glently cherished the proceeded immediately from the terhope, that the hour of profperity For of its arms. Thus the Auftrian would return, as it had fo, often intereft, though it fometimes fluctusydone, and richly repay it for its paftated, ftill recovered its influence, Sloffessinemittsb from mid befase 29 and the inimical defigns of Pruffia, to While fuch ideas were prevalent,againft the leffer ftates of the embethe court of Vienna felt more indig pire, together with the flagitious benation than defpondency at the fuc-haviour of the French, reftored, in of the republican arms, The great meafure, the preponderbeartol bed fi afberong the o


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ance of the Imperial court, and the former readiness to coincide with its wifhes. The return of this complying temper was alfo partly due to the neceflity which Auftria felt, of paying a competent regard to the ideas and inclinations of the people at large, and of carefully avoiding to give them juft caufe of offence.

The frontiers of France, on the Rhine, were now in danger of becoming again the theatre of war. The fpirit and activity of the archduke, encreafed by his late fucceffes, had prompted him to an enterprize, from which, if he fucceeded, much utility and honour would be derived This was to retake, by a fudden and vigorous attack, the fortress of Kehl. To this end he detached, from his army, a corps of chofen men, who attacked the French general, Scherer, at Bruchfal, in the proximity of the Rhine, on the thirteenth of September, and, pufhing him before them as far as Kehl, forced the outworks on the nineteenth, and had nearly carried that ftrong fortrefs. A tremendous fire, from the French batteries, compelled them, at length, to retire: but the boldnefs and refolution difplayed in this enterprize did great honour to the affailants, and fhewed how little the Auftrian troops were daunted by the fucceffes of the French.

The fame enterprizing difpofition continued to characterize the archduke in his operations against the French, after their retreat to Friburgh, where Moreau had now eftablished his quarters. On the feventeenth of October, his advanced pofts, at Kindringen, in the vicinity, were aflailed with great fury by the Infperial army, commanded by the

archduke in perfon. All the generals that had been employed against Moreau, in the courfe of the campaign, were prefent in this action, which was maintained with remarkable obftinacy by both parties. The perfonal intrepidity of the archduke was confpicuous on this occafión. The right wing of his army, under Latour, being repulfed, and on the point of abandoning the attack of Kindringen, he put himfelf at the head of a body of granadiers, who returned to the charge and carried it. The left wing, and the centre of the Auftrians, met with the firmeft refiftance, and, though the French were worfted, the action was not decifive.

General Moreau, finding himfelf overpowered by the immenfe fuperiority of numbers that occupied the pofitions around, concentrated his force in fuch a manner, as either to make a vigorous defence, or a fe cure retreat, as circumftances fhould render it moft expedient. He was attacked upon the ftrong ground he had chofen at Schlingen, fituated upon a height, near Friburgh, on the twenty-third of October. The difpofitions made by general Moreau, to receive the enemy, were fo judicious, that, notwithstanding the number and valour of the Austrians, and the expertnefs of their commanders, the conteft lafted three days, when the French, after difputing every inch of ground, retired in the best order, acrofs the Rhine, at Huninghen, on the twenty-fixth. Their retreat was conducted with fuch firmnefs in the men, and skill in their commander, that the Auftrians were neither able, nor willing, to attempt a clofe purfuit.


The French, on leaving the right fide of the Rhine, had provided the fortrefs of Kehl with a garrifon, compofed of felect officers and foldiers. Moreau's intention was to find the Auftrians fuch employment, in the fiege of this important place, that they fhould not have leifure to tara their attention to any other objet in that quarter. His project fucceeded fo well, that, till the commencement of the enfuing year, their whole time and ftrength were fpent in efforts to reduce this fortrefs. Herein they loft numbers of their beft men. A very ferious action took place on the twenty-fecond of November. The garrifon made a general fally, and, driving the befiegers from their line of circumvallation, spiked all their cannon, and, after making a great flaughter, carried off a large number of prifoners.

In order to balance this check, the Auftrians attacked, on the thirtieth of November, the fortification that covered the head of the bridge of Huninguen, on their fide. The attempt was made in the middle of the night, and the French were driven from their works. Recovering, however, from their diforder, they fell upon the affailants, retook their works, and defeated them fo completely, that they were obliged to retire, with the utmoft fpeed, to a great diftance, furioufly purfued by the French, who flew and took vaft numbers, though not without a fevere lofs on their fide, at the firft enfet, which was very unfavourable, and had nearly put the enemy in poffeffion of the head of the bridge, whereby the communication with Kehl would have been cut off, and its reddition accelerated.



This action, for the time it lafted, and from the mutual animofity of the combatants, was reputed the moft deftructive of any that had yet happened during this war. was the fury of both the French and Auftrians, that they were wholly intent upon flaughter. Few pri foners were made; and the killed and wounded, on both fides, was computed at four thousand, the lofs being nearly equal.

The month of December was confumed in operations of this kind, which occafioned the lofs of numbers, and ferved only to exercise the fkill and bravery of both parties. It was not till the opening of the next year, that, after a valiant defence of two months, the fortrefs of Kehl furrendered to the Auftrians, who thereby became poffeffed of a heap of rubbish and ruins. The garrifon carried away the very pallifadoes, and left nothing worth the taking. The works at the head of the bridge were in like manner evacuated fome time after, and a final termination put to the operations of the campaign in this quarter.

The French and Auftrian armies, on the lower Rhine, harraffed by the inceffant fatigues they had undergone, came alfo to the determination of concluding hoftilities dur ing the winter. An armiftice took place between them, about the middle of December, by which they mutually agreed to retire into cantonments, and to remain there peaceably, till the fufpenfion fhould be formally declared at an end.

The termination of a campaign fo unfortunate in its commencement, and fo far, Jurable in its termination, to the Aufirian intere in Germany, totally revived its in[L] fluence

fluence over the diet of the empire at Ratisbon. The confternation that had overwhelmed, it at the near approach of the victorious armies of Jourdan and Moreau, had been marked by circumftances denoting more defpondency than became fo refpectable a body of men, and fubjected them, in fome meafure, to the cenfures of the public, particularly of the court of Vienna, which expreffed high displeasure at

the readiness they had manifested to treat with the enemy. They now were equally folicitous to regain the good-will of the Imperial court, and addreffed it in terms remarkably fubmiffive and thankful for the protection they had received from its armies, and the preservation of the empire, by the expulfion of the French, through the valour and exertions of the archduke.


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