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An Allgemeine Geschichte des Zeitungswesens has been issued in the Sammlung Göschen (Leipzig, Göschen, pp. 180) by Ludwig Salomon, the author of an excellent Geschichte des Deutschen Zeitungswesens, in three volumes.

Modern Constitutions (University of Chicago Press, 1908), by Dr. W. F. Dodd, contains the English text of the constitutions or fundamental laws of the Argentine Nation, Australia, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States.

Geschichte der Neuzeit: Das Nationale und Soziale Zeitalter seit 1815 (Berlin, Ullstein, 1908, pp. xix, 648) forms the sixth volume in Professor J. von Pflugk-Harttung's IV eltgeschichte.

M. de Martens is about to publish the fifteenth volume of his great work on the diplomatic relations of Russia with foreign powers, Recueil des Traités et Conventions conclus par la Russie avec les Puissances Étrangères. Besides the texts of the diplomatic documents it includes a survey of Russia's diplomatic relations with France from 1823 to 1857.

The Bernstorff Papers: the Life of Count Albrecht von Bernstorff, by Dr. Karl Ringhoffer, has been translated by Mrs. C. E. BarrettLennard and M. W. Hoper, with an introduction by Sir Rowland Blennerhassett (Longmans, 1908, 2 vols.). Count Bernstorff was the Prussian representative at the English court for many years, notably during the Crimean War and the Franco-German War.

The first volume of Adolphe de Circourt's Souvenirs d'une Mission à Berlin en 1848 (Paris, Picard) has been edited by M. Georges Bourgin, archivist at the Archives Nationales, for the Society of Contemporary History

An Austrian Diplomatist in the Fifties (Cambridge University Press, 1908), the Rede Lecture of 1908, by Sir Ernest Satow, treats of Hübner, whose journals of his residence in Paris as Austrian representative from 1849 to 1859 were published in 1904.

M. Austin Tardieu's France and the Alliances (Macmillan, 1908, pp. x, 314) is the outcome of lectures delivered by him in 1907 before the French Circle of Harvard University. The book describes the political relation of France to the other powers, including the United States, since the Franco-Prussian War, presenting an outline history of European diplomacy during this period.

The second part of the British Official History of the Russo-Japanese War (Wyman) begins after the battle of the Yalu and goes up to, but does not include, the battle of Liao-Yang. While the first part was issued in 1906 by the General Staff, this second part has been prepared by the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. The

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Russo-Japanese I'ar: the Y'a-lu, prepared in the Historical Section of the German General Staff, has been translated by Lieutenant Karl von Donat and published by Messrs. Hugh Rees.

Noteworthy articles in periodicals: L. Willaert, Négociations PoliticoReligieuses entre l'Angleterre et les Pays-Bas Catholiques (1598-1625): Intervention des Souverains Anglais en Faveur du Protestantisme aux Pays-Bas, concl. (Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, October); P. Hiltebrandt, Preussen und die Römische Kurie in der Zweiten Hälfte des Siebzehnten Jahrhunderts (Quellen und Forschungen, XI. 2); L. André, La Candidature de Christine de Suède au Trône de Pologne (1668) (Revue Historique, November-December); J. H. Rose, The FrancoBritish Commercial Treaty of 1786 (English Historical Review, October); C. Mirbt, Die Geschichtschreibung des l'atikanischen Koncils (Historische Zeitschrift, CI. 3); L. Renault, L'Oeuvre de La Haye, 1899 et 1907 (Annales des Sciences Politiques, July).

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GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND A Royal Commission has been appointed to inventory the monuments and constructions connected with, or illustrative of, the culture, civilization and conditions of life of the people in England from the earliest times to the year 1700, and to specify those that seem most worthy of preservation. The Commission consists of Lord Burghclere, the Earl of Plymouth, Viscount Dillon, Lord Balcarres, Sir H. H. Howorth, Sir John F. F. Horner, Mr. E. J. Horniman, Professor F. J. Haverfield, Mr. L. Stokes, vice-president of the Royal Institute of British Architects, Mr. J. Fitzgerald, assistant secretary to H. M. Office of Works, and Mr. J. G. V. Clift, honorary secretary to the British Archaeological Association.

In W. Johnson's volume entitled Folk-Memory, or the Continuity of British Archacology (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908, pp. 416), the author aims at “a co-ordination and recombination of scattered facts selected from the great storehouse”. He treats of the Stone and Bronze Ages at length, agriculture and marling, deneholes, old roads, etc. chapter of references and bibliography fills 32 pages.

Mr. Hubert Hall's Studies in English Official Historical Documents (Cambridge, University Press, 1908, pp. xv, 404) will be of inestimable aid to the student and record-worker. Part 1. treats of the history, classification and analysis of archives and of the bibliography of English official historical documents with numerous illustrative appendices. The Diplomatic of Official Historical Documents ", and "The Palaeography of Official Documents ” are the subjects of the second and third parts. From the same press and edited by Mr. Hall comes A Formula Book of English Official Historical Documents, part I., Diplomatic Documents, 704-1837 (1908, pp. xvi, 170), selected and transcribed by a seminar of the London School of Economics, and containing concrete examples of

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diplomatic composition, based on the classification adopted in the Studies, with a diplomatic description of the several documents and indications of their provenance and bibliographical relations.

Asser's Life of King Alfred (Chatto and Windus, 1908, pp. lviii, 163), translated with introduction and notes by L. C. Jane, has been issued in the series of the King's Classics. There are at least four other English translations of this work of which the last, by Professor Cook of Yale, was published in 1906.

Students of social and economic history will welcome Mr. George Unwin's volume on The Gilds and Companies of London (Methuen, 1908, pp. 397), published in the series of " The Antiquary's Books”. The author traces the continuous organic development of these bodies from the twelfth to the nineteenth century, and emphasizes their significance for the constitutional history of the city and for the social and economic development of the nation. The book contains an interesting chapter on the Place of the Gild in the History of Western Europe, and numerous illustrations.

E. V. Vaughn, instructor in history in the University of Missouri, has published a study of The Origin and Early Development of the English Universities to the Close of the Thirteenth Century (University of Missouri Studies, Social Science Series, II. 2, 1908, pp. 147) which attempts "to trace the corporate development of these two English universities during the thirteenth century and to outline the steps by which they gradually approached an independent position in the polity of the Middle Ages ”.

Dr. James Gairdner, whose knowledge of the sources of Henry VIII.'s reign is probably unrivalled, has published an historical survey of Lollardy and the Reformation in England (Longmans, 1908), the two volumes of which extend from the time of Wyclif to the end of the reign of Henry VIII.

Dr. Karl Stählin of Heidelberg has undertaken to fill a gap in English biographical literature by a two-volume work on Sir Francis Walsingham und seine Zeit (Heidelberg, Winter). The first volume (1908, pp. xiv, 662) comes down to 1573. The second volume will continue the history to 1590 and will include a survey of the printed and of the abundant manuscript material in English and foreign archives on which the work is based.

Professor Foster Watson's volume on The English Grammar Schools to 1660 (Cambridge University Press, 1908) is a history of the curriculum and practice of the schools in distinction from the history of the theories of educational reformers. The attempt has been to describe representative documents and school text-books.

Messrs. Billing and Sons of Guildford, Surrey, have issued proposals for the publication of “Original Records of Early Nonconformity under

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Persecution and Indulgence", by Professor G. Lyon Turner, in two volumes. These will present a transcript of the Episcopal Returns for 1665 and 1669 as contained in volume 639 of the manuscript department of the Lambeth Palace Library, and the documents connected with the issue of licenses under the Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 as preserved in the Record Office. These are records of the greatest value, unknown or unavailable to the early historians of Nonconformity. Elaborate indexes will assist in making available the information which they contain

J. B. Williams has published through Longmans A History of English Journalism to the Foundation of the Gazette" (1908, pp. 306), the object of which is to show who the journalists during the Civil War were, what their work was, and what is its value. A catalogue of periodicals from 1641 to 1666 is included.

The Origins of the British Colonial System, 1578–1660, by George L. Beer, is now out (Macmillan, pp. viii, 438).

In his somewhat digressive Early History of the Tories, from the accession of Charles II. to the death of William III. (Smith Elder, 1908, pp. 498), Mr. C. B. Roylance Kent pays special attention to the doctrines of this party.

The bicentenary of Chatham's birth has been commemorated by special exhibitions of manuscripts at the Public Record Office and the British Museum, and by a meeting of the Royal Historical Society on November 16, at which Mr. Frederic Harrison delivered an address, and Dr. Hunt and Mr. Julian Corbett spoke. An account of the commemoration, with some remarks on the need of an historical bibliography of Chatham, is published in the Athenaeum of November 21.

A new "Life of William Pitt the Younger ", by Dr. J. Holland Rose, including much new information from private sources and from the Foreign Office, is being published by Messrs. Bell.

The Panmure Papers (Hodder and Stoughton, 1908), a selection from the correspondence of Fox Maule, second Baron Panmure, afterwards eleventh Earl of Dalhousie, edited by Sir George Douglas and Sir George Dalhousie Ramsay, with a supplementary chapter by the late Rev. Principal Rainy, includes nearly 200 letters of Queen Victoria, almost all unpublished, and letters from the Prince Consort and Lord Palmerston, etc., and throws new light on the Crimean War.

Mr. Bernard Mallet's biography of Thomas George, G. C.S. I., Earl of Northbrook (Longmans, 1908) devotes special attention to Lord Northbrook's career as viceroy in India.

Longmans will publish early in this year the first and second volumes of Ireland under the Stuarts and during the Interregnum, by Dr. Richard Bagwell, author of Ireland under the Tudors.



British government publications: Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward I., vol. V., 1302-1307; Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Henry VI., vol. IV., 1441-1446; Letters and Papers, Forcign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII., vol. XXI., part 1.; List of War Office Records, I.; Reports of the Historical Manuscripts Commission on the manuscripts of J. B. Fortescue, Esq., preserved at Dropmore, vol. VI.

Other documentary publications: A. O. Anderson, Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers (Nutt, 1908) [from the earliest time to 1280]; Herbert Maxwell, Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272–1280, I. (Scottish Historical Review, October) [translation]; G. W. Forrest, Selections from the Travels and Journals preserved in the Bombay Secretariat (Bombay, Government Central Press) [the documents cover the period from 1826 to 1843 and relate to the region east and west of the Indus and to Southern Arabia and Abyssinia].

Noteworthy articles in periodicals: C. G. Bayne, The First House of Commons of Queen Elizabeth, II. (English Historical Review, October); C. Brinkmann, England and the Hanse under Charles II. (English Historical Review, October); P. Mantoux, Les Transformations Récentes de la Constitution Anglaise (Revue de Synthèse Historique, August); D. Pasquet, L'Evolution de l'Eglise Anglicane, principalement au XIXe Siècle (Revue de Synthèse Historique, August); Theodora Keith, Scottish Trade with the Plantations before 1707 (Scottish Historical Review, October).

FRANCE A valuable guide for workers in the field of French history has been compiled by M. Léon Vallée, librarian of the Bibliothèque Nationale, under the title Catalogue des Plans de Paris et des Cartes de l'Ile de France, de la Généralité, de l'Election, de l'Archevêché, de la Viscomté, de l'Université, du Grenier à Sel et de la Cour des Aydes de Paris, conservés à la Section des Cartes et Plans (Champion, 1908, pp. 576). The excellent subject-index (pp. 438-576) shows that the material described, which includes diagrams and charts as well as maps and plans, relates not only to the topography of Paris, but to all phases of the life of the community-commerce, industry, medicine, hygiene, etc.

La Commune de Soissons et le Groupe Communal Soissonnais, by G. Bourgin (Paris, Champion, 1908, pp. Ixxi, 495), forms number 167 of the Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes-Études.

Andrew Lang's Maid of France: Being the Story of the Life and Death of Jeanne d'Arc (Longmans, 1908, PP. 379) is based on a thorough study of the documents and is equipped with full references.

The committee on the diplomatic archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announces that volume II. (Baden to Danzig) of the Inventaire Sommaire de la Correspondance Politique is nearly finished, and that it is hoi that volume III. (Espagne to États-Unis) will appear in 1909.

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