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was printed in English in the last number of this journal, appears in its German text in the Neue Revue, number 20, with the title “ Der ethische Beruf des Geschichtsschreibers ”.

A report of the third International Congress for the History of Religions, held at Oxford from September 15 to 18, is published in the Nation of October 1. The official report of the Congress in two volumes has been published by the Clarendon Press.

The Library of Congress has acquired the private library of the late H. J. Hvitfeldt-Kaas, formerly the state archivist of Norway, a collection of over five thousand volumes. It has also received, as gifts, the papers of Judge Harry Innes, illustrating the early history of Kentucky, and those of the Washington banking firms of Riggs and Company and Corcoran and Riggs.

Macmillan has issued the second volume of Professor E. Westermarck's The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas (1908, pp. xv, 852).

F. Heman's comprehensive Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes seit der Zerstörung Jerusalems (Stuttgart, Vereinsbuchhandlung, pp. 600) contains many details regarding the Jews in the Orient and Occident in early and modern times, with separate chapters on their relations with Islam and their history in Spain, France, England, Italy, Germany and Poland.

An English translation of the History of the Papacy, by Professor Gustav Krüger, of Giessen, a comprehensive survey of the subject from St. Peter down to the present day, will be published by Mr. Fisher Unwin.

It is announced by the Hakluyt Society that Messrs. William Foster and Basil H. Soulsby are preparing an “ Abstract of and Index to the First Series ”, volumes 1-100, of the publications of the society.

A lucid account of The Law of Oresme, Copernicus, and Gresham (Philadelphia, Allen, Lane and Scott, 1908, pp. 21) and of the circumstances under which each of these students independently discovered the law, is given in a paper read before the American Philosophical Society, April 23, 1908, by Thomas Willing Balch, and separately printed. The same author is publishing through the same house L’Évolution de l'Arbitrage Internationale, printed last summer in the Revue de Droit International et de Législation Comparée.

The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. XXXV., part II., contains a valuable article on the historical connections between Buddhism and Christianity by Professor Arthur Lloyd, and an essay on Food and Wealth by a medieval Japanese author.

ANCIENT HISTORY At instance of the Committee for Anthropology six lectures were delivered at Oxford University in Michaelmas Term of this year by

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A. J. Evans, Andrew Lang, Gilbert Murray, F. B. Jevons, J. L. Myres and W. W. Fowler, on the European Diffusion of Primitive Pictography and its Bearings on the Origin of Script; Homer and Anthropology; The Early Greek Epic; Graeco-Italian Magic; Herodotus and Anthropology; and Lustratio. The Clarendon Press has published these lectures under the title Anthropology and the Classics (1908, pp. 191).

Full lists with hieroglyphic characters of Egyptian royal names found on the monuments, with preliminary chapters on Egyptian royal names and Egyptian chronology and a list of papers bearing thereon, are given by Dr. A. E. Wallis Budge in The Book of the Kings of Egypt (Kegan Paul, 1908, pp. lxxxviii, 195, 281), vols. XXIII. and XXIV. of the series of “ Books on Egypt and Chaldaea ”.

The first volume of L'Ancienne Égypte d'après les Papyrus et les Monuments, by M. Eugène Revillout of the Louvre, treats of the romance of chivalry and chanson de geste in ancient Egypt; historical romance; apologue; the middle age of Pharaonic Egypt in art and customs; religion and patriotism; and psychology in Egyptian art.

The Rev. Professor T. K. Cheyne has published through A. and C. Black a work on The Decline and Fall of the Kingdom of Judah.

The second volume of Walter Otto's important work on Priester und Tempel im Hellenistischen Agypten (Leipzig, Teubner, 1908, pp. vi, 417) contains chapters on Die Ausgaben der Tempel, Die Kultusverwaltung, Die Soziale Stellung der Priester, and Das Verhältnis von Staat und Kirche.

Mrs. Harriet Boyd Hawes has published an account of the excavations of the Wells-Houston-Cramp expeditions in 1901, 1903 and 1904, under the title Gournia, Vasiliki, and other Prehistoric Sites on the Isthmus of Hierapetra, Crete. The large folio volume also includes a catalogue raisonné of finds, monographs on Minoan civilization, and twenty-four photogravure plates. Only three hundred copies will be issued. Orders should be sent to Mrs. C. H. Hawes, Madison, Wisconsin.

Among the papers in the thirty-eighth volume of the Transactions of the American Philological Association are The Theatre as a Factor in Roman Politics under the Republic", by Professor F. F. Abbott, and

The Distribution of Oriental Cults in the Gauls and the Germanies ", by Professor C. H. Moore.

The first volume of an authorized translation of the seventh enlarged and revised edition of Ludwig Friedländer's Sittengeschichte Roms has been published by L. A. Magnus under the title Roman Life and Manners under the Early Empire (Dutton, 1908, pp. xxviii, 428).

The condition of the slave in private law from Augustus to Justinian is set forth in The Roman Law of Slavery (Cambridge University Press, 1908, pp. 735) by W. W. Buckland, fellow and tuto of Gonville and Caius College.

Mr. E. G. Hardy's second series of Studies in Roman History, treating of the Armies and Frontier Relations of the German Provinces, the Four Emperors' Year, and a Military Game of Chess, will be published early in the year by Sonnenschein.

Claudian as an Historical Authority, by Dr. J. H. E. Crees, the Thirlwall prize eşsay of 1906 with an additional chapter coming down to the death of Stilicho in 408, is being published by the Cambridge University Press.

The second and concluding part of Le Siam Ancien (Paris, Leroux, forty-eight plates), a work of archaeology, epigraphy and historical geography, by M. L. Fournereau, has been published by the Musée Guimet.

Noteworthy articles in periodicals: H. H. Howorth, The Germans of Caesar, II. (English Historical Review, October).

EARLY CHURCH HISTORY A posthumous work by Professor Charles Bigg on The Origin of Christianity is being seen through the Oxford University Press by Dr. T. B. Strong, Dean of Christ Church, and will, it is hoped, be published early in this year.

A collection of papers on early Christian history, Lukan and Pauline Studies, by Sir W. M. Ramsay, is being published through Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton.

The Expositor for November contains an article by W. M. Calder entitled “ A Fourth-Century Lycaonian Bishop ", which contains the text of a long Greek inscription recently discovered by Mr. Calder at Laodiceia Combusta, which Sir W. M. Ramsay describes as “one of the outstanding and exceptional historical documents that the soil of Anatolia has preserved to modern times ".

Two works were published last year on the economic and social philosophy of St. Augustine in their relation to Christian ethics. In Das Wirtschaftsprogramm der Kirche des Mittelalters Professor Theodor Sommerlad argues that Augustine's economic and social theories differed widely from those of the Gospel, while Professor Ignaz Seipel takes a different view in his volume on Die Wirtschaftsethischen Lehren der Kircheväter (Vienna, Mayer).

Professor W. K. Prentice of Princeton University has published through the Century Company the third part of the Publications of the American Archaeological Expedition to Syria in 1899–1900, a volume of Greek and Latin Inscriptions, with translations, which in many instances throw light on the life and thought of early Christian communities in Syria.

Documentary publications: C. Schmidt, Der Erste Clemensbrief in Altkoptischer Uebersetzung [Texte und Untersuchungen, XXXII. 1]. (Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1908, pp. 160.)


Under the title Jordanes: the Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Princeton, 1908, pp. ix, 100) Dr. C. C. Mierow has printed, as part of his doctoral thesis, the first English version that has appeared of the Getica of Jordanes.

The English Correspondence of Saint Boniface, translated and edited, with an introductory sketch of the life of St. Boniface, by E. J. Kylie, is a recent addition to the series of King's Classics (Chatto and Windus).

Die Datierung in der Geschichtsschreibung des 10. Jahrhunderts (Griefswald, 1908, pp. 92), a scholarly dissertation by Paul Hildebrand, a pupil of Professor Ernst Bernheim, supplements the similar studies by H. Hinrichs (1907) and E. Moll (1898), which relate to the eleventh and twelfth centuries respectively.

A document of great importance to historians of the Crusades and of the Moslem East in the eleventh and twelfth centuries has been edited by M. H. F. Amedroz under the title Ibn al Qalánisi: History of Damascus (Leyden, Brill, 1908, pp. 48, 397). Besides the Arabic text of the history the book contains important unpublished fragments of other authors, and, in the introduction, a résumé of the work.

The Clarendon Press has recently published an important treatise of the celebrated Abbot of Clairvaux under the title Saint Bernard on Consideration (1908, pp. 169). The work is now first translated into English by G. Lewis.

A recent publication of the Görres-Gesellschaft is Dr. Paul Maria Baumgarten's work entitled Von der Apostolischen Kanzlei: Untersuchungen über die Päpstlichen Tabellionen und die Visekanzler der Heiligen Römischen Kirche im XIII., XIV., und XV. Jahrhundert (Cologne, Bachem, 1908, pp. 186).

The first volume published by the British Society of Franciscan Studies, is a Liber Exemplorum ad Usum Praedicantium (Aberdeen, 1908, pp. 177), a manual for the use of preachers, preserved in manuscript in the Library of Durham Cathedral. The book was compiled between 1270 and 1279 by an English Franciscan for some time resident in Ireland, and is the earliest work of its kind by a Franciscan that has been printed. It reveals the standard of taste and morals and the mental attitude of the writer and of those for whom he wrote, but it contains no allusion to Franciscan ideas or legends and adds extremely little to our knowledge of events. The editor is Dr. A. G. Little.

In the Nachrichten von der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften cu Göttingen, 1908, 4, W. Meyer prints two thirteenth-century poems on the history of the Cistercians, and the Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes for May-August, contains a fourteenth-century defense of the same order, printed by N. Valois.

An important article entitled Die Heilige Elisabeth und Papst Gregor IX., published by Karl Wenck, in the review Hochland for November, 1907, has been separately issued through the house of Jos. Kösel, Munich.

Noteworthy articles in periodicals: G. La Mantia, Capitoli Angioini sul Diritto di Sigillo della Cancelleria Regia per la Sicilia posteriori al 1272 [Extract from the Archivio Storico Siciliano, XXXII. (1907)] (Palermo, pp. 26); E. Göller, Zur Geschichte des Päpstlichen Sekretariats (Quellen und Forschungen, XI. 2); A. Fierens, La Question Franciscaine: Le Manuscrit II. 2326 de la Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, con. (Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, October); H. Grauert, Aus der Kirchenpolitischen Traktatenliteratur des 14. Jahrhunderts (Historisches Jahrbuch, XXIX. 3); A. Bayot, Un Traité Inconnu sur le Grand Schisme dans la Bibliothèque des Ducs de Bourgogne (Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, October).


An Illustrierte Sittengeschichte vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, by Eduard Fuchs (Munich, Langen), which is being published in parts, will be completed in three volumes, each containing four hundred and fifty text illustrations and from fifty to sixty double-page illustrations.

The second volume of Dr. J. E. Sandys's History of Classical Scholarship (Cambridge University Press, 1908) extends from the revival of learning to the end of the eighteenth century in Italy, France, England and the Netherlands. Volume three treats of the eighteenth century in Germany and the nineteenth century in Europe and the United States.

In the Görres-Gesellschaft series of Studien und Darstellungen, Dr. 0. Hartig has edited a posthumous work of Dr. R. Stauber, a study of Die Schedelsche Bibliothek (Freiburg i. B., Herder, 1908, pp. xvi, 277), which is a contribution to the history of the spread of the Italian Renaissance, of humanism, and of medical literature.

The contents of the first volume of Die Renaissance in Briefen von Dichtern, Künstlern, Staatsmänner, Gelehrten und Frauen, edited by Dr. Lothar Schmidt (Leipzig, Klinkhardt and Biermann, 1908), are: Einleitung; Der Briefstil; Der Brief der Humanisten der Italienischen Frührenaissance; Der Brief bei den Humanisten des 15. Jahrhunderts; Der Religiöse Brief in Siena; Der Bürgerliche Brief in Florenz.

In the October number of this Review (p. 198) we referred to Father E. Palandri's dissertation on Les Négociations Politiques et Religieuses entre la Toscane et la France à l'Époque de Cosme ser et de Catherine de Médicis (1544-1580), d'après les Documents des Archives de l'État à Florence et à Paris. This work has now been issued through Picard, with an appendix of documents occupying fifty pages.

A Missionsatlas der Brüdergemeinde, published through the Moravian Brethren's Missions-Buchhandlung, Herrnhut, contains eighteen charts with explanatory texts, and valuable geographical and historical data.

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