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about 4000. It is very probable that peace, and concord," and favourably both revolutionary and anti-Christian dispose the hearts of those who may principles may have been widely pre have it in their power every where to valent among the members of that assuage the tumults of contending body; but we doubt whether the French parties. government has best consulted its own Spain and Portugal have entered interests by the above liarsh and in- into a league of offensive and defensive discriminating measure. What might alliance; and a body of Portuguese pass with little censure in Austria, troops is said to be already on its will be severely canvassed in France ; way to join the Spanish armies in the and, unless the government could by north. force suppress the popular feeling, TURKEY.-Constantinople has been which seems impossible, it would in a state of almost entire lawlessness. surely be much wiser to adopt preven- The Janissaries and the populace have tive and remedial measures for con- vied in open contention with the ciliating public opinion, and training government, and have succeeded in the rising generation in Christian and forcing the Sultan to change his constitutional principles,' teaching ministers and to accept the popular them, without superstition or bigotry, favourites. It is impossible for å to fear God and to honour the king, Christian mind not to commiserate than fruitlessly to irritate large masscs the miseries of the inhabitants of this of the intelligence of the country with- distracted empire, entailed as they out any adequate benefit, or to give certainly are by the crimes of its occasion, however unjustly, to the out- governors and people, and especially cry that the dominant party wish to by the barbarous oppression which suppress science as well as liberty, and has marked the conduct of the Turks to establish the reign of despotism and in all their dealings with their unforJesuitisne in their place.

tupate Christian subjects. NointelliSpain.-Amidst the contradictory gence of much moment has been restatements of the contending parties ceived from the immediate scenes of in Spain respecting the details of the war; but the general complexion of campaign in the north, the general the accounts continues favourable to fact seems very clearly ascertained, the Greeks. The Turks seem in no that the Constirutionalists have scat condition, at the present moment, to tered their opponents, and driven them resume extensive operations either by not only to the very verge of the sea or land; and the accounts before Pyrenees, but across the French fron- received relative to the reverses which tier, without foreign aid. The cause were stated to have overtaken both of the latter seems almost desperate their fleet and army, derive strong The Spanish regency, as it calls itself, concurrent probability from the otherhad retreated to Toulouse. On the wise inexplicable supineness which other hand, the conduct of General has of late been visible in all their Mina and his troops is stated to liave measures. We sincerely rejoice to been ferocious and sanguinary; and add, that the conduct of the British numbers of monks, priests, and others authorities in the Ionian isles has are said to have been massacred by begun to wear a more favourable asthem. This account, though probably pect towards the Greeks'; a circumexaggerated, seems in some measure stance which is stated to have diffused corroborated by a proclamation issued great consolation and satisfaction in the name of that general, threaten- among that suffering people. ing with destruction not only all individuals who are found in arms

DOMESTIC. against the constitution, but even The meeting of Parliament is fixed neutral towns and villages, and all for the 4th of February. magistrates and clergymen within The Cambridge election closed in three leagues of the general's head- favour of Mr. Bankes. The other quarters, by whose non-resistance, or candidates who stood the poll were " by whose failure to furnish infor- Lord Harvey and Mr. Scarlett. mation, any disadvantage shall befal The usual monotony of the month the constitutional army." How forci- of December has been varied by the bly do scenes like these call upon painful and affecting, solemnities of a every Christian to redouble his sup- special assize commission and gaol plications to Him who is “the Author delivery for the home circuit, intended of peace and lover of concord,” that partly as an experiment, and with a he would“ give to all nations unity, view, we trust, to the general introduction of quarterly assizes. The hu- assizes no less than 92 prisoners at manity and moral duty of adopting Chelmsford, (78 of whom were comsome such measure have been often mitted for felony, burglary, and highand forcibly proved. “There are two way robbery), and a proportionate points,” remarked one of the judges number at the other assize towns. commissioned on this occasion, (Mr. These numbers had accumulated in Justice Bayley, in his charge to the four months: was there then no necesgrand jury at Maidstone)" Theresity for a gaol delivery? His lordship are two points, in the justice and neces. alludes to the inconvenience to the sity of which all must agree; first, that judges; but especially dwells on that prisoners against whom the evidence of the grand jurors, who could not, he may be deficient may be as speedily thinks, be fairly expected to leave as possible removed from the danger- their homes " at a season of the year ous tendency of prison associations, devoted to domestic comfort and reand restored to that liberty to which pose.” We trust, however, that there they are by right entitled; and se- is sufficient public spirit and humanity condly, that those whose guilt shall in our gentry to make this sacrifice, be proved may be removed from prison great as it may be ; though, after all, it inactivity to that beneficial industry is but for a few days at most; and we to which their sentence may consiga are very sure that it would not conduce them." His lordship justly esteemed to their peace of mind, amidst the it “ a most grateful sight to witness friendly intercourse of the domestic gentlemen of rank, consideration, and circle, to reflect that there were laninfluence coming forward in a full at- guishing, in the wintry inclemencies tendance, gratuitously and with great of a prison, many whom a small sacreadiness, to discharge the office of rifice on their part would rescue, not grand jururs;" and he strongly recom- only from their bodily confinement, mended that the experiment of a win- but what is far worse, from the moral ter's assize should be regarded with contamination which too often accomthe most impartial consideration. His panies imprisonment in crowded and lordship's learned colleague, Mr. Jus- unclassified gaols. We cannot quit tice Graham, we lament to state, has the subject without again adverling expressed himself very differently on to Sir J. Bayley's charge, in order to this subject. At the Hertford special mention, with great satisfaction, a assizes, his lordship remarked,' that suggestion in it, not only applicable though a lengthened imprisonment to winter assizes, but to a variety of anterior to trial is a great hardship to similar cases ; namely, that both policy the really innocent, yet, that of those and bumanity require that when pes. declared innocent at the assizes many sons are liberated from confinement, are in fact guilty, though not convicted; attention should be given, as far as and that the number of innocent sur practicable, to prevent their being ferers is therefore very limited. But reduced to the iemptation of falling why, we would ask, should even one into dishonest practices, by affording thus suffer undeservedly, if the injus- them such temporary relief as their tice can be reasonably avoided? The case requires and Christian charity speech of that learned judge has been suggests even to the guilty, and, where read, we feel persuaded, with almost practicable, procuring them the means universal surprise and regret. His of obtaining an honest subsistence in lordship himself found at these very future.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. A CONSTANT READER; PRESBYTER; Y. Z.; D, R. N.; D.; and TABOPANUS;

are under consideration. Any intelligent bookseller will give CORNUBIA the information required. Much literary and religious information arrived too late. It is incompatible with our limits to annouuce new editions of works. The question agitated by C. does not appear to us of any great practical importance. Surely the sacred Scriptores are " the word of God," in one very clear scrip tural sense, as much as the Second Person in the Tripity is in another. Nor are we aware that any mistake or incouvenience is found in practice to arise from the double use of the expression. Our correspondent, however, may be assnred that we attribnte to the Society of Friends no intention of disparaging the Scriptures when they decline to make use of this expressiou.-C.'s paper is left at the Publisher's; and also that of L, T, N.

TO THE

CHRISTIAN OBSERVER,

VOLUME THE TWENTY-SECOND,

FOR 1822.

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AFRICAN INSTITUTION. VE following is the substance produced any material effect in di

of the Society's Sixteenth Re- minishing the Slave Trade. On port, read at the last annual meet- the contrary, the Directors of the ing, of which we presented some African Institution state, that the account in our Number for Septem- extent of that trade appeared raber. Some subsequent occurrences ther to have increased. The whole might be added ; but we give the line of Westeru Africa, from the facts at present as they stood at river Senegal to Benguela ; that is the date of this Report.

to say, from latitude 16° north, to AnAddress to his Majesty,found. latitude 13° south, bad swarmed ed on authentic parliamentary do with slave' vessels; and an active cuments, exhibiting a most afflicting and increasing Slave Trade has also view of the extent to which the Slave been carried on upon the eastern Trade was still carried on by the sub- shores of that continent, particujects of several European powers, Jarly from the island of Zanzebar. and of the enormities, which at- From July 1820 to October 1821, tended its continuance, was moved 190 slave-ships had entered the in the House of Lords by the Mar- river Bonny, and 162 the river quis of Lansdowne, and in the Calabar, for the purpose of purHouse of Commons by Mr. Wil- chasing slaves. berforce, imploring his Majesty to Portugal." In this work of represent in the most urgent man. iniquity and devastation,” remark ner, to the different governments the Directors, " Portugal still takes whose subjects were engaged in a prominent part ;--the only Euroibis nefarious commerce, the ne

pean power that has refused entire cessity of their adopting stronger iy to prohibit her subjects from and more effectual measures of re-. trading in slaves. She retains the pression, in order to discharge their guilty distinction of still legalizing plainest and most incumbent obli-, a traffic, which she acknowledges, gations, and to redeem the solemo, at the same time, to be a crime of pledges they had given to this the worst description. She engagcountry and to Europe, respecting ed, it is true, at the Congress of the entire Abolition of the Slave Vienna, to limit ber Slave Trade to Trade. These addresses should her own possessions south of 'be seem not to have been officially Equator; and she held out a quacommunicated to any of the fo- lified expectation, tbat in the year reign goveroments, and therefore 1823, it should cease every where, can bardly be supposed to have and for ever. Her restrictive stia CHRIST. OBSERV. APP.

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pulations, however, have been at heard among them. Much is an. tended with little benefit to Nor- ticipated from that diffusion of in. thern Africa, for they have conti formation on the subject, which nued to be most grossly and exten. the liberty of the Portuguese Press sively violated by her subjects: will now facilitate. " While the some even of her public function- provinces," observe the Directors, aries, governors of African colo- « which formerly belonged to Spain nies, have not scrupled by their on the American continent, and own practice, openly to sanction which almost surround Brazil, have the violation, and to set at nought proclaimed with one voice the the laws they were bound to exe- emancipation of their bondsmen— cute."

and while the political agitations An active Slave Trade bad been which prevail in Brazil itself must unceasingly carried on between the in a greater or less degree produce islands of Bissao and Cape de a fermentation in the minds of its Verd, and the adjoining continent. Black and Coloured populationThese islands are used as depôts Portugal cannot be so infatuated for the Slaves taken thither in ca- as to believe that she may continue noes and small vessels, by French with impunity annually to import and other slave-traders, with the into that colony tens of thousands view of being afterwards removed of enslaved Africans, smarting unto the Havannah or to the French der the sense of recent injury, and West-India Islands. But it is to eager to break the chains to wbich the rivers which run into the Bight they are still unaccustomed.” Our of Benin, and into that of Biafra, readers are aware, that the recent that the Portuguese slave-ships revolutions in South America bave chiefly resort. Many such vessels, extended to the Portuguese coloin the course of the last year, have nies, and that neither Spain nor been found there by his Majesty's Portugal has at present any real sbips completely furnished with all control over the settlements on that the implements of their criminal continent. These and other cirtraffic, and in a state of readiness cumstances will have modified some to embark their human cargo. The of the views under which the subtraffic, however, has been but in ject appeared a year or two since. a slight degree checked by these We forbear, however, to enter discoveries.

upon the many important consiThe Directors are happy to per- derations which present themselves ceive that Portugal, as well as Spain in reference to this new order of afand the Netherlands, has acceded fairs, till further information shall to an important amendment in the have been laid before the public. terms of the convention for re- Spain.--Until a recent period, pressing the Slave Trade. It is the communications between our agreed, that if there shall be clear Government and that of Spain conproof that a slave or slaves have sisted of a succession of unavailing been put on board, for the pur- remonstrances on the part of the pose of illegal traffic, the vessel former, met with apparent indiffermay be lawfully detained and con- ence on the part of the latter. So demned.

lately as the month of April, 1821, The Directors express a hope Spain appeared still so attached to that the Portuguese nation, in the Slave Trade, that not only was vigorously asserting its own rights, a law for its more effectual repres. as it has lately done, will not be sion, proposed by the Count de forgetful of the equally sacred Torreno, rejected by the Cortes, rights of their African brethren, but an intimation was given of their and that they will allow the voice intending to apply for two years' of justice and humanity to be farther extension of the term fixed by treaty for its abolition. To this Independent States, have been deintimation lord Londonderry re- clared free from their birth. And plied in the most peremptory terms, whatever other rariations may apihat his Majesty neither would nor pear in the plan of the Constitucould lend himself to such a pro- tions to be adopted by the several position,

independent governments, all have A few months later, bowever, a agreed, that difference of colour much better spirit began to mani- shall not produce any difference fest itself. On the 27th of August in the civil condition of their subthe Spanish Minister declared, that jects. Even in Mexico, the ludians orders had been given for the punc- and Africans are entitled to the tual enforcement of the treaty on same civil and political privileges this subject; and in January last, as the Whites, an article was introduced into the Netherlands. It appears that no criminalcode, enacting that allown- effectual legal check bad been put ers, fitters out, captains, masters, to the importation of Slaves into and officers of Spanish vessels who the Dutch colonies. It is stated, shall purchase Negroes on the coast that thousands of new Negroes of Africa, or introduce them into have been imported into Surinam, any part of the Spanish dominions, since the Mixed Commission has or be captured with Slaves on board, been sitting there, and that there shall forfeit their vessel; and the was no doubt the importations offending persons shall be condemn- would be continued, unless very ed to ten years' hard labour on the strong and decisive measures were public works. The same penalties adopted. attach to all owners, proprietors, France.-The Slave Trade under captains, masters, and officers of the Aag of France maintains its all foreign vessels, who shall ille. guilty pre-eminence. Almost every gally introduce Slaves into any of part of the African coast, whether the ports of the monarchy. All on its western or eastern shores, is Negroes found on board, or intro- crowded with French contrabandduced by any of the above-men- ists. Although a French squadron tioned means, are declared free; bad for some time been stationed and of the produce arising from on the coast of Africa, for the exthe sale of the slave-ships, one press purpose of suppressing the part is to be distributed among the Slave Trade, no useful effort apNegroes, that they may be recon- peared 10 have been made by it. veyed to their own country, or be The French cruisers had not, as enabled to form establishments in far as was known), made a single cap. the country where they are intro- ture. They had even met with duced.

ships trading for Slaves under the At the period, however, of this Alag of France, and, after exchangReport, there bad been no relaxa- ing civilities with them, had left tion of the trade in Cuba and Porto them unmolested to pursue their Rico.

illegal and criminal traffic. At Our readers are already apprised Senegal and Goree, which form the of the gratifying circumstance, that head-quarters of the squadron, the throughout the whole range of merchants, and even some public Spanish America, now become in- functionaries, were still deeply endependent, not only has the Slave gaged in this traffic. Trade been effectually prohibited, But the ravages of the French but the very incentive to this crime Slave-Iraders are not confined to has been removed, by providing the western shores of that devoted for the early aud gradual abolition coutinent. The eastern coast, and of slavery itself. All persons of especially the island of Zanzebar, every colour, boru subjects of the have attracted the cupidity of these

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