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tomed offerings” to the curate. If us," p. 159. The insertion, therethe expression "and oblations" bad fore, in the rubric, of an expresthen been in the prayer, your cor- sion which had been thus stigmarespondent c. C's argument for tized, would have been contrary to omitting it would have been as that prudence which they were forcible as it is now unfounded. obliged to exercise ; while at the
In the Scotch Prayer-book the same time they could not but be corresponding rubric, after giving anxious to retain a practice which direction respecting the collecting had been universally observed in and presenting of the alms, pro- the ancient churchi. ceeds as follows:-"And the Press In order, therefore, to effect this byter shall then offer up and place object without alarm, they appear the bread and wine prepared for to have transferred the "offering the sacrament upon the Lord's up" of the sacramental elements table, that it may be ready for from the rubric, to the prayer. that service." It is to be observed, In the former, it would have arhowever, that in the prayer there rested observation, and might have was no change of expression, the provoked resistance to their geneword alms only being mentioned. ral design ; which evidently was to
In the present English Prayer- restore to our Communion Service book, the rubric respecting alms as much as they could of that andiffers materially from the former cient spirit which Bishop Ridley, corresponding rubric, and a good in the first Prayer-book of Edward, deal resembles that in the Scotch had been so careful to preserve'; Prayer-book. A new rubric then but which, at the instance of Marlin follows respecting the sacramental Bucer, and perhaps with a view to elements, resembling in substance advance nearer to continental Prothe corresponding Scotcb rubric, testantism, had been as carefully but omitting the expression “offer excluded in the second. How far up," and simply directing the priest the revisers effected their purpose, to place the bread and wine upon can only be seen on close and disthe table.
tinct comparison. They were eviAt the first view, it might be thought dently confined, by the cautious unlikely that the expression “ offer policy of government, to minute, up" should bave been omitted in and almost imperceptible, changes ; the rubric, if the same idea was to but the united import of those be attached to the newly introduced changes will be found as significant, term in the prayer. But Bishop as individually they were noiseless Mant's remark respecting popular and inoffensive. Their common prejudice applies particularly to character is the surest key 10 tbe that very omission. William Prynne, meaning of a particular instance : in bis book entitled “ Hidden Works and the offering up of the bread of Darknes sbrought to Public and wine, having been uniformly Light," amongst his other charges sanctioned by ibat standard to against Archbishop Laud, dwells which the revisers wished to aplargely on the Scotch Prayer-book, proximate, as well as placed before and in the course of his strictures, them by the model which they had fixes on the expression “ offer immediately in view, (in default, up" as symptomatic of Popery. "In moreover, of every other imaginwhich,” said he, "we have an offer- able reason for their introducing ing up of the bread and wine, such an expression) what can we by the priest at the holy table; just conclude, but that, by the insertion as the priests do in the mass, and in question, they wished, not only derived from them; as Missale Ro. to do quietly what in the former manum, Caremoniale, Pontificale instance had been done with ofand Breviarium Romanum, inform fence, but also, to do it better; for CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 245.
without doubt the offering up of commemoration of the sacrifice was better provided for, by a sig- of Christ ;-3. The communion, or nificant expression in the prayer, communication by Christ and rewithout any mention in the rubric, ception by the people." than it had been by being men. On the first particular, his words tioned in the rubric, without any .“ In the consecration, the corresponding expression in the church doth first offer the creaprayer. Perhaps some may be in- tures of bread and wine to be acclined to think, that the object was cepted of God, to this sacred use; not of sufficient importance to and God accepteth and blesseth have been provided for with such them to this use; which he signistudious care. But it must be fieth both by the words of his own remembered, that the wish of the institution, and by the action of his revisers was, to bring our Commu- ministers, and their benediction, pion Service as nearly as possible to they being the agents of God to the spirit of the purest antiquity; the people, in this accepting and and that they could not but know, blessing, as they are the agents of that from the earliest times, the the people to God, in offering or offering up of the bread and wine dedicating the creatures to this had been accounted a substantial use.” He adds, that in this act, part of the eucharistic celebration. we acknowledge that God is the Mr. Mede, as Wheatly intimates, Creator, and so the owner, of all had established this fact in a trea- the creatures; for we offer them to tise on the subject, which he justly him, as his own*.” supposes had due weight with the It is worth adding, that Baxter's revisers. But there is another second particular-namely, the of evidence for the importance of the fering up of the body and blood of practice, which, though not likely Christ representative, by faith and to have influenced the revisers, is, prayer, to God-bad been particuin itself, the most powerful which Tarly provided for, both in the first 'could be adduced, both for eluci. Prayer-book of Edward, and in the dating their purpose, and justifying Scotchi Prayer-book; but the prayer their solicitude. They could not of oblation, as it was called in the have overlooked an ancient feature latter, had been so confidently acin the eucharist, which even Richard cused of Popery by Pryone, ibat the Baxter regarded as essential. revisers (doubtless much against
“ This sacrament,” says Baxter, their will) could evidently not "containelh these three parts :
venture to insert it. 1. The consecration of the bread
SCRUTATOR. and wine, which maketh it the representative body and blood of * Baxter's Practical Works, fol. Vol. Christ;—2. The representation and I. p. 469.
For the Christian Observer. of Paradise Lost, it remains that noMORAL ESTIMATE OF MILTON'
tice be taken of a few things, of PARADISE LOST.
which the tendency seems not to be
of so desirable a nature. The writer (Concluded from p. 218.) will not be confident or positive on HAVING enumerated, under very
some points. He would rather caugeneral heads, some, though by no tiously suggest then as objectionmeans all, of the moral excellencies able, than vehemently contend against them as such. It is not to these illustrations are made, n be expected in the present state of doubt conceal somewhat of the dehuman imperfection, that any work formity of the materials of which should be produced without bear. they are constituted; but that is a ing that indelible stamp. A good circumstance which only increases writer suggests, as an argument in their danger. Is it not preferable favour of the divine authority of that the fictions of mythology should the Bible, that while no principles be suffered, for the most part, to contained in that book are in the remain in those repositories of clasexperience of mankind ever found sic fame, where they will interest to be incorrect, no other book pro- the mind in their proper connexion bably was ever written, even under a connexion in wbich they will the guidance of the Bible, which be less likely to mislead and cordid oot teach or embody some prin rupt it? In this case, there would ciples that may be found to be er- be at least but an inconsiderable roneous. In poetry, wbere imagi- temptation on the part of the reader nation, the most lawless power of to confound these phantasms and the mind, is expected to predomi- monsters” with the real productions nate, we should not naturally look of nature, or the accounts which for a peculiar exemption from hu- are banded down concerning them, man infirmity. Compared with with the portions of accredited hisother forms of writing, it would tory. Error is never so dangerous be apt to have ils full share of an as when found in company with earthly spirit. Still, if it is not the truth ; and as the fables of heathenprivilege of the Christian poet to ism form a family by themselves, so be perfect, it is his duty to be con- let them not be suffered to mingle sistent; and he should aim at an in- profanely in the lovely circle of defectible standard, however short Christian verities. The poet needof it he may come. The nearest pos- ed not to recur tó error for ornasible approximation to evangelical ment, when nature and truth at his requirements should be the object bidding would have lent him their kept in view.-In accordance with world of enchantments. The pure these remarks, I would first sug. mind of Cowper seldom admitted gest whether Milton's frequent al- such an amalgamation, and his prolusions to the fables and mythology ductions want not any charm that of heathen antiquity be not a de- genius or taste can impart to them. rogation from tbe value of his
An apology, I know, is offered poem, as true religion is concern- for Milton, on the ground that what ed. I do not know that an occa- he borrows from ibe heatben mysional illustration of his subject thology he applies in the shape of from this source, in the way of si- similitude; and moreover, as an edi. mililude, would be inconsistent for observes, Milton resembled Bewith Christian propriety. But, in zaleel, who was to make the furniParadise Lost, ihere is such a pro- ture of the tabernacle. Like bim fusion of these illustrations as to he was endowed with extraordinary tbrow over the work 100 much an talents : avd like him, he employed air of leathenism ; and it will oc- Egyptian gold to embellish bis cur to the reader that they are not work. But as was above mentionall made in the form of similitude. ed, the poet's illustrations from the An unnatural and unbecoming mix- source in question are not always ture of truth and fable is the con- made in the manner alleged,-a cirsequence; the aspect of which, to a cumstance which every reader will religious wind, is by no means plea recollect. Besides, whatever might sant, and the effect of which, on be conceded in regard to a very any mind, is not entirely liarmless. sparing use, in a cautious form, of The beauty and elegance with wbich mythological fiction, it would not follow that such an abundance of perfections, and speak, at times, the it as would give to a work a sort of language of self-reproach. The heathenish aspect, could be admis. reader, however, more than keeps sible: and with respect to the pace with them in these relentings Egyptian gold, it must be obvious of nature; and he cannot but feel to remark, that such a product conscious what a tremendous defeat could be much more easily worked they must at length experience from up so as to lose its profane aspect, the exertions of sleepless intellithan the stories of the gods could gence and almighty power. This be made to accord with the sobriety is so much the case, that it seems of religion. The pious commenta- not altogether natural that beings tor, Mr. Scott, in one of his notes so purely intellectual should be on the 23d chapter of Exodus, sug, made to possess such contidence in gests whether the familiar acquaint- their ill-concerted designs, and exance with the heathen mythology ult so much in only the appearance whicb generally accompanies a clas. of success. Tbeir partial concessical education, is not unfavour- sions, moreover, do not destroy, so able to genuine Christianity. But much as might be desired, the efthough I should not readily admit fects of their contumelious and inthat it is so, yet I can more easily sulting language. The effusions of believe, ibat the heathen mythology their depravily are master-pieces in a near and studied connexion of eloquence in their kind. They with the sacred truths of the Bible, are emphatically to the purpose, as is not precisely what it would be addressed to the ear, and to the in its proper place.
feelings of consummate impiety ; 2. It may be suggested whether and they come to the heart of man some of the sentiments and expres, with an energy which it would resions put in the mouths more espe- quire some piety to resist. Would cially of the evil spirits, do not in not the soul delighted with war, a degree offend against the sacred- sympathize a litile, and mingle pess of religion, the awe with which while it hastens its movements with holy subjects should be approach the strong and fraptic tide of feeled. These sentiments and expres- ing in Moloch the “ bomicide," and sions may perhaps be necessary in with him fondly brood over its order to preserve consistency of schemes of revenge, even in the character: but it seems unhappy face of uiter ruin ? And would that any circumstance should make not satan's famous apophthegm it necessary for such depraved speak, and almost elicit, ihe concreatures to give utterance to all genial language of the illimitable their malignity, and, I may say also, heart of ambition, to all their folly. They talk of dethroning, circumventing, disap, To reign is worth ambition, tho’ in hell."
" In my choice poioting, and vexing the universal Sovereign; as if, even in the view If there is danger that our corrupt of the most limited understanding, propensities may be roused into he were no more than the creature greater efficiency by such represen, of chance, or the sport of destiny. tations, they should be either altoAnd they detail their malicious and gether spared, or more lightly touchimpotent plans with such a fearless. ed upon. At least the remedy ness of front, and in language of should be at hand, and be made to such insult and defiance, as a good bear upon the evil. I am not cerman hardly knows how to dwell tain but that in the conduct and upon long enough to admit into his issue of the story is to be found all mind the representation.
lhe corrective that justice demandIt is true ibey make some proper ed of the poet; although it can concessions respecting the Divine hardly have escaped observation, that human depravity is far less associates, a considerable share of satisfied with that which is designed self-denial, and the movement of to eradicate, than with that which sympathetic feeling, be occasionalis calculated to excite it. Perhaps ly manifests. Io some instances, at also moderation in this department, least, be does not appear so evil as that is, in the delineation of cha- he ought to appear. There is not racter by speeches, might be con- a proper correspondence between strued into tameness of genius ; yet the collective amount of his chaeven this fault might be more easily racter, and the several items ibat forgiven than the pecessary (if it are intended to constitute it. Hence be necessary) ministration to un- a degree of interest, probably conballowed feeling
trary to the main intention of the Under the present head, may be poet, is attached to this evil agent, included not only the taunting and which is not a little unfavourable punaing lauguage of the evil angels in its moral influence. He is somein the sixth book, but also some- times shielded from our indignation thing there exhibited which falls under the sacredness of misfortune, short of the dignity and unruffled To excite our pensive admiration feelings of purity and gentleness, of him, his form appears not less which must be supposed to prevail than “ archangel ruin'd, and the in the bosoms of good angels. Their excess of glory obscured.” We “ fierce desire of battle” and “ in- almost pity bim, when we learn extinguishable rage" are too cou- that care sits on his faded cheek," spicuous. The scenes in this book and that “ his eye casts signs of seem to be unpleasant on this ac- remorse and passion," on the assocount. We do not easily associate ciates of his rebellion. We almost the agitation, fierceness, aud vaunt- forgive him, when in addressing ings of war, with the hallowed see them, renity and sweet charities of heaven, The martial spirit loses none of its
“ Thrice he essay'd, and thrice in spite
of scoru, unsightliness, though displayed in Tears, such as angela weep, burst forth.” that pure region by “ brightest seraphim.” Perbaps, however, the He appears, when occasion rerepresentations in this book should quires, with a noble and dignified not be objected to in an entire view, demeanour-is pensive, and touchsince they seem to be not altoge- ing, and eloquent, and prodigal of ther unauthorized by Scripture; suffering; and like no inconsideralthough some parts might have able representative of him in the been spared, without offence to our Roman history, Mark Anthony, he better feelings.
is the idol of those who are sacri3. The nature of the subject, as ficed to his flagitiousness. well as the poet's design, led bim to This relief to his awful character, give a prominent agency to satan, though happy as to poetical effect, The prince of the evil spirits.-lo is not otherwise pleasant or saluthe representation of such a cha- tary. Under such appearances, the racter, perlaps no human skill was heart-that is, if it enters into the adequate to do it entire justice, and spirit of the representation-favours to cause the mind of the reader, in him more than is consistent with each successive development, to as- the entire detestation which is due sent to its worthlessness. In order to sin. Owing to the particulars that he might compass bis objects, that have been mentioned, an abatethe prince of darkness is made to ment of our abhorrence takes place, appear, at times, not altogether without a proportional corresponddestitute of qualities which man- ing conviction, that from his genekind both venerate and love. Public ral character and conduct be is elle spirit, honour, attachment to his titled to it. Whether such repre