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ABSTRACT OF THE REPORT ON

THE CHILDREN OF IMMIGRANTS IN SCHOOLS.

For the complete report on the children of immigrants in schools see Reports

of the Immigration Commission, vols. 29–33.

CONTENTS.

Scope and method....

Public-school pupils—The general investigation..

Description of general tables....

Public-school pupils—The intensive investigation.

Retardation of pupils.....

Description of general tables...
Public-school teachers in the elementary grades and kindergartens.

Description of general tables ..
Parochial-school pupils—The general investigation:
Comparison of public and parochial school summaries.

Description of general tables...
Statistical completeness of the data.
Students in higher educational institutions.

Description of general tables.....

Page.

5

9

31

32
36
43
48
63
63
70
73
73
76
86

LIST OF TABLES.

Table 1. Number of public school pupils for whom information was secured

in each city, by general nativity and race of father of pupil...... 10-15

2. Race distribution of pupils in the public schools of 37 cities.

16

3. Number of public school pupils for whom information was secured

in each city, by general nativity of father of pupil.....

17

4. Race distribution of pupils in public schools, by city; percentages.. 18-21

5. Foreign races ranking first and second in number of public school

pupils in each city...

23

6. Number of pupils in the different kinds of public schools, by general

nativity and race of father of pupil....

24

7. Per cent of pupils in the different kinds of public schools, by general

nativity and race of father of pupil.

25

8. Number of public school pupils in each elementary grade, by general

nativity and race of father of pupil....

27

9. Number of public school pupils in each elementary grade who are

retarded, by general nativity and race of father of pupil..

28

10. Per cent of public school pupils in each elementary grade who are

retarded, by general nativity and race of father of pupil..... 29

11. Foreign races ranking highest and second highest and lowest and sec-

ond lowest in proportion of pupils retarded, by grade..

30,31

12. Number of pupils for whom returns were secured, by city.

33

13. Number of pupils for whom returns were secured, by general nativity

of father of pupil..

33

14. Number of pupils of principal foreign races for whom returns were

secured, by race of father of pupil.

33

15. General nativity of fathers of pupils, by city.

34

16. Birthplace of pupils, by general nativity and race of father..

34

17. Birthplace of pupils, by race of father; principal foreign races.

35

18. Birthplace of pupils, by city....

35

19. Number and per cent of pupils 8 years of age or over who are

arded,

by general nativity and race of father of pupil..

36

20. Retardation, by birthplace of pupil...

37

21. Retardation, by school attendance elsewhere than in city in which

pupil lived at the time of the investigation...

38

22. Retardation, by age of foreign-born pupils at time of arrival in the

United States.

38

23. Retardation, by school attendance abroad of foreign-born pupils

who were 6 years of age or over at time of arrival in the United

States..

38

24. Retardation, by age of foreign-born pupils at time of entering public

school in the United States..

39

Page.

Table 25. Retardation, by grade entered in public school.

39

26. Retardation, by rate of progress and time in school in the United

States..

40

27. Retardation, by ability of foreign-born fathers of pupils to speak
English

40

28. Retardation, by citizenship of foreign-born fathers of pupils... 40

29. Retardation, by length of residence in the United States of foreign-

born fathers of pupils...

41

30. Retardation, by home language.

41

31. Retardation, by regularity of school attendance...

42

32. Retardation, by method of entrance into present grade at beginning

of the school year.

42

33. Number of public school teachers in the elementary grades and

kindergartens for whom information was secured in each city, by

general nativity and race.....

49-54

34. Race distribution of teachers in the public schools of 30 cities.

55

35. Number and per cent of teachers in each nativity group, by city. 56

36. Race distribution of teachers for whom information was secured, by

city; percentages...

58, 59

37. Races of immigrants of the second generation (native-born of foreign

father) ranking first and second in the number of teachers, by

city...

60

38. Number of teachers engaged in teaching each specified number of

years, by city....

62

39. Per cent of teachers engaged in teaching each specified number of

years, by city..

62

40. Number of parochial school pupils for whom information was

secured in each city, by general nativity and race of father of

pupil

64, 65

41. Race distribution of pupils in the parochial schools of 24 cities... 66

42. Number of parochial school pupils for whom information was

secured in each city, by general nativity of father of pupil... 67

43. Race distribution of pupils in parochial schools, by city; per-

centages.

68

44. Foreign races ranking first and second in number of parochial

school pupils in each city....

70

45. Number of pupils for whom information was secured in public schools

and in parochial schools, by city..

71

46. Race distribution of pupils—Comparison of public and parochial

schools.....

71

47. Foreign race ranking first in number of pupils in public and in

parochial schools, by city.

72

48. Number of pupils for whom information was secured in the general

investigation conducted by the Immigration Commission and

annual average attendance as shown by other records...

74

49. Number of pupils for whom information was secured in the intensive

investigation conducted by the Immigration Commission and

annual average attendance as shown by other records...

75

50. Returns from parochial schools compared with official records.. 75

51. Number of male students in higher educational institutions for

whom information was secured, by department and by general

nativity and race of student..

76, 77

52. Number of female students in higher educational institutions for

whom information was secured, by department and by general

nativity and race of student.

78

53. Race distribution of students in higher educational institutions, by

79, 80

54. Race distribution of male students, by department; percentages... 82

55. Race distribution of female students, by department; percentages.. 82

56. Number of foreign-born male students in the United States each
specified number of years, by race of student..

84

57. Number of foreign-born female students in the United States each

specified number of years, by race of student.....

85

58. Number of foreign-born students in the United States each specified

number of years, by sex.....

85

THE CHILDREN OF IMMIGRANTS IN SCHOOLS.

SCOPE AND METHOD.

This investigation was one of the most extensive planned and carried out by the Immigration Commission. The report includes a total of 2,036,376 school children (1,815,217 in public schools and 221,159 in parochial schools), 49,067 public school teachers, and 32,882 students in the higher educational institutions. Information was secured for the children in public schools in 37 cities, for the children in parochial schools in 24 cities, for the teachers in the elementary grades and kindergartens of the public schools in 30 cities, and for the students in 77 higher educational institutions.

The purpose of the investigation was to determine as far as possible to what extent children of the various races of immigrants are availing themselves of educational facilities and what progress they make in school work. This study is primarily a study of the children of immigrants either foreign-born or born in the United States of foreign-born fathers—but for purposes of comparison information was also secured for children of native fathers.

All information is presented by race or people. The same classification of race or people is used here as in other reports of the Commission and follows that used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. In common with the other inquiries of the Commission, the investigation into schools could not cover the entire country but was confined to selected areas.

In so far as the collection of the data was concerned the school investigation was separated into five divisions, a description of which is here inserted.

1. Public schools General investigation. This investigation was conducted in the public schools of 30 cities, as follows: Baltimore, Ma. Los Angeles, Cal.

Philadelphia, Pa.
Boston, Mass.
Lowell, Mass.

Pittsburg, Pa.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Lynn, Mass.

Providence, R. I.
Chicago, Ill.
Manchester, N. H.

St. Louis, Mo.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Meriden, Conn.

San Francisco, Cal.
Cleveland, Ohio.
Milwaukee, Wis.

Scranton, Pa.
Detroit, Mich.

Minneapolis, Minn. Shenandoah, Pa.
Duluth, Minn.
Newark, N.J.

South Omaha, Nebr.
Fall River, Mass.
New Orleans, La.

Worcester, Mass.
Kansas City, Mo.
New York, N. Y.

Yonkers, N. Y. This list includes the first 20 cities of the United States in point of population as shown by the census of 1900, with three exceptions. Washington, D. C., and Louisville, Ky., were excluded because the population of foreign origin is not conspicuous in those cities, and Jersey City, N.J., was omitted because its population so nearly parallels the population of the neighboring cities of New York and Newark. Kansas City and Los Angeles were included owing to their geographical locations. Other cities were selected primarily to secure data concerning different races; thus, certain New England cities were selected owing to considerable proportions of French Canadians in their population, Scranton and Shenandoah were included in order

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