Introduction to the History of Civilization in England

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The diminution of religious persecution is owing to the progress of knowledge 108109
108
The interference of politicians with trade has injured trade
112
As civilization advances men of intellect avoid becoming soldiers
114
And in Condillac
118
The three principal ways in which the progress of knowledge has lessened
120
The clergy lost all offices out of the church and their numbers diminished
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They have also increased hypocrisy and perjury
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A change of religion in any country also tends to corrupt its early history 170173
170
In England during the same period there was a dearth of great thinkers
171
But credulity was still prevalent as is seen in Comines
186
Object of the present work
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Under James 1 and Charles I this opposition to authority assumes a political
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3
214
But in France immense impetus was given to zoology by Cuvier and Bichat
228
Government attempted to remedy this ignorance by calling in foreign aid 593598
233
Ignorance of George III
236
It causes the establishment of the Royal Society
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This liberal policy on the part of the government was only part of a much larger
247
Subserviency of Pitt
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Impetus now given to physical science and attempts of the clergy to oppose
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Analogy between Descartes and Richelieu
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But it was of no avail because politicians can do nothing when the spirit
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But notwithstanding all this there was a great difference between France
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Summary of what was accomplished for Spain by the government between
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And from every branch of literature
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Analogy between this and Pinels work on insanity
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Inasmuch however as these ameliorations were opposed to the habits of
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Policy in regard to France
309
Gloomy political prospects of England late in the eighteenth century
335
CHAPTER IX
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662
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Effects of this difference between the two countries in the fourteenth century 353355
353
Also respecting the number of marriages annually contracted
359
Înference to be drawn as to the causes of social progress
362
The pride of Englishmen encouraged the Reformation
365
CHAPTER V
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THE ENERGY OF THE PROTECTIVE SPIRIT IN FRANCE EXPLAINS THE FAILURE OF THE FRONDE
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As such men were the leaders of the Fronde the rebellion naturally failed 382386
382
The historian must ascertain whether mind or nature has most influenced human
390
The municipal element being thus imperfect the only ally which the Crown
398
Universal decline of France during the latter part of the reign of Louis XIV 408409
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CHAPTER II
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THE GOVERNING CLASSES
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Reasons why literary men at first attacked the church and not the government 429432
429
Moral feelings influence individuals but do not affect society in the aggregate 131
436
CHAPTER XIII
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These improvements were due to the sceptical and inquiring spirit
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Illustration of this from
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His Morals Manners and Character of Nations
457
All this hastened the advance of the French Revolution
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Abolition of the Jesuits
486
Comparison of the history of England with that of France
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With that of Germany
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This alliance was dissolved by the Declaration of Indulgence
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lo 1700 when affairs were at their worst the Austrian dynasty was succeeded
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Illustrations of these principles from Ireland
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And has possessed great patriots and great legislators
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This it is which isolating Spain from the rest of the civilized world keeps
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The injuries which these invasions inflicted upon Scotland stopped
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CHAPTER XVII
654
Still and notwithstanding these successive failures James IV followed the same
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But at the end of the sixteenth century scepticism appeared in France and with
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As the nobles took the opposite side and as the people had no influence the suc
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While Knox was abroad the nobles established the Reformation
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Influence of religion on the progress of society
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Thereupon the Protestant preachers said that the nobles were instigated by
680
Men of letters grateful to Louis XIV
682
Struggle between the upper classes and the clergy respecting episcopacy 686688
686
Violent language used by the clergy against the king and against the nobles 689692
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CHAPTER XVIII
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the reaction declared itself and in 1638 the bishops were overthrown
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Nor was anything done in botany
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another reaction in which the Scotch again freed themselves from their
718
Importance of the Revolution
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And they were tolerated even by the queenregent during the minority of Louis
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enormous
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This great democratic and liberating movement was aided by the growth of
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AN EXAMINATION OF THE SCOTCH INTELLECT DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
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From Central America
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Hence in the seventeenth century secular interests were neglected and theo
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The clergy becoming elated indulge in language of extraordinary arrogance 757762
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The clergy to intimidate the people and bring them completely under control
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Under some aspects nature is more prominent than man in der others
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eighteenth century
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220
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Indeed in some respects the Scotch clergy were more ascetic than those of
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He supported the new secular scheme of government against the old ecclesiastical
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Hence the secular philosophy of the eighteenth century though new in
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of these two methods the English followed the inductive the Scotch
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Hutchesons philosophy
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Adam Smiths philosophy
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Humes philosophy
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They raise a civil war which was a struggle of classes rather than of creeds
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Comparison between the method of this work and the meth d employed
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The English observed effects in order to ascertain causes The Germans assum
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In physical philosophy the deductive method
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He derived great aid from poetry
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Reasons which made the Scotch geologists argue from the principles of heat
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Assuming however for the purposes of classification that the organic world
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224
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His nosology
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Hunters inquiries concerning the movements of animals and vegetables 879880
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In pathology his love of deduction was more obvious than in physiology
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These superstitions are eminently irreligious and are everywhere becoming
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Fire and water are the two causes which have altered and are still altering
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The imagination is excited by earthquakes and volcanoes
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The first and most essential quality of an historian is a clear perception of
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James VI was imprisoned and his captivity was justified by the clergy
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736

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Halaman 557 - This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall Or as a moat defensive to a house, Against the envy of less happier lands, This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England...
Halaman 138 - I have been told by an eminent bookseller, that in no branch of his business, after tracts of popular devotion, were so many books as those on the law exported to the Plantations. The colonists have now fallen into the way of printing them for their own use. I hear that they have sold nearly as many of Blackstone's Commentaries in America as in England.
Halaman 523 - ... whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
Halaman 258 - ... that if he were to put all the political information which he had learned from books, all which he had gained from science, and all which any knowledge of the world and its affairs had taught him, into one scale, and the improvement which he had derived from his right honourable friend's instruction and conversation were placed in the other, he should be at a loss to decide to which to give the preference.
Halaman 265 - The storm has gone over me; and I lie like one of those old oaks which the late hurricane has scattered about me. I am stripped of all my honours, I am torn up by the roots, and lie prostrate on the earth!
Halaman 193 - ... it, but to follow like beasts the first in the herd, they know not nor care not whither this were brutish. Again, that authority of men should prevail with men either against or above reason, is no part of our belief. Companies of learned men, be they never so great and reverend, are to yield unto reason...
Halaman 103 - To do good to others ; to sacrifice for their benefit your own wishes; to love your neighbour as yourself; to forgive your enemies ; to restrain your passions ; to honour your parents; to respect those who are set over you : these, and a few others, are the sole essentials of morals; but they have been known for thousands of years, and not one jot or tittle has been added to them by all the sermons, homilies, and text-books which moralists and theologians have been able to produce.
Halaman 260 - In effect, to follow not to force the public inclination, to give a direction, a form, a technical dress, and a specific sanction to the general sense of the community, is the true end of legislature.
Halaman 263 - I do not examine whether the giving away a man's money be a power excepted and reserved out of the general trust of government...
Halaman 263 - America, if she has taxable matter in her, to tax herself. I am not here going into the distinctions of rights, nor attempting to mark their boundaries. I do not enter into these metaphysical distinctions. I hate the very sound of them.

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