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situated in places where the society entirely to prevent young persons of persons of kindred sentiments enjoying the advantages of society ? in religion cannot be obtained, ex- or may they allow them to mix, to cept by breaking the established a certain extent, with casual acgradations of life, and mixing inti- quaintances in their own circle of mately with individuals whose sta- life? and how must they act as tion, education, or habits render them respects their intercourse with reliin many respects, not withstanding gious persons in subordinate statheir piety, undesirable compa- tions? pions for their children? Ought religious parents in such cases
To the Editor of the Christian Observer. fectionate esteem, they are expect
couragement of friendly and afTHERE is no class of persons in ed to have mental energy and bodily whose welfare I have taken a more health to persevere in the arduvus lively interest, than that of domes- duties of an office the most labotic instructors, both male and female, rious, most anxious, and most reresident in the families of the no- sponsible. Can we be surprised bility and wealthy commoners of that so many persons thus circumthis country. Accustomed, in many stanced become early the victims instances, in early life, to the re- of lingering disease; or, what is yet finements of feeling and taste aris- more distressing, are deprived, by ing froin a liberal education; to the over exertion, of that mental elascomforts of a happy domestic fire- ticity which might have been the side; and to the interchange of that solace of their declining years, and pre eminent human blessing, family the delight of a happy circle of affection; they are perhaps, by affectionate friends ? They are exmeans of some unforeseen calamity, pected to be intimately acquainted removed into a wealthy family, to with all the subjects which constiundertake the charge of several tute a well-conducted and accomyoung persons with whom they have plished education, and to possess never previously bad the least in the power of communicating knowtercourse, and in whom they can ledge with ease and pleasure to of course feel, at least at first, uo their pupils; and yet with such peculiar interest, except as their large demands on their time, and ininstructors. Regarded by the elder tellect, and talents, they are not only members of the family as unwel- often worse remunerated than many come, though necessary, intruders, an upper servant, but are subjected and by the younger ones as persons to numerous mortifications from whose only object is to instil into which the latter are exempt. their minds knowledge which they A little serious thought would probably hate, and 10 enforce the teach persons of intelligent and necessity of overcoming many pro- reflecting minds, even from pare pensities which the want of disci. selfishness, unassisted by any higher pline has rendered habitual to principle or better feeling, to purthem; destitute of the social com- sue a more liberal plan of conduct forts enjoyed even by the ser- towards the iostructors of their vants of a well-regulated house- children. For, can they expect hold, and un repaid by the kind en- that well-educated persons of any CHRIST, OBSERV. No. 243.
feeling or delicacy, can possess to the drawing-room in the evening that affectionate interest, that un- for an hour or two, to be silently remitting energy, so necessary for neglected by half the party, if the fulfilment of the duties of a not bantered by the other half, conscientious domestic instructor, and then to retire weary and disif oppressed by the pride or formal pirited with their irksome visit of coldness of their employers, and ceremony, to draw in solitude a without any opportunity of exer- painful contrast between the comcising the better feelings of the forts of their lost home and the human heart? Or can ihey bope oppression of thoughtless selfishthat their children should shew that ness. Surely persons to whom an affectionate respect for their in- indulgent Providence has given the structors which is necessary to power of contributing to the comenable the latter to acquire a suit- fort of such useful, and, in very able influence over their tempers, many instances, truly valuable, and to direct their understandings? members of their family, should
Were these remarks applicable endeavour to keep in mind that only to persons of mere hackneyed heavenly injunction to “ do 10 character, who lose every good others as they would ibat others feeling in the selfishness of worldly should do to them." Let them pursuits ; or to the gay and dissi- place themselves in idea in the sipated, who expend all their sen- luation of those whom they unsibilities in the haunts of folly ; feelingly neglect, or unnecessarily I should have been less anxious to mortify; and then, unless selfishurge the subject in the pages of ness and a life of folly have harthe Christian Observer: but un- dened their heart, they cannot but happily I have seen the portrait feel an honest regret at their want which I have sketched too accurately of Christian benevolence, and an exemplified in the houses even of earnest desire in future to obviate persons who profess to be consist their past errors. ent followers of that meek and To those who are struggling with humble Saviour who “ went about the difficulties and trials alluded to, doing good.” I have witnessed it I would say, • Happy are you, if in the dwellings of some valuable you bave learned in the school of and much respected friends, to affliction to ' set your affections on whose hospitality I have been things above;' and, though, degreatly indebted, and who, I be- prived of many earthly comforts, to lieve, were quite unconscious of the Rejoice in the Lord.' • Be not pain they were occasioning. Often weary in well doing,' however great have I met with instructors of both your discouragements ; ' for in due sexes, secluded from every domes
shall reap, if tic enjoyment, from every social not.' comfort,labouring incessantlymonth I turn from this painful retroafter month, for the benefit of those spect, to one which has always afwho, when the daily task was ended, forded me great pleasure; for were encouraged to fly from their among the list of my friends, I am instructors in pursuit of pleasures in happy to say I can number some which the latter were not permitted who act a very different part. to join; being left, unnoticed or for- Blessed with great affluence, and gotten, to struggle in solitude with in several instances with high titles, feelings of weariness and mortifica- their hearifelt pleasure consists in tion,-feelings which the united diffusing bappiness to all around strength of reason and religion, them. In their houses I have seen was often insufficient to overcome. the instructors of their children Others I have seen allowed-I can- admitted with the most friendly uot say invited to pay a formal visit hospitality into the domestic circle,
ye faint treated with uniform respect and haps by a spirit of piety, have so attention by the elder branches of grievously failed in some of the the family, partaking with them of domestic virtues, or have cherish. every social repast, and withdraw- ed so little reverence for the miing only from those large and for- nuter forms of well-ordered society, mal entertainments in which they that their employers have found it would not have felt at home, if difficult to incorporate them as invited to them, and which would they could have wished in the sehave encroached on the hours and lect family circle. It would be habits and duties of their station. doing a considerable service to the Thus affectionately treated by their younger race of tutors and goveremployers, they have acquired a nesses, and through them to many powerful ivfluence over ihe dis- families, if some of your correspositions and understandings of pondents, conversant with the deiheir pupils, and have had the sa- tails of the subject, would draw up tisfaction of forming them, through a counterpart te the foregoing rethe blessing of God upon their marks, and would affectionately labours, to." whatsoever things are point out, with a view to correct, just, true, lovely, and of good re- those faults or failings of the class port.” Several persons thus cir- of persons in question which precunstanced have candidly owned vent their ordinarily obtaining that to me, that the salutary influence degree of estimation in society to they have enjoyed over their young which their mental and moral qualifriends has been chiefly owing to fications, generally speaking, enthe kindness with which they were title them. In many cases, these distinguished by the parents; and faults or failings are unknown and all with whom I have been ac- unsuspected by the individual, and quainted (with ibe exception of would be readily corrected if kindone ungrateful individual whose ly pointed out.-I will only just wrong propensities no kinduess glance at the kind of specification could subdue) bave laboured in which I mean. For example; I return with unremitting atiention bave occasionally observed, in faand cheerfulness, to devote every milies of highly polished babits, faculty and talent they possessed governesses or iutors, whose early to the service of their benefactors education and acquaintance had and their children, firmly resisting been of so very unpropitious a more lucrative offers, and becoming, kind, that whatever their value as in after life, the friends and ad- teachers, it was impossible even .visers of those whom they had for their pupils not to observe such trained to early habits of industry, defects in their speech, or manners, piety, and social virtue.
or behaviour, as would render it I am far, however, from assert- very difficult for a judicious parent ing, that in the unhappy cases to to know how to act on the occasion, wbich I bave before referred, all These cases are the more painful, tbe blame was on the side of the because they may occur where there employer. The babits and tempers is the greatest merit in the indiviof many individuals concerned in dual. Other defects are of a less domestic education are too much of excusable kind ;-such as hastiness a character to excite some degree of temper; unreasonable disconof reserve and distance on the part tentedness with the station asof the heads and the friends of the signed by Providence; a morbid families in which they reside. [ habit of viewing almost every thing bave koown instructors, both male as intended for a personal slight; and female, who though fully quali- pedantic habits in conversation ; fied for their station by competent the indulgence of a satirical spirit ; Jalents and information, and per- the love of disputation; vanity in dress ; affectation of behaviour ; little is known on the coast, and self-importance; studied eccentri- the accounts which you receive from city of conduct; the want of gentle• casual visitors are usually as vague ness and patience; and, lastly, a, and inaccurate as those derived from spirit of coldness and selfishness, persons interested are exaggerated which is very apt to find its way and partial. Opinions respecting into the human beart, wberever all the settlemeuts, it is easy enougla persons are placed in a somewhat to collect; but facts, on whicli insulated position, or thrown upon to found opinions entitled to any their own resources under circum- consideration, it is extremely diffistances unfavourable for the growth cult to obtain. of the social and domestic charities. I bave met with two persons only A CONSTANT READER. who have actually been at Mr. Birk.
beck's settlement; one in the course
of the last summer, the other less REMARKS DURING A JOURNBY
than eight weeks since. They both THROUGH NORTH AMERICA.
state, that he has now a very com
fortable house, excellent fences, (Continued from page 23.)
and from 60 to 80 acres of Indian Norfolk (Virginia), Dec. 12, 1820.
corn ; but that he has raised little As engagements of various kinds or no wbeat, finding it more desirbegin to thicken upon me previ- able, on the whole, to purebase ously to embarking, and I have four at Harmony, eighteen miles little chance of any opportunity of distant. writing to you as I wish, I must I have not Mr. Birkbeck's book continue to snatch little intervals before me to refer to, in order to as they present themselves, and see whether this is his third or write to you as I can.
fourth year; but, in either case, the You are already in possession of result ditfers so widely from bis our " personal narrative” to a late anticipations, as to render it diffidate. I will now continue my cult for bim to elude the charge of remarks, scanty and superficial as being a wild and sanguine specu. I know they are, on the subject of lator. emigration. I do not recollect that In one of his estimates, he states I omitted any thing at all material the following as the quantity of which occurred tome,duringmyhasty produce which a settler on 640 progress through the country, with acres, may expect to raise in the respect to the inducements offered first four years :to the poorer classes, who are anxi. Ist year, 100 acres of Indian corn. ous to obtain a litile land, from 2d year, 100 ditto ditto. which they may derive a subsistence
100 ditio Wheat. for their families by personal exer- 3d year, 200 ditto lodian corn. tion. On the more difficult subject
100 ditto Wheat. of the advantages which agricul- 4th year, 200 ditto Indian coru. turists, with a capital of a few
200 ditto Wheat. thousand pounds, would derive This estimate was made not later, from coming to this country, I shall I believe, at any rate than in 1817, enter with greater reluctance ; be- (you can refer to bis book); and yet cause it is one in the minuliæ of in the autumn of 1820, he has little which I feel still less at home, al, or no wheat, and only 60 or 80 though I have taken pains to obtain acres of Indian corn, though possuch information as would lead me šessing unquestionably, in his skill to conclusions on which I could and resources, more than the averrely. The fact is, that of the more age advantages of new settlers, and recent settlements, (even of those stimulated to extraordinary exerless remote than Mr. Birkbeck's,) tions by a regard to his reputation.
So much for quantity. With respect hibit the languor and apathy which to price, in his estimate of profit, follow frequent or long-continued he takes wheat at seventy-five, and intermittents. Indian corn at forty, cents per I became sadly too familiar with bushel. I cannot hear of any actual this melancholy spectacle on my sales on the Wabash, to fix the south-western route : scarcely one prices on the spot; but in both family in six in extensive districts Kentucky and Ohio, wheat is at in the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, twenty-five to thirty-three, and Louisiana, and Mississippi, being Indian corn at twelve and a balf, exempt from fever and ague; and cents per bushel: while the fact many of them exhibiting iall young that be regards it as more desirable men of eighteen to thirty moving to buy and transport flour eighteen feebly about the house, completely miles, than to raise it at home, fur- unfited for exertion, after fifteen Dishes a strong presumption that he or eighteen months' residence, or can derive little profit from its rendered indolent or inefficient for cultivation. The gentleman whom the rest of their lives. In Georgia I mentioned, as being there a and Carolina, we were told in a jocufew weeks since, told me that Mr. lar way, that it was not uncommon Birkbeck was preparing to sow a for a person who was invited to little wlieat this winter; but that dinner on a particular day, Wedneshe regarded grazing as the most day for instance, to begin reckoning profitable object of his future at- “ Monday-Tuesday-Wednesday tention. Of the price of labour, -No; I cannot come to you on and of foreign articles of domestic Wednesday, for that is my fevereconomy, I could obtain no satis- day.”—The two gentlemen who had factory information. I lately met visited Mr. Birkbeck agreed io siata gentleman who has been travelling ing, what has often been denied, extensively through the western that be bas a well of excellent water. country. He did not visit Mr. Birk- On the whole, I am disposed to beck's settlement, but saw two Eng. think that Mr. Birkbeck's sanguine lish families returning from it sickly anticipations have been grievously and debilitated; their inability to disappointed, and would have been preserve their health there being, proved by the result to have been as they alleged, their principal extravagant, independently of rereason for leaving the colony. He cent changes in the circumstances also met an English gentleman of of the country. At the same time, property who bad been to examine I have no doubt that even his preibe place, with a view of taking sent views of his situation and prosbis family thither : he said, the pecis, moderated as they must be sight of it, and a conviction that by his past experience, embrace it was unhealthy, decided him at advantages which in his estimate once to relinquish the idea ; that far outweigh the privations and he considered the selection a most sacrifices attending his removal unfortunate one for Mr. Birkbeck, hither, and lead him still to conand that ibe number of the colonists gratulate himself warmly on his did not exceed two hundred. change of country. And, indeed,
1 bave heard others speak rather in possession of all the substantial favourably of the healthiness of comforts of physical life ; removed Mr. Birkbeck's particular spot, to beyond the sphere of those invidiwbicb bis draining-fences will con- ous comparisons which would rentribute; but all represent Ilinois der bim sensible to artificial wants ; in general as a most unhealthy State, exempt from present anxieties, and where the people for the most part with a reasonable prospect of learare pallid and emaciated, and ex- ing every member of his family in