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manæuvres is pictured to us, but nowhere a note of disagreement or of strife. To Mr. Page all was friendly, though formal, beruffled, sweetscented, genial, happy. The idea that Patrick Henry, of Mr. Page's own county, packed a jury to win a questionable fight would completely upset our author's equilibrium.

Reconstruction in the South was bad enough, as all the world knows; its picture on the pages of our history is but a black daub. Mr. Page simply throws another bottle of ink upon the spot. The story of Virginia's rise from the ruin of 1865 is conventional; but the chapters An Old Virginia Neighborhood and an Old Virginia Sunday are worthy of Mr. Page's better days. They portray social conditions and country life in Virginia in a thoroughly interesting way, but for the too frequent rose-water baths to which the author treats our writers and our institutions. The historically-minded reader will nevertheless know how to discriminate.

A note which runs through all Mr. Page has ever written is evident here also: the judgment and the language are too frequently those of one who supposes character to be absolutely determined by status. All heroic characters are gentlemen; the villains are outside the charmed circle. This is not life; it is not even ante-bellum Virginia life.


The Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 1775-1777. Draper Series, Volume II. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D., and Louise Phelps Kellogg, Ph.D. (Madison, Wisconsin Historical Society, 1908, Pp. xx, 275.) This is a volume compiled largely from the Draper Manuscripts in the Library of the Wisconsin Historical Society and published at the expense of the Society of the Sons of the American Revolution of that state. It is, as we are informed, the first of two volumes, both bearing upon the conduct of the Revolutionary War on the Upper Ohio River, 1775-1776. The events herein chronicled follow so closely upon those of Lord Dunmore's War in 1774 that they are inseparably connected with them. Hostilities between the Virginianow West Virginia—frontiersmen and the united Indian nations of the Ohio wilderness began in the early part of this year. Tidings of bloodshed on the border of civilization were borne to Williamsburg, and Lord Dunmore ordered General Andrew Lewis to collect fifteen hundred men in Augusta County and adjacent territory, and proceed to the mouth of the Great Kanawha River, the object being the invasion of the Indian country northwest of the Ohio. Crossing the Blue Ridge to the Shenandoah Valley and establishing his headquarters at“ Greenway Court”, Dunmore mustered there a force of about twelve hundred men and proceeded to the Indian towns on the Scioto. Here he was joined by the division under General Lewis who had defeated the Indians at the mouth of the Great Kanawha, October 10, 1774, in the most fiercely contested battle ever waged with them in the valley of

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the Ohio. The treaty of Camp Charlotte followed; the terms discussed and partially agreed upon were largely provisional, their confirmation being deferred for the final action of a council or conference to be held at Pittsburgh the following year, and which he promised to attend. But in the spring of 1775 the American Revolutionary movement had gained such force in Virginia that Dunmore could not do this. The members of the Virginia Convention saw the necessity of completing the treaty with the Indians, and appointed commissioners for the purpose. In the ensuing September there assembled at Pittsburgh the largest delegation of Indians ever seen at that frontier post. The Virginia commissioners were there; so were James Wilson, Lewis Morris and Dr. Thomas Walker, representing the Continental Congress, Dr. Walker appearing for both the Congress and the colony. The council assembled on September 15 and continued until October 21. Considered in connection with the preliminary treaty at Camp Charlotte, it was, with perhaps the exception of that at Fort Stanwix seven years before, the most important conference ever held by white men with Indians in America. Long have students of the history of the border wars desired information as to the action of the conference. Happily the full text of the proceedings is printed now for the first time in this volume; one hundred and two pages are covered thereby, and the whole will be read with much interest. This document of itself throws much light upon the events attending the Indian Wars during the Revolution; but this volume contains much other valuable material relating to events on the Upper Ohio in these years, including important letters of Colonel William Preston, Captain William Russell, Colonel William Fleming, Colonel James Wood, Colonel John Stuart, Captain Mathew Arbuckle, Colonel William Crawford and Captain William Harrod. There is a facsimile of a map containing sketches of the valleys of the Muskingum and Scioto rivers, and of that of Big Beaver Creek; and nine portraits of white men and Indians. Much credit is due the editors for the excellent compilation of these documents, and to the Wisconsin Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, whose liberality made the publication of the volume possible.


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The Cherokee Indians. By Thomas Valentine Parker, Ph.D. (The Grafton Historical Series, edited by Henry R. Stiles, A.M., M.D.] (New York, The Grafton Press, 1907, pp. viii, 116.) Although in the history of a nation no subject is of more abiding interest than the treatment of a subject race, very little is authoritatively known of the political relations that have existed between the United States government and the various tribes of Indians. Recognizing this fact, Dr. Parker has made a special and very commendable study of the Cherokees; but he has, unfortunately, carried his plan of excluding other

, tribes from consideration a little too far, for he has ignored even those whose history has always been closely interwoven with that of the Cherokees.


His story is based, almost entirely, upon printed official sources which happen, with reference to this particular tribe, to be very abundant, since its affairs were constantly the occasion of Congressional investigation. Had it been otherwise, Dr. Parker would hardly have dared to pass unnoticed the manuscript records of the Indian Office. His text is often only a summary of the contents of treaties, and it rarely goes behind a treaty to the details of its negotiation. An exception may be found in the case of the Treaty of New Echota and there, by the way, we find the author's best synoptical work.

Beginning with the fifth chapter, Dr. Parker gives us a most interesting and unprejudiced narrative of Cherokee history in the West, covering the dissensions that arose between the earlier and later immigrants, the divided attitude towards the Civil War, the reconstruction principles of the Treaty of 1866, and, finally, the events that led to the opening of Oklahoma. The rhetorical form of the latter part of the book is seriously affected by the insertion of extraneous material, the subject matter proper being very much condensed. On the whole, however, the work is worthy of very favorable comment. It is practically free from historical errors, and those that do occur are of slight importance, such, for instance, as the one on page 13 where J. Q. Adams has been confounded with Monroe. The book is a fair illustration of what ought to be done for every Indian tribe within the limits of the United States.


Amana: the Community of True Inspiration. By Bertha M. H. Shambaugh. (Iowa City, The State Historical Society of Iowa, 1908, PP. 414.) The origin of the Community of True Inspiration, Mrs. Shambaugh tells us, is to be traced to the German mystics and pietists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, though as a distinct sect it dates from 1714, with the writings and teachings of Eberhard Ludwig Gruber and Johann Friedrich Rock. After the deaths of Gruber and Rock the Community went into decline for nearly a century, when there was a reawakening, mainly through the work of Barbara Heinemann and Christian Metz. In 1842 the greater portion of the Inspirationists came to America, settled for a few years near Buffalo, then removed to Iowa, where the Community now owns some twenty-six thousand acres of land and occupies seven villages. Amana (“ believe faithfully ") is the name given to the present seat of the Community, not to the Community itself. While Amana is conducted on a communistic basis communism is not an essential tenet of the Community of True Inspiration; its concern is spiritual. "Born of religious enthusiasm and disciplined by persecution, it has ever remained primarily a church.” Throughout its history it has been dominated by an ideal and a determined purpose to realize that ideal”. "The fundamental doctrine ”, says Mrs. Shambaugh, “upon which the Community is founded is that divine inspiration and revelation are just as real and potent to-day as in the time of Moses.” Mrs. Shambaugh sketches briefly the European history of the Community, gives somewhat minutely its American history, and describes its social and religious institutions. During eighteen years Mrs. Shambaugh has been a frequent guest among the Inspirationists, has had access to the abundant records of their life and history, and has given an extraordinarily interesting account of the life of this unique group. The work is enriched with many extracts in translation from the writings of their Werkzeuge and from the Community's records. An appendix contains the constitution and by-laws of the Amana Society, and there are abundant scholarly annotations.

Estudio sobre las Ideas Políticas de José Antonio Saco. Por Luis M. Pérez. (Havana, Imp. Avisador Comercial, 1908, pp. 71.) José Antonio Saco lived through most of the momentous political developments in Spanish America in the nineteenth century, for he wa born in Bayamo, in the province of Santiago de Cuba, in 1797, and died in Barcelona in 1879. Saco was in virtual exile during much of his life, but whether in Cuba, in the United States or in Spain, his pen was busy upon the vital problems of the life and future of his native island. Mr. Pérez discovers five distinct periods in the life of Saco and consequently in the product of his pen. But without following the writer's analysis rigidly and using some compression it may be said that up to 1848 Saco was advocating a more liberal scheme of government for Cuba, the suppression of the slave traffic, and the development of the white population. From 1848 to 1853 he was combatting the idea of annexation to the United States; and from 1854 to 1868 he was insisting that Spain grant Cuba certain indispensable reforms: "O España concede á Cuba derechos politicos, ó Cuba se pierde para España." Independence he did not, however, advocate, for that way led to annexation; but only such an autonomous form of government as would satisfy the Cuban national feeling. The author of this monograph disclaims that his study is critical or profound, nevertheless in presenting in this compact form the ideas of a fellow-countryman which are notably interwoven with near three-quarters of a century of Cuban history he has done a good service.

TEXT-BOOKS A Source Book of Mediaeval History. Documents Illustrative of

European Life and Institutions from the German Invasion to the Renaissance. Edited by FREDERIC AUSTIN OGG, M.A., Assistant in History in Harvard University and Instructor in Simmons College. (New York: American Book Company. 1908. Pp. 504.)

The editor of this collection of documents has sought to produce a source-book for medieval history "clearly adapted to practical conditions of work” in elementary college classes, academies and preparatory schools, and the more advanced years of the average high school. Further, he has tried to attain his object by giving the book several distinctive features.

Some of these features relate to the choice of extracts. “In all cases the materials presented should be of real value "; accordingly few pieces appear that are not already accessible in other collections, but those deemed most significant are brought together between two covers. “ For the sake of younger students, a relatively large proportion of narrative ... should be introduced ”; so strictly documentary matter is subordinated. "Despite this principle, documents of vital importance . should be presented with some fulness"; hence parts of such pieces as the Benedictine Rule, the Great Charter and the Golden Bull are included. “In general, the rule should be to give longer passages from fewer sources, rather than more fragmentary ones from a wider range”; so the writings and documents drawn upon number less than a hundred.

Other distinctive features aimed at relate to the manner of presenting the selections. Since literal translations of medieval writings “are as a rule positively repellent to the young mind”, the translations given here are put in language as simple and modern“ as close adherence to the sense will permit ". Also, much labor has evidently been given “ to provide each selection, or group of selections, with an introductory explanation, containing the historical setting of the extract, with perhaps some comment on its general significance, and also a brief sketch of the writer". It is unfortunate to the reviewer's mind—that these introductions are like an encyclopedia; too uniformly they have the air rather of giving information than of setting forth conditions and circumstances that presented a problem. Finally, there are numerous foot-notes, giving "somewhat detailed aid to the understanding of obscure allusions, omitted passages, and especially place names and technical terms ”.

Thus this new source-book has characteristics which distinguish it from other available collections. Besides, in scholarship it compares favorably with the best among the others-not always accurate, but as a rule reasonably trustworthy. All told, it should prove a useful addition to our apparatus for the teaching of history.

E. W. Dow.

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