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of the greater latitude of remark allow- nalists who wilfully reported to the ed to the prosecuting advocates above injury of the accused, as of those who those employed for the defence, let us dishonestly favoured their cause. It look at the case of Berton himself. may be difficult in this free country, He was denied the privilege of choos and under a long-settled constitution, ing his own counsel; and counsel of to judge precisely how great a degree whom he is stated to have known of temporary restriction is necessary in nothing, and with whom he refused France, under present circumstances, to communicate, was arbitrarily thrust to preserve the public peace from the upon him by the court, and that for the attacks of individuals who may make mere purpose of obviating a technical liberty and the charter a pretext for inconvenience, it being provided by the disorder and revolution; but it seems law that conviction shall not take place to us very probable that the French until the counsel of the accused shall government is at present stepping behave been heard in his defence. On this yond this necessity, and making an occasion the assigned counsel refused undue and impolitic use of its power. to act; and under these circumstances As it can have no rational ground to Berton was exposed for several days expect, that, in the existing circumto a rigid cross-examination from the stances of France, it can possibly stifle bar and the bench, and, quite in op- public sentiment, the attempt to do so position to all British notions of juris- must eventually hasten on the very prudence, was subjected to interroga- catastrophe, the apprehension of which tories directly tending to self-crimina- has led to the attempt. But even if an tion. To add to the glaring injustice oppressive partisanship were less unof this proceeding, the name of M. wise and less immoral than we are Drault (the advocate who had refused disposed to think it, as respects the to obtrude bis services as counsel upon members of legislative and executive a man who denied him his confidence bodies, still it ought, for the sake and protested against his appoint- eventually of all parties, to be exment,) was, by a summary order of the cluded from courts of justice. We are court, struck off the list of advocates. inclined, however, to attribute the Such a precedent is certainly calcu- anomalous proceedings in the French lated to increase the servile spirit of criminal courts, partly at least, to inthe French bar, and to deter advocates experience; and we trust it will not be from that unsbrinking discharge of long before judges, juries, prosecutheir duties, the advantage of which tors, witnesses, and advocates, will is so powerfully felt in this country. better understand and discharge their

But while we so severely animad- respective duties. The intercourse vert on the judicial institutions of our of France with Great Britain, since neighbours, let us not forget the cruel the termination of the war, has already and barbarous policy of our own laws, opened the way to the adoption of which denies to criminals on their several useful projects and benevolent trial, even for capital crimes (treason institutions from this country; and we excepted), the benefit of professional are happy to learn, that one point, not advocates, on theunsatisfactory pretext the least important point, towards that the judge is counsel for the pri- which patriotic and enlightened personer. We trust to see this disgusting sons among our neighbours are directremnant of ancient oppression speedily ing their attention, is the amelioration wiped away from our criminal code. of their judicial system. We, however,

The trials of the conspirators has led to have much also which requires amendother judicial proceedings. Fourjour- ment in our own system of criminal nalists have been found guilty of in- jurisprudence: and, most unquestioncorrectness and bad faith” in report- ably, in what regards our administraing these trials, and have been punish- tion of civil law, we might borrow edby imprisonment, and also by a very advantageously from the beau. prohibition, for a certain period, to tifully arranged and simplified code of publish any of the proceedings of our neighbours. courts of justice. Assuming the de- SPAIN.-A civil war continues to linquency charged against these jour- rage in the northern parts of Spain, and nalists to have been proved, we should a war of words and proclamations in not be disposed to object to the pu- the capital and throughout the counnishment as too severe, provided only try. The constitutionalists, elated with that the court was as rigid in pu- their late triumph, have adopted severe nishing the mala fides of those jour- measures against their opponents, and some disturbed districts have undisciplined Greek insurgents. At been placed under martial law. They Constantinople, the ferocity of the poalso appear to have committed an act pulace towards the Christians has been of great injustice in the case of Elio, much better restrained than formerly; the Royalist governor of Valentia. owing, we suppose, to the recent stiUnder the late ministry he had been pulations with Russia. On the death tried for cruelties towards the Revo- of the patriarch, a few weeks since, lutionists, and condemned to death, the Greeks were permitted to assembut had been pardoned. Since the ble peaceably to elect a new one, and accession of the present ministry to their choice was approved. power, he has been tried again, con- THE CONGRESS. -The Congress has victed, and publicly strangled. The begun to assemble at Vienna, whence, King is not permitted to quit the ca- it is said, it will shortly be transferred pital. The irritation of the anti-consti- to Verona. The Emperor of Russia tutionalists is of course increased by has already reached the Austrian these proceedings. Their troops en capital. The Duke of Wellington, title themselves the Army of the Faith, though in indifferent health, has and their cause has a powerful hold on left England to appear there as the many of the people, from the force of representative of his Britannic Matheir religious habits and prejudices, jesty. To this august meeting Europe which the liberal party have probably is now looking with almost breathless too little respected, or may even have expectation. Her peace is in its hands. outraged with no sparing hand. Scep. If the great powers who will sway its ticism and infidelity, on the one side, decisions should meet with a real desire and Popish error, superstition, and bi- to respect the rights of independent gotry, on the other, prevail, we fear, nations, and to favour the diffusion of among the majority of the active mem- rational liberty and the march of gebers of the contending sides ; though neral improvement in Europe, we and doubtless many individuals of the our children, and our children's chilrevolutionary party are zealous Catho- dren, may have cause to bless their delics, and some of their opponents scep- liberations. If, on the contrary, they tics. The Cortes are soon to meet. should meet under the influence of a We very earnestly wish that their ses- morbid fear of change, and of all sion may heal rather than inflame the improvement as leading to change; civil wounds of their country. This if under this influence they should atwould perhaps be more effectually tempt to crush the rising, liberties of done by the institution of a political Spain and Portugal, as has already body resembling the House of Lords been done in the case of Naples; the in England, or the Senate of the probability is, that the revolutionary United States, than by any other ex- spirit may extend itself far beyond its pedient that could be adopted. At present limits, and again involve the present, the collision between the ex- continent in confusion and conflict. ecutive and the democratic parts of But what will be done with Greece? the constitution is too immediate and Are the Greeks to be sacrificed, lest perpetual to afford a fair hope of in- the members of the Holy Alliance

should violate their anti-revolution. TURKEY.-The reports from the ary consistency? Are they to be left theatre of war between the Greeks to the tender mercies of their Moslem and Turks are so inexplicably con

masters, ' lest their example should tradictory, that we forbear to attempt prove contagious ? Are we to behold to unravel them. The reports of the them exterminated from the land of late alleged Greek successes are not their fathers, and either cruelly butonly disputed, but the Turks are af- chered, or sold into slavery, with firmed to have driven their opponents every circumstance of aggravation that from the Morea itself. It should be the passions of fear and rage and added, however, that most of the ru- revenge and lust, combined, can inmours unfavourable to the Greek Aict on a brave but subjugated peocause arrive through channels not ple, lest the oppressed should hereaccustomed to give favourable views after ever dare to raise their voice or of their proceedings. The relief from their arm against the oppressor? If the fear of Russian aggression on the such be the policy of this congress north, will of course have given to the of sovereigns, England, we trust, will Turks a formidable opportunity of be no party to it. Her voice, we trust, concentrating their forces against the will be raised, and not in vain, against

ternal peace.

Public Affairs: Domestic.- Answers to Correspondents. it.. She, at least, we trust, will wash and all the perseverance which so her hands of the guilt and the infamy great and good a cause merits."of such conduct. She, at least, will as- What will be their astonishment to sume, unequivocally, the attitude of find that the evil, thus denounced and the friend of the unhappy Greeks, and, condemned, has been flourishing and if she can do no more, will do her extending itself ever since; and that, best to afford them a secure asylum at this very moment, tolerated, if not beyond the reach of Turkish ferocity. encouraged, by some of the very powers But is it possible to believe that she who were parties to this solemn senmay not do more? Is it possible to be tence, it has attained an unprecelieve that her generous intervention dented extent of enormity! When the would be fruitless ? She would, and proof of this fact shall have been must, be listened to, should she pro- exhibited to them, it cannot be that nounce with sufficient decision, on this they will not proceed forth with to vinoccasion, in favour of suffering hu- dicate their contemned authority, and manity and outraged religion; and to carry into execution the sentence she would place herself higher in the they have pronounced in the face of estimation of Europe by that single the world. Is, then, the Holy Alliance act, than by all the glories which have to be efficient only against the indeaccumulated around her during the pendence of nations; and are those of last twenty years, even if we include its decrees only to be impotent which her efforts in favour of Africa.

favour humanity? And shall we see But this reminds us of another anxi- Sovereigns, who proclaim the Bible ous topic, which is to occupy, as we as their rule, taking a deeper interest understand, the attention of the Con- in the bounds of some petty province, gress, we mean, the African Slave than in the happiness of a third of Trade. In whatever degree a regard the habitable globe? to consistency may influence the so

DOMESTIC. vereigns assembled in congress to The King returned from Scotland withhold their countenance from the at the commencement of the month. cause of the Greeks, this consideration His Majesty has since appointed Mr. ought to influence them in a tenfold Canning to the office of Foreign Sedegree in absolutely insisting on the cretary, void by the death of Lord total and final extinction of the Afri- Londonderry. Mr. Canning, of course, can Slave Trade. Their faith and ho- relinquishes the Governor-Generalnour are pledged to the early accom- ship of India. His successor has not „plishment of this object. The memo- yet been appointed. rable Declaration of Vienna still rings With feelings of humble gratitude in our ears, in which they expressed to the bountiful Author of all mercies, their determination

to put an end we record that the harvest has been to a scourge which has so long deso- bighly favourable and abundant; and lated Africa, degraded Europe, and that we may confidently anticipate a afflicted humanity"—to employ "all continuance of that plenty and cheapthe means in their power for the most ness of food which this nation at preprompt and effectual execution of this sent experiences. May our national object"-and“ to act, in the employ, gratitude rise in proportion to our ment of these means, with all the zeal mercies!

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. A YOUNG INQUIRER ; DUBITANS ; AMICUS ; E. W. E. H. ; CLERICUS; $. H.; SCRU.

TATOR; A Lover OF CONSISTENCY; R. H. S.; J. B.; J. M.; and A.; have been received and are under consideration. It would not be compatible with our plan to enter into the engagement C. R. proposes. We are much obliged to H. for his packels. The paper on Necessity and Predestina. tion," would, we fear, lead to a lovg and not very profitable controversy. The Commentary respectiog which C.C. C. inquires, was composed by some inembers of the Assembly of Divives at Westminster. He will find an account of its compilers in Calamy's Life of Baxter. The public discussion SABBATARIUS suggests might probably defeat his object. B. B. had better insert his poem in the chaunel he mentions. Much literary and religions iutelligence arriv. ed too late. We have again to state, to several complaining Authors, that we mean no disrespect to them, or their works, or their principles, in not reviewing their productions. Much as we desire to satisfy the reasonable wishes of anthors, it is not in our power to review a tenth of the works that are published, without reduciog our critiques to mere literary notices.

CHRISTIAN OBSERVER.

No. 250.]

OCTOBER, 1822.

[No. 10, Vol. XXII.

RELIGIOUS COMMUNICATIONS.

I have observed

the friendly tone

Tothe Editorof the ChristianObserver. fast, taking with her a few rolls of

bread, and return in the evening IT is with much pleasure that I about eight o'clock. Her only din

ner on such days was her bread, of writers in your miscellany to- and perhaps soine soup at the Soupwards their fellow-Christians in the house, established by the Humane United States of America; as, for Society for the poor, over which example, in the late review of Bi- one of her widows had been, at her shop Dehon's sermons, and in the recommendation, appointed. She observations of your excellent tourist and her venerable companion, Mrs. who has communicated so much Sarah Hoffman, second directress useful and authentic information on of the Widows' Society, travelled various points interesting to the re- many a day and many a step toligious public on both sides of the gether in the walks of charity. Atlantic. With a view to strengthen Mrs. Graham was a Presbyterian, this aspect of regard among Chris- Mrs. Hoffnan an Episcopalian, tians in the two countries, and es. Those barriers, of which such an pecially among the members of the unhappy use has been made by Episcopal church, I send for your sectarians to separate the children insertion the following memoranda of God, fell down betu een these of the late Mrs. Sarah Hoffman of two friends at the cry of affliction, New York; a lady whose exemplary and were consumed on the altar of piety and benevolence rendered her Christian love. Arm in arm, and a bright ornament to society; and heart to heart, they visited the whose name possibly is not un- abodes of distress, dispensing temknown to some of your readers in poral aid from the purse of charity, Great Britain, as well as America, and spiritual comfort from the word particularly in connexion with that of life. One [Mrs. Graham) has of her excellent friend the late Mrs. already entered into rest; the other Isabella Graham, whose memoirs must shortly follow. Amidst

many have been printed in both countries. comforts, and many afflictions, the Mrs. Graham, though herself a life of Mrs. Hoffman has been a Presbyterian by education and con- life of faith and resignation : her viction, lived in babits of endear- end will be peace; and then she ed intercourse with her episcopa- will join her beloved and attached Jian friend, and with her contrived friend, in singing the praises of and executed those schemes of that Divine Redeemer whose footChristian benevolence which ren- steps on earth they humbly endeadered both of them a public bless. voured in his strength to follow.” ing to the community in which The writer of the following methey resided.

Mrs. Hoffman is moir bas ooly to add, that he has mentioned as follows in the life of availed himself of the general outMrs. Graham. The latter part of line of Mrs. Hoffinan's life appendthe passage has been fully verified. ed to her funeral sermon by the

«. It was often Mrs. Graham's Rev. John Stauford, A. M. of New custom to leave home after break. York, the indefatigable chaplain of CHRIST, OBSERV, No. 250,

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the “ Society for the Support of the latter days; for wbile they taught Gospel among the Poor” in that city. her the evils to which humanity

L. is subject, she learned the art of BRIEF MEMOIR OF MRS. SARAH feeling for another's woe; and of

HOFFMAN OF NEW YORK. stretching forth the hand of kindOne of the peculiar excellencies ness to relieve it. of religious biography is, that while The numerous domestic duties of it preserves the memory of the just, Mrs. Hoffman, rendered more urit insinuates itself, by a sort of ir- gent by the protracted illness of resistible impulse, into the breast her husband and her daughter-inof a pious reader; and, wbile it law, confined her charities to priinspires bim with admiration of the vate objects till the death of those goodness and grace of God in the beloved relatives, when she was encharacters which it exbibits, it abled to express the benevolent produces an anxious solicitude to feelings of her heart on a larger copy after their example. This scale. Shortly after the establishspecies of writing, therefore, is ment of “ the Society for the Relief calculated to effect valuable in- of poor Widows, with small Chilpressions upon the heart, to be dren,” she became an active memfollowed up in the future practice. ber of it, and was chosen Second To promote so valuable an object, Directress, and she copliqued to the following sketch of the virtues till this worthy station till the year and active life of Mrs. Hoffman is 1806. Her name stands enrolled, presented to the public; and al. with others, in the charter granted though the incidents are not pu- by the Legislature in favour of the inerous, yet they so strongly ex. institution. It was a happy trait in hibit the charms of piety and be- the constitution of this Society, that nevolence, ibat they present an objects of distress are relieved by admirable example for imitation, it without regard either to colour, especially by every female. or national distinction, or religious

Mrs. Sarah Hoffman was the persuasion. This Society was not daughter of David Ogden, Esy.one only the first of the kind establishof the Judges of the Supreme Court ed in America, but is stated to of the then Province of New-Jer. have been the first in the world. sey; and also a Member of bis Information of its establishment soon Majesty's Council. Her mother's reached England, and produced in

was Gertrude Governeur. some ladies of distinction a deMrs. Hoffman was born at Newark, sire to form a similar institution in New Jersey, Sept. 8, 1742, and was London, which was effected under married to Mr. Nicholas Hoffman, ihe patronage of the Duchess of Nov. 14, 1762, by whom she had York. The dreadful ravages made four children, two of whom, with in New York by the yellow fever twenty-four grand - children, and in the year 1798, which arrested pine great-grand-children, survive the band of industry, interrupted her. It is not known when Mrs. the course of trade, and swept away Hoffman first received her religi- more than two thousand persons, ous impressions. It is however leaving many a destitute widow certain, that in the more early part weeping over her helpless infants, of her life, she passed through called urgently for the humane exmany scenes of disappointment and ertions of this Society; and in conaffliction; and that, under all these, sequence, the several ladies conshe enjoyed such religious support nected with it formed themselves and consolations as made her Chris. into little bands, purposely to extian character shine with great bril. plore the habitations of distress, liancy. Nor were these afflictions which opened an extensive though without a benigo influence on her melancholy field for Mrs. Hoffman

name

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