Gambar halaman


sufficient to maintain the services of the benefice.87 If a benefice was not included in the valuation of 1291, it was assessed by the collectors, and in some cases benefices which had deteriorated in value during the intervening period appear to have been re-assessed. 89 Once the situation and value of the vacant benefices had been established, the remaining task of the collectors was to assemble the money from the debtors and forward it to the papal camera. In Scotland and Ireland payment was backward as was usual in the case of papal taxes, but in England the money came in steadily, notwithstanding the difficulties experienced by the collectors. The figures for the province of York are somewhat fragmentary, but in the province of Canterbury eight months before the levy ceased £6,322 2 s. 2 d. had been collected and £4,688 17 s. remained unpaid,"1 while four years later the sum in arrears stood at £1,262 5s. 6d.92 Testa was an efficient and successful administrator of the papal financial business in England, and before his departure in 1313 this sum had probably been further reduced, although some debts were left for his successors to recover. 93 The proceeds were transmitted at frequent intervals to the papal camera, usually by special messen$7 Constitution Suscepti regiminis, Friedberg, Corpus, col. 1205. This is brought out also in the deliberations of the council of Vienne. Göller, Einnahmen, p. 81*, n. 7.


88 Second Report of Testa. What the practice was in such cases I have not discovered. In later levies the collector took one-half the actual income of an untaxed benefice and left the other half to the incumbent. Bliss, Calendar, II. 422. 59 Register of Woodlock, ff. 101V.-102V. This custom was followed in later levies. Kirsch, Die Päpstlichen Kollektorien, pp. 37, 49, 131.

Reports of Testa.

91 First Report of Testa. This is the only one of the three reports which gives a detailed view of the progress of collection. The following table gives a summary of the statement for the province of Canterbury, only the totals being given for the other collectorates. The mark equals two-thirds of a pound. The totals do not correspond exactly to those of Testa given above, but accuracy rarely occurs in medieval accounts.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

93 His immediate successor, William de Baleto, was active in this direction (Register of Reynolds, f. 84), but I have found nothing to indicate how much he recovered. Rigaud Asser, collector from 1317 to 1321, records the receipt of £80 6 s. 8 d. from this source. Vatican Archives, Introitus et Exitus, 15, f. 46v.

gers, occasionally by means of exchange through the Italian bankers, who handled the papal financial business.95 The total yield of the levy can be determined only approximately. The receipts issued to the collectors by the papal camera are not itemized in such a way as to distinguish between payments of annates and other taxes, and the two reports of Testa rendered after the expiration. of the triennial period do not contain complete statements. The figures given in the report covering the period to June 13, 1308, however, offer a good basis for estimating the amount. The proceeds in the province of Canterbury up to that time were £11,010 19 s. 2 d. The monthly average, therefore, was £386 7 s. If it be assumed that the average remained the same for the last seven and one-half months as for the preceding period, the yield for the whole three years would be £13,908 12 S. In the province of York the amount paid at the same date was £2,227, but the extent of the unpaid debts is not indicated. Assuming that the sum paid bore the same ratio to the whole amount produced in both provinces up to June, 1308, the latter in the province of York would be £3,903. The monthly average would be £136 18s. 11 d. and the income for the three years £4,930 I S. Thus, estimated on this basis, the total sum produced was £18,838 135.97 This result is probably not far from correct, since the yield for another period of three years beginning September 8, 1316, was £16,351 2 s. 8 d.98

After a detailed study of the first levy of annates, the aspect which stands out most clearly is its importance as a precedent. Although recent scholars recognize Clement V. as the originator of annates, John XXII. is usually regarded as the organizer of the permanent system of administration." In the light of the present evidence this Third Report of Testa; Bliss, Calendar, II. 31, 48; Regestum Clementis Papae V., 3583.

Bliss, Calendar, II. 77.

Haller (p. 388, n. 1) places the sum produced by annates up to December 25, 1309, at over 70,000 florins (i. e., 14,000 marks). He bases his statement on one of these receipts (Regestum Clementis Papae V., 6285), but the receipt covers the produce of several taxes besides annates.

This is the gross sum. The net sum cannot be estimated, because the expenses of collection are not stated in some reports, and when given are not separated from the expenses incurred in the collection of other taxes. The expenses were, however, probably small. During the year from October 1, 1311, to October 1, 1312, the total receipts from all sources were £3,761 8 s. 44 d. and the expenses £309 15 s. 7 d. Third Report of Testa. Since annates could be collected more cheaply than some taxes, the expenses were probably less than ten per cent.


Compiled from Rigaud Asser's report, Vatican Archives, Introitus et Exitus, 15, ff. 1-41.

"Jean XXII. régla définitivement par la bulle Si gratanter advertitis le mode de perception de l'annate, et ses successeurs se gardèrent bien d'y apporter

view must be discarded. The bulls of John XXII. dealing with annates take much of their form and content from the bull of Clement V. here printed, often repeating portions in the same language.100 In subsequent levies there are the same provisions for guaranteeing the restoration of the suspended rights of the customary holders of annates and for preserving the services of benefices subject to the tax. The number of exemptions increases, and some exemptions are more carefully defined, but those granted by Clement V., with the exception of priories, become customary.101 The plan of assessment is somewhat amplified: the collector may take for annates the assessed value of the benefice or the remainder of the actual income accruing during the first year after vacancy, and when a benefice is not assessed for the tenth, the collector and the incumbent share the actual proceeds. The basis of the assessment, however, remains unchanged.102 The methods of administration remain the same even in such details as the mode of gathering the preliminary information from the local bishops103 and the close supervision of the work of the collectors by the papal camera.104 Several of the regulations and exemptions naturally receive a more exact and extended application during the pontificate of John XXII., but it is now plain that in all essential respects John XXII. followed the precedents established in the first levy of annates by Clement V. W. E. LUNT.

Register of Simon of Ghent, bishop of Salisbury, f. 62v. Clemens, episcopus, servus servorum Dei, dilectis filiis, magistris Guillelmo, archidiacono de Aranno in ecclesia Convenarum, et Guillelmo Geraldi de Sora, canonico Rotomagensi, capellanis nostris, collectoribus aucun changement." Samaran and Mollat, p. 29. "Die grosse Reservation vom 8. Dezember 1316, die die Grundlage für die ganze spätere Annatenentwicklung bildet." Göller, Einnahmen, p. 87*.


Compare the bulls Si gratanter advertitis (Theiner, Vetera Monumenta Historica Hungariam sacram illustrantia, I. 446-448) and Quantis haereticorum (Kirsch, Die Päpstlichen Kollektorien, pp. 119-122) with the bull below.

101 For a detailed account of exemptions allowed in later levies see Samaran and Mollat, pp. 29-33. Priories were not generally exempt in subsequent levies, but in England Edward II. demanded (Cal. Close Rolls, 1318–1323, p. 26) and seems to have secured their exemption. No priories are included in the list of benefices paying annates reported by Rigaud Asser (1316–1319). Vatican Archives, Introitus et Exitus, 15, ff. 1-41.

103 Concerning the method of assessment used in later levies see Samaran and Mollat, pp. 28-29.

103 Register of Mortival, vol. II., f. 68.

104 The collectors of the first levy made frequent detailed reports to the camera and kept in constant communication with it through messengers (Reports of Testa) as did the collectors of later levies (Kirsch, Die Päpstlichen Kollektorien, passim). The camera often gave directions to the collectors also. Register of Simon of Ghent, ff. 68v.-69.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

fructuum reddituum et proventuum ecclesiasticorum primi anni omnium beneficiorum ad presens in Anglie et Scotie regnis Hibernie et Wallie provinciis earumque civitatibus et diocesibus vacantium, et que usque ad triennium vacare contigerit, per sedem apostolicam deputatis, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.

Si sacrosancta Romana mater ecclesia, quam divina clemencia [f. 63] cunctarum orbis ecclesiarum capud statuit, et habere voluit principatum, gerens ad filios materne compassionis affectum, illorum efficiatur angustiis eis communicet indefessa pressuris in necessitatibus que per oportune subventionis remedium laxet manum, modis exquirendo sollicite quibus eis grate fecunditatis commoda subministret, decet eos, nisi per ingratitudinis vitium in oblivionem materni uberis prolabantur, sibi multa reverentia filialiter obsequi de ipsius oportunitate studiose curare obviare dispendiis, et, ne defectus rerum temporalium eius decorem quod absit obnulibet, prompta etiam magnanimitate consurgere abolere incomoda, et sibi necessitate urgente articulo necessaria ministrare. Sic quippe benedictionis materne promerentur gratiam et laudis titulos apud homines ac celestis vite premium assequntur. Sane sic ipsa Romana mater ecclesia, que tunc temporis malitia faciente dudum a non longe retroactis temporibus multis fuit amaritudinibus lacessita et quassata turbinibus tum propter hoc tum propter alia, que longum esset enarrare per singula, tam gravia atque grandia subivit onera expensarum, tum etiam quia tempore recolende memorie Bonifacii pape octavi, predecessoris nostri, non ulli [sic] perditionis filii thesaurum ecclesie eiusdem, sicut vos latere non credimus, rapuerunt, est exausta ere, tum pro eo etiam quod nobis, postquam fuimus ad apicem summi apostolatus divina. dispositione vocati, precipue in hoc nostre creationis primordio inmunierunt et imminent expensaria maiora solito facienda, quod ipsa implorare compellitur subsidiorum [sic] filiorum, et, quod referre pudet et admiratione non caret, mercatores, qui se eiusdem ecclesie servicio offerebant, sibi instantis necessitatis tempore defecerunt.

Quare nos, predictis omnibus in considerationem adductis et ad subveniendum nobis et prefate ecclesie viis et modis salubribus diligentius exquisitis, fructus redditus et proventus primi anni omnium et singulorum beneficiorum ecclesiasticorum cum cura et sine cura, etiam personatum et dignitatum quarumlibet ecclesiarum monasteriorum prioratuum et aliorum locorum ecclesiasticorum tam secularium quam regularium exemptorum et non exemptorum, que in Anglie et Scotie regnis et Hybernie et Wallie provinciis sive partibus eorum civitatibus et diocesibus vacant ad presens, et que usque ad triennium vacare contigerit, fructibus ad archiepiscopales et episcopales et abbatum regularium. mensas spectantibus dumtaxat exceptis, non obstante quod fructus redditus et proventus huius primi anni ex privilegio sedis apostolice vel alias de iure seu quacumque consuetudine seu statuto alicui vel aliquibus deberentur, vel in usus forent aliquos convertendi pro ipsius ecclesie oneribus facilius celebrandis, in eius agendorum subsidium auctoritate apostolica per alias nostras certi tenoris litteras duximus deputandos, volentes quod per deputationem huiusmodi hiis qui fructus redditus et proventus primi anni predicti debebantur quo ad assecutionem fructuum anni sequentis nullum preiudicium generetur, quodque beneficia ipsa. debitis non fraudenter obsequiis et animarum cura in eis quibus iminet nullatenus negligatur. Ac nihilominus venerabiles fratres nostros, archiepiscopos et episcopos, ac dilectos filios electos, abbates, priores,


decanos, prepositos, archidiaconos, plebanos, archipresbiteros et alios ecclesiarum et monasteriorum aliorumque locorum ecclesiasticorum" prelatos et rectores, eorumque capitula collegia et conventus exemptos et non exemptos Cisterciensis, Cluniacensis, Sancti Benedicti, Sancti Augustini, Grandimontensis, Premonstratensis, Cartisiensis, aliorumque ordinum, nec non hospitalis Sancti Johannis Jhersolimi, Militie Templi et Sancte Marie Theotonicorum preceptores et magistros eorumque locum tenentes per regna provincias et loca prefata ubilibet constitutos rogandos duximus et hortandos, eis in remissione peccatorum iniungentes, quatinus prelibate ecclesie necessitatibus ut filii multe teneritudinis compatientes ab intimis vos, quos collectores fructuum reddituum et proventuum huiusmodi et vestrum alterum auctoritate presentium deputamus, et subcollectores vestros ipsos per idem triennium colligere et exigere absque alicuius difficultatis obstaculo permittant libere et illos prout in eis fuerit vel vestrum alteri ac subcollectoribus memoratis assignare procurent per vos sepedicte ecclesie camere resignandos.

Quo circa, de vestre circumspectionis industria plenam in domino fiduciam obtinentes, discretioni vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus quatinus prefatos fructus redditus et proventus per vos et subcollectores, quos vos vel alter vestrum ad hoc decre-[f. 63v.]veretis deputandos, diligenter colligere et exigere ipsosque fideliter eidem camere assignare curetis. Nos enim vobis et vestrum alteri colligendi per vos et vestrum alterum et subcollectores eosdem, et exigendi fructus redditus et proventus premissos, et subcollectores mutandi huiusmodi et alios subrogandi, quotiens expedire videbitur, nostro et ecclesie prefate nomine. necnon contradictores quoslibet et rebelles, quicumque et cuiuscumque conditionis preeminencie ordinis aut status existant, etiam si pontificali prefulgeant dignitate, auctoritate nostra, apellatione postposita, compescendi; non obstantibus quibuscumque privilegiis statutis et consuetudinibus contrariis ecclesiarum in quibus huiusmodi beneficia fuerint iuramento confirmatione apostolica vel alia quacumque firmitate vallatis, seu, si predictis archiepiscopis episcopis aut aliis superius nominatis vel personis quibuscumque aut eorum ordinibus a sede prefata indultum existat, quod excommunicari suspendi vel interdici non possint per litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam et expressam ac de verbo ad verbum et ipsorum ordinum mensionem [sic], et quibuslibet litteris privilegiis et indulgentiis apostolicis generalibus vel specialibus quibuscumque personis et locis et sub quacumque forma vel concessione verborum concessis per que presentibus non expressa vel totaliter non incerta [sic] effectus presentium impediri valeat quomodolibet vel differi et de quibus verbo ad verbum mentionem in litteris nostris fieri oporteat; specialem plenam et liberam concedimus auctoritate presentium facultatem.

Datum Lugduni Kalendis Februarii pontificatus nostri anno primo. 105 Ecclesiasticorumque in the text.

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »