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Divorce is a dissolution of the marriage status. Divorce must be distinguished from an annullment of marriage. Where a marriage is annulled, it is rendered void from the beginning. In the case of a divorce the marriage is generally held valid up to the time of its dissolution and the children born during such marriage will be legitimate.

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SECTION 19. Two FORMS OF DIVORCE.

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At common law there were two kinds of divorce a vinculo matrimonii, or absolute divorce and a mensa et thoro, which nearly corresponds to our separate maintenance. In this country there is but one kind of divorce—an absolute release from the marriage relation.

There is, in addition to Divorce at the present time, what is known as Separate Maintenance, by which the wife is allowed to live apart from her husband without any dissolution of the marriage relation.

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SECTION 20. THE LAW OF WHAT PLACE DETERMINES

THE LEGALITY OF DIVORCE.

In general, the validity of a divorce granted by one state will generally be recognized by the courts of every other state. Some exceptions to this rule are to be found in cases where the defendant was a nonresident and more particularly where the complainant in the divorce suit went to the state where the divorce was obtained for the purpose of obtaining such divorce. A little over a year ago the law was thrown into a great deal of confusion by the decision in the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Haddock vs. Haddock. The exact effect of this decision is not yet determined but it has certainly rendered a great number of divorces invalid in any state except the state granting the divorce. This whole subject of the extra territorial effect of a divorce more properly comes under the subject of Conflict of Laws, and will be discussed under that head.?

SECTION 21. GROUNDS FOR DIVORCE. The most common grounds for divorce are adultery, desertion for a certain specified period, extreme and repeated cruelty, habitual drunkenness, attempting the life of the other, bigamy, and impotency. The 1 201 U. S., 562.

3 Causes for Divorce in the various • Vol. 12, Subj. 39.

states are as follows:

Causes for Absolute Divorce.
Residence
STATES.

In addition to adultery, which is cause for divorce in all the
Required.

States* Alabama.......

1 year.

Abandonment two years, felony, crime against nature,

habitual drunkenness, violence, pregnancy, of wife bý other than husband at marriage, physical incapacity,

imprisonment for two years. Arizona.

1 year.

Felony, physical incapacity, desertion one year, excess,

cruelty, neglect to provide one year, pregnancy of wife by other than husband at marriage, conviction of felony

prior to marriage unknown to other party. Arkansas. ...

1 year.

Desertion one year, felony, habitual drunkenness one year,

cruelty, permanent insanity, former marriage existing California..

1 year.

Cruelty, desertion one year, neglect one year, habitual

drunkenness one year, felony. Colorado.

1 year.

Desertion one year, physical incapacity, cruelty, failure to

provide one year, habitual drunkenness one year, felony.

former marriage existing, Connecticut. ... t Fraudulent contract, wilful desertion three years, with

total neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness, cruelty, imprisonment for life, infamous crime involving violation of conjugal duty and punishable by imprisonment in State prison, seven years' absence without being heard

from. Delaware...

Desertion three years, habitual drunkenness, physical in

capacity, cruelty, felony, and at the discretion of the

Court, fraud, want of age, neglect to provide three years, D. of Columbia.

2 years.

Marriages may be annulled for former existing marriage, lunacy, fraud, coercion, physical incapacity, and want of

age at time of marriage. Florida,

2 years. Cruelty, violent temper, habitual drunkenness, physical

incapacity, continued desertion, former marriage exist

ing, relationship within prohibited degrees. Georgia.

year. Mental and physical incapacity, desertion three years,

1

felony, cruelty, habitual drunkenness, force, duress, or fraud in obtaining marriage, pregnancy of wife by other than husband at marriage, relationship within prohibited degrees.

*Exclusive of South Carolina, which has no divorce law. Varies with cause.

last two causes are more properly the grounds for the annullment of a marriage. Insanity and non-support are not grounds for divorce. Non-support, however, may be the basis for a suit for separate maintenance, or for a criminal prosecution against the husband.

SECTION 22. ALIMONY AND CUSTODY OF CHILDREN.

The courts upon granting a decree for divorce may make provisions for the payment of certain sums of money for the support of the wife and minor children. This is called alimony. The collection of alimony may be enforced by punishing the husband for contempt of court, if he fails to pay it. The court in granting a divorce may also make provisions as to the custody of the children.“

Causes for Absolute Divorce.

STATES.

Residence
Required.

In addition to adultery which is couse for divorce in all the

States.*

1 year.

1 year.

Idaho..

6 mos.

Cruelty, desertion one year, neglect one year, habitual

drunkenness one year, felony, insanity. Mlinois....

1 year.

Desertion two years, habitual drunkenness two years,

former existing marriage, cruelty, felony, physical incapacity, attempt on life of other party, divorced party

cannot marry for two years. Indiana.

2 years.

Abandonment two years, cruelty, habitual drunkenness,

failure to provide iwo years, felony, physical incapacity. Iowa,

Desertion two years, felony, habitual drunkenness, cruelty,

pregnance of wife by other than husband at marriage. Kansas,

Abandonment one year, cruelty, fraud, habitual drunkenness, gross neglect of duty, felony, physical incapacity

pregnance of wife by other than husband at marriage. Kentucky..... 1 year.

Separation five years, desertion one year, felony, physical

incapacity, loathsome disease, habitual drunkenness one year, cruelty, force, fraud, or duress in obtaining marriage joining religious sect. believing marriage unlawful, pregnancy of wife by other than husband at marriage or

subsequent unchaste behavior, ungovernable temper. Louislana....

Felony, 'habitual drunkenness, excesses, cruelty, public

defamation of other party, abandonment five years,

attempt on life of other party, fugitive from justice. Maine.......

1 year.

Cruelty, desertion three years, physical incapacity, habits

of intoxication by liquors, opium, or other drugs, neglect

to provide. Maryland...

2 years.

Abandonment three years, unchastity of wife before marriage, physical incapacity, any cause which renders the

marriage null and void ab initio. Massachusetts. . 3-5-years Cruelty, desertion three years, habits of intoxication by

Liquors, opium or other drugs, neglect to provide, physical incapacity, imprisonment for felony, uniting for three

years with religious sect believing marriage unlawful. Michigan......

2 years

Felony, desertion two years, habitual drunkenness, physi

cal incapacity, and in the discretion of the Court for

cruelty or neglect to provide. Minnesota. ... 1 year.

Desertion one year, habitual drunkenness by liquors or

opium, cruelty, physical incapacity, imprisonment for

felony. Missourl...... 1 year.

Felony, absence one year, habitual drunkenness one year,

cruelty, indignities, vagrancy, former existing marriage, physical incapacity, conviction of felony prior to marriage unknown to other party, wife pregnant by other

than husband at marriage. Montana, .....

1 year.

Cruelty, desertion, neglect one year, habitual drunkenness

one year, felony. Nebraska.....

6 mos,

Abandonment two years, habitual drunkenness, physical

incapacity, felony, failure to support two years, cruelty, Nevada.

6 mos,

Desertion one year, felony, habitual drunkenness, physical

incapacity, cruelty, neglect to provide one year.

*Exclusive of South Carolina, which has no divorce law.

SECTION 23. PROHIBITION OF RE-MARRIAGE.

In New York, the re-marriage of the guilty party is prohibited during the lifetime of the other party to the marriage. In several states statutes have recently • See Chapter 7, on Custody of Children.

(f)

Causes for Absolute Divorce.
Residence
STATES.

In addition to adultery, which is cause for divorce in all the
Required.

States.* N. Hampshire, . | 1 year. Cruelty, felony, physical incapacity, absence three years,

habitual drunkenness three years, failure to provide three years, treatment endangering health or reason, union with sect regarding marriage unlawful, wife separate without the State ten years, not claiming marital rights, husband absent from United States three years

intending to become citizen of another country. New Jersey...

Desertion two years, physical incapacity. No divorce may be obtained on grounds arising in another State unless they constituted ground for divorce in the State

where they arose, New Mexico,... | 1 year, Abandonment, cruelty, neglect to provide, habitual drunk

enness, felony, physical incapacity, pregnancy of wife

by other than husband at marriage. New York. ....

Adultery only. N. Carolina,

Pregnancy of wife by other than husband at marriage,

physical incapacity. North Dakota, . 1 year.

Cruelty, desertion one year, neglect one year, habitual

drunkenness one year, felony. Ohio....

1 year.

Absence three years, cruelty, fraud, gross neglect of duty,

habitual drunkenness three years, felony, former existing marriage; procurement of divorce without the State by one party, which continues marriage binding upon other

party; physical incapacity: Oklahoma.... 1 year, Abandonment one year, cruelty, fraud, habitual drunken

ness, felony, gross neglect of duty, physical incapacity, former existing marriage, pregnancy of wife by other

than husband at marriage. Oregon....

1 year,

Felony, habitual drunkenness one year, physical incapacity,

desertion one year, cruelty or personal indignities render

ing life burdensoine. Pennsylvania .. 1 year. Former existing marriage, desertion two years, personal

abuse or conduct rendering life burdensome, felony, fraud, relationship within prohibited degrees, physical

incapacity and lunacy. Rhode Island, .. 2 years. Cruelty, desertion five years, habitual drunkenness, exces

sive use of morphine, opium, or chloral, neglect to provide one year, gross misbehavior, living separate ten years, physical incapacity. Either party civilly dead

for crime or prolonged absence. 8, Carolina.

No divorces granted. South Dakota.. 6 mos, Cruelty, desertion one year, physical incapacity, neglect

one year, habitual drunkenness one year, felony, Tennessee. .....

2 years. Former existing marriage, desertion two years, felony,

physical incapacity, attempt on life of other party, re*Exclusive of South Carolina, which has no divorce law. Varies with cause. Actual residence.

been passed prohibiting the re-marriage of either party for a specified time.

According to some decisions a second marriage after divorce within the time proscribed by a statute like that with which the reported case is concerned would be voidable only. These decisions make a distinction between statutes forbidding a second marriage during a specified time after the decree of divorce or during the time for appeal or error, and imposing a penalty, and those statutes which declare that the parties shall not be capable of contracting the second marriage, but which do not impose a penalty. In the first instance the second marriage would be merely void. This distinction is recognized in State vs. Walker, 36 Kan., 297. The Kansas statute is very similar to the Nebraska statute under which the reported case is

1 year.

1 year.

Residence

Causes for Absolute Divorce. STATES. Required. In addition to adultery, which is cause for divorce in all the

States.* fusal of wife to live with husband in the State and absenting herself two years, pregnancy of wife by other than husband at marriage; at the discretion of the Court for cruelty, indignities, abandonment, or neglect to pro

vide. Texas. .

6 mos, Abandonment three years, physical Incapacity, cruelty,

excess, or outrages rendering life together insupportable,

felony. Utah.

Desertion one year, neglect to provide, physical incapacity,

habitual drunkenness, felony, cruelty, permanent in

sanity. Vermont.

Imprisonment three years, intolerable severity, desertion

three years, neglect to provide. Virginia.

1 year.

Insanity at marriage, felony, desertion three years, fugitive

from justice two years, pregnancy of wife by other than husband at marriage, wife a prostitute, or either party convicted of felony before marriage unknown to other,

physical incapacity. Washington. ... 1 year.

Abandonment one year, fraud, habitual drunkenness

refusal to provide, felony, physical incapacity, incurable insanity, cruelty or indignities rendering life burden

some, other cause deemed sufficient by the Court. West Virginia..

Desertion three years, felony, physical incapacity, preg

nancy of wife, by other than husband at marriage, husband & licentious character or wife a prostitute unknown to other party, either party convicted of felony

before marriage unknown to other. Wisconsin,

1 year,

Felony, desertion one year, cruelty, physical incapacity,

habitual drunkenness one year, separation five years.

Divorcee cannot marry for one year. Wyoming.... 1 year.

Felony, desertion one year, habitual drunkenness, cruelty, neglect to provide one year, husband a vagrant, physical incapacity, indignities rendering condition intolerable, pregnancy of wife by other than husband at marriage, either party, convicted of felony before marriage uno known to other.

1 year.

*Exclusive of Sob Carolina, which has no divorce law,

Vol. IV-16.

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