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Those interested in missions may also be invited to glean from these Lectures. When for instance our Oxford friends in Calcutta have again to oppose Mr. Dutt's statements on the indebtedness of Christianity to 'a Palestinian Buddhism,' they may perhaps be assisted by my pages on the Essenes, which contain some fresh material. And to all students, whatever their special tastes may be, the Index will, I hope, reveal many interesting features of the book.

And so I bid farewell to a volume in which I have spoken more frankly, but I am sure not less considerately and charitably than ever. May it be blessed, in spite of its manifold imperfections, to the good of the Church at large! To me at any rate the exercise of the critical faculty and of the historic imagination has been as truly a religious work as joining in the worship of the sanctuary. I have found that to be true which an old Oxford friend has recently expressed in earnest words,

All such research adds interest to the record, as it opens out to us the action of the Divine Intimacy, in laying hold of its material. We watch it by the aid of such criticism, at its work of assimilation; and, in uncovering its principles of selection, we apprehend its inner mind ; we draw closer to our God.—(H. S. Holland, Lux Mundi, p. 43.)

" See The Epiphany (edited by the Oxford missionaries), Aug. 21, 1890.


[N. B. On the chronological problems of this period, cf. Kuenen, De chronologie

van het Perzische tijdvak der Joodsche Geschiedenis (Amsterdam, 1890), and Schürer, The Jewish People in the Time of Christ, Div. I., vol. i. (Edinburgh, 1890). Events in foreign history contemporary with those in Jewish are printed in italics.]


586 536






Captivity of Jehoiachin and Ezekiel .

597 Fall of Jerusalem First return of the Jews Pythagoras .

540-510 Foundation of second temple

535 Haggai and Zechariah prophesy, under Zerubbabel and Joshua

(pp. 21, 52) Capture of Babylon by Darius Hystaspis (p. 73)

520 Completion of second temple

515 Revolt of Egypt and Persian reconquest (cf. p. 52, foot). 486-484 Capture of Babylon by Xerxes (p. 73).

481 Artaxerxes I. Longimanus (p. 163) ·

465-425 Revolt of Inarus in Egypt

462-456 Second return of Jews under Ezra Revolt of Megabyzus in Syria (p. 71)

448 Nehemiah the Tirshatha (p. 228)

445 Fortification of Jerusalem (pp. 50, 231, 232)

444 Artaxerxes II. Mnemon

405-359 Murder by Johanan the high priest ; tyranny of Bagòses (p. 52) 383 (?) Artaxerxes III. Ochus (captivity of Jews, pp. 53, 229)

359-338 Battle of Issus (Jaddua, high priest, p. 59).

333 Foundation of Alexandria (p. 10)'

331 Ptolemy I. Soter, king of Egypt (Onias I., Simon I., high priests) 323-285 Capture of Jerusalem by Ptolemy

320 Ptolemy II. Philadelphus (Eleazar and Manasseh, high priests, p. 170)

285-247 Ptolemy III. Euergetes (Onias II., high priest, p. 127) ,

247-222 Antiochus III. Magnus, king of Syria (Simon II., high priest) 223-187 Capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus (cf. p. 114)

203 Seleucus IV. Philopator

. 187-175

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170, 168



Scopas recovers Jerusalem for Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, but is defeated by Antiochus at Paneas (p. 114).

199-198 Sacrilege of Heliodorus (p. 123).

187 Composition of Wisdom of Ben Sira in Hebrew

180 (?) Accession of Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (Onias III., high priest, p. 123)

175 Onias III. deposed, and succeeded by Joshua or Jason

174 Jason outbid and supplanted by Menelaus

171 Murder of Onias III. (pp. 123, 137).

170 Massacres of Antiochus and Apollonius at Jerusalem (p. 94) The 'abomination of desolation' (pp. 94, 105) set up

168 (Dec.) Persecution of faithful Jews (pp. 19, 66); revolt under Mattathias (pp. 48, 57); the leader's death .

167-166 Judas Maccabæus organizes his army with solemn prayer at Mizpah (pp. 18, 94); victory at Emmaus (pp. 94, 199)

166-165 Victory at Beth-zur (p. 199); re-dedication of the temple (Dec. ; see pp. 16-18, 33) . .

165 Composition of Book of Daniel, probably in Jan. (p. 94); successful

war against the Edomites &c. (p. 98); death of Antiochus

164 Judas defeated at Beth-Zacharia (p. 92)

163-162 Alcimus (Jakim) appointed high priest (p. 27); his massacre of the Asidæans (pp. 56, 93)

162 Victory of Judas at Adasa (pp. 48, 178); his defeat and death at Eleasa (pp. 93, 96)

161 Death of Alcimus.

160 Jonathan begins to rule from Michmash (p. 68)

158 Occupies Jerusalem, and is invested with the high priesthood (p. 68) 153 Destruction of Carthage by the Romans (p. 23).

146 Assassination of Jonathan, who is succeeded by Simon ; capture of the citadel (p. 25); fortification of Jerusalem (p. 50)

142 Popular decree in favour of Simon and his family (p. 26)

141 Assassination of Simon, who is succeeded by John Hyrcanus (p. 24) 135 First appearance of parties called Pharisees and Sadducees (p. 39) 135 &c. Translation of Wisdom of Ben Sira into Greek .

132 (?) Hyrcanus destroys Shechem and the temple on Gerizim, and con

quers the Edomites ; his sons destroy Samaria (p. 96). 109-108 Aristobulus I. assumes title of king (pp. 28, 39)

105 Alexander Jannæus (p. 24).

104-78 Salome Alexandra (p. 61); adopts a Pharisæan policy

78-69 Hyrcanus II. and Aristobulus II. refer their claims to Pompeius

(pp. 143, 219); Jerusalem surrenders to the latter, who captures
the temple and forces his way into the Most Holy Place

63 Battle of Pharsalia ; death of Pompeius . Composition of Psalms of Solomon in Hebrew

63-48 Herod the Great

· 37-4 LECTURE V.

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