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A. S. PACKARD, JR., AND EDWARD D. COPE.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS:

PROF. C. E. BESSEY, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY.
PROF. C. V. RILEY, DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY.
PROF. 0. T. MASON, DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY.
ELLIS H. YARNALL, DEP. OF GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS.
DR. R. H. WARD, DEPARTMENT OF MICROSCOPY.

VOLUME XV.

PHILADELPHIA:
PRESS OF MCCALLA & STAVELY,
Nos. 237 AND 239 Dock STREET.

1881.

Copyrighted 1881,
By McCALLA & STAVELY,

For the Proprietors.

CONTENTS.

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203

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The Ancient Glaciers of the Rocky Mountains...

Archibald Geikie

The Discovery of Iron Implements in an Ancient Mine in North

Carolina, ...

Frederick W. Simonds.

7

On the Fertilization of Calamintha nepeta

William Trelease ..

Comparative Neurology...

S. V. Clevenger.

Botanizing on the Colorado Desert.

Edward Lee Greene.

The Method of Distinguishing Species of Populus and Juglans

by the young naked Branches..

W. 7. Beal ...

32

An Address to the Fossil Bones in a Private Museum..

James S. Lippincott. .

Incomplete Adaptation as illustrated by the History of Sex in

Plants ..

Lester F. Ward..

89

A Partial Biography of the Green Lizard.

Sarah P. Monks

96

A New Leaf Cutting Ant...

. G. K. Morris ..

The Bee's Tongue and Glands connected with it

Justin Spaulding.

113

History of the Buffalo ..

Wm. E. Doyle .

119

Observations on the Salmon of the Pacific. .

D. S. Yordan & C. H. Gilbert 177

The Siphonophores. (II – The Anatomy and Development of

Agalma-continued from p. 630, Vol. xiv.).

7. Walter Fewkes..

186

The Relation of Apiculture to Science..

. A. 7. Cook.

195

Glacial Phenomena in the Yellowstone Park

Wm. H. Holmes..

A Collector's Notes on the Bre ling of a few Western Birds . E. Holterhoff, yr.

208

The Fertilization of Salvia splendens by Birds ...

William Trelease.

265

On the Origin of the Foot Structures of the Ungulates .

E. D. Cope.

269

Progress of Invertebrate Palæontology in the United States for the

year 1880....

C. A. White.

273

Evidences of the Effect of Chemico-Physical Influences on the

Evolution of Branchiopod Crustaceans . . .

Carl F. Gissler.

Notes on a few of the Diseases and Injuries in Birds. . .R. W. Shufeldt .

283

The Brain of the Locust ....

. A. S. Packard, yr..

283, 372

The Endocranium and Maxillary Suspensorium of the Bee. . George Macloskie

353

Mya arenaria in San Francisco Bay.

Robert E. C. Stearns. 362

The Squid of the Newfoundland Banks in its Relation to the

American Grand Bank Cod Fisheries .

. H. L. Osborn.

366

Archæology of Vermont. .

Geo. H. Perkins

425

Larval Habits of Bee-flies. .

C. V. Riley.

438

Late Explorations in the Gaboon .

Hugo Von Koppenfels . 447

Pueblo Pottery. . .

Edwin A. Barber

453

Origin and Descent of the Human Brain,

S. V. Clevenger.

513

The Eastern Snow-bird ....

Samuel Lockwood

Bacteria as a Cause of Disease in Plants.

. T. ). Burrill

527

Record of American Carcinology for 1880 .

7. S. Kingsley

Aboriginal Stone-drilling ...

Charles Rau.

On the Effects of Impacts and Strains on the Feet of Mammalia . E. D. Cope.

The Great Crested Flycatcher.

Mrs. Mary Treat

601

The Reasoning Faculty of Animals .

Joseph F. James .

604

Progress of Anthropology in America during the year 1880. Otis T. Mason

616

The Manuscript Troano

Cyrus Thomas.

Variations in a Copepod Crustacean,

Carl F. Gissler

Scolopendrella and its Position in Nature.

d. S. Packard, Jr.

698

American Work in the Department of Recent Mollusca during the

year 1880....

William H. Dall.

704

Notes on the Codex Troano and Maya Chronology. .

Daniel G. Brinton.

719

On the Development of the Stomata of Tradescantia and Indian

Corn. .

Douglass H. Campbell .. 761

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937

Editors' Table.

The United States Geological Survey, 39; Lack of Naturalists in large cities, 41 ; Academics

of Sciences, 41; The New York Times, 42; The Tariff Laws of the United States, 124; Geo-

logical Survey of Pennsylvania, 126; Laws of Nomenclature, 219; Government aid for a biologi.

cal survey of the United States, 302; A proposition that the British Association for the Advance.

ment of Science be invited to hold their annual meeting for 1883 in conjunction with the American

Association, 379; Description and Iconography in Biology, 548; Winter course of lectures at the

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 549: Letter from James Hall, 550; Insanity and

Responsibility, 641; Concord Summer School of Philosophy, 724; Mr. Barnes' Metaphysical

Definitions, 791; Mining reports and investments, 791; Rules governing Nomenclature, 883;

Biology as a Profession, 987:

RECENT LITERATURE.

The Naturalists' Directory for 1880, 42; Shell Heaps in Japan, 43; The Botany of California,

Vol. 11, by Sereno Watson, 44; Balbiani's Lectures on the Generation of Vertebrates, 45; Zittel's
Hand-book of Palæontology, 46; McAlpine's Biological Atlas, 46; Eaton's Systematic Fern
List, 46; The Zoological Record for 1878, 47; Jourdan's Zoantherian Corals of the Gulf of Mar-
seilles, 47; Bastian's The Brain as an Organ of Mind, 48; Mason's Microscopic Studies on the
Central Nervous System of Reptiles and Batrachians, 50; Recent Books and Pamphlets, 51;
Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1878, 127: Horn's Synopsis of the Bury-
ing Beetles of the United States, 128; Robinson's Flora of Essex county, Massachusetts, 129;
Report of the Committee of the Franklin Institute on Analysis of Inks, 129; Outlines of Lin-
guistic Science, 131; Molina's Dictionary of the Aztec Language, 131; Recent Books and
Pamphlets, 131 ; Zittel’s Hand-book of Palæontology, 221; Gunther's Introduction to the Study
of Fishes, 222 ; Bruhl's Zoötomy for Students, 223; Ingersoll's Friends Worth Knowing, 223 ;
Gennadios on Phylloxera, 224; Wood's Insect's Abroad, 224 ; Recent Books and Pamphlets, 224 :
Wallace's Island Life, 305: Recent Books and Pamphlets, 310; Genth and Kerr's Minerals of
North Carolina, 380; Martin's Human Body, 382 ; Verrill's Cephalypods of the East Coast of
North America, 383: Minot's Studies on the Tongues of Reptiles and Birds, 383; Natural His-
tory of Coleoptera, 384; Report of the State Geologist of New Jersey, 384; Kingsley's Notes on
Crustacea, 384; Recent Books and Pamphlets, 385; Underwood's Native Ferns, 462; Kent's
Manual of the Infusoria, 463; Recent Books and Pamphlets, 467; Semper's Animal Life as
affected by the Natural Conditions of Existence, 550; Anniversary Memoirs of the Boston So.
ciety of Natural History, 552 ; Brooks' Development of the Squid, 553; Second Report of the
U.S. Entomological Commission, 554; Recent Books and Pamphlets, 555; De Quatrefages' The
Human Species, 643 ; The Zoological Record for 1879, 646; Our Sporting Journals, 646; Report
of the Geological Survey of Canada for 1878-79, 647: Recent Lithological Notices, 647; The
Economic Entomology of Ontario, Canada, 648; The Geology of Indiana, 648; Recent Books
and Pamphlets, 648; Report of the State Commissioners of Fisheries of Pennsylvania, 726;
Studies from the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, 727; Hamlin's Physical
Geography and Geology of Mt. Ktaadn, 728; Darwin's Power of Movement in Plants, 729; Re-
cent Books and Pamphlets, 730; Hyatt's Genesis of the Tertiary species of Planorbis at Stein-
heim, 793: Marey's Animal Mechanism, 796; Peirce's Ideality in the Physical Sciences, 799 ;
New England Bird Life, 800 ; Bronn's Classes and Orders of the Animal Kingdom, Crustacea,
801; Index to Riley's nine Reports on the Insects of Missouri, 801; Recent Books and Pamph-
lets, 801; Scudder's Butterflies; their Structure. Changes and Life-histories, 885; Newton and
Jenney's Geology of the Black Hills of Dakota, 887; A Memoir on the Loxolophodon and Uin-
tatherium, 888; Hervey's Sea Mosses, 890; Bailey's Handbook, 890; Book of the Black Bass,
891; North American Mesozoic and Cænozoic Geology and Palæontology, 891; On the Structure
and Development of the Skull in the Batrachia, 892; Recent Books and Pamphlets, 892; Ty-
lor's Anthropology, 990; Knowledge, 995; Recent Books and Pamphlets, 995.

GENERAL NOTES.

Botany.-Relation of Elevation to Change of Color in Flowers, 52; Insect-destroying Fungi,

52; Bennett's Classification of the Cryptogams, 53; Botanical Notes, 54; The Fungi which pro-

duce Mildew on Cotton Goods, 132; Allen's Characeae Americanæ Exsiccatæ, 133; The Pep-

peridge Tree in Maine, 134; Histology of the Pumpkin Stem, 134; Fertilization of Aquilegia,

134 : Progress of Botany in the United States, 135; Botanical Notes, 135; Variations in the

Growth of the Virginia Creeper and Hickory, 227; The Compositæ, 227; The Sensitiveness of the
Root-tip of the Seedling, 228; Influence of Light on the Respiration of Seeds, 228 ; Botanical
Notes, 229: A Reformed System of Terminology of the Reproductive Organs of the Thallo-
phyta, 311; Curtiss' " North American Plants," 314; The Function of Lichen Gonidia, 315; Sets
of North American Fungi, 315; Pinus banksiana Lamb., on the Sea Coast of Maine, 316; Ben-
tham's New Classification of the Orchids, 316; Botanical News, 316; On the Evaporation of
Water from Leares, 385: The Flora of Arkansas, 388 ; Botanical Notes, 389 ; A Botanist's Trip
to “ The Aroostook,” 469; (ur Species of Cedar Apples, 471; Cohn's Classification of the Thal-
lophytes, 473; Botanical Notes, 474; The Growth of Starch Grains, 556; Hardiness of the Eu.
calyptus, 558; Curiosities in Tree Growth, 559; Botanical Notes, 560. The Poison of Zyga-
denus paniculatus, 651; Germination of Astragalus utahensis, 651; How our Red Clover behaves,
631 ; Sets of North American Algæ, 652 ; Botanical Notes, 652; Botany in Minnesota, 732 ;
The Study of Algæ in the United States, 732; The Literature of Botany, 734; A Hint to Micro-
scopists, 734; Errata, 735; Botanical Notes, 735; Caruel's New System of Plants, 803; Influ-
ence of Severe Winters on Vegetation, 806; Botanical Notes, 806; An Interesting Lady's Slipper,
894; The Conifers of Japan, 895; A Pocket Manual of Botany wanted, 896; Lemna polyrrhiza
again discovered in flower on the Detroit river, 896; Botanical Notes, 897; Dimorphism in
Black Mustard, 997: Motion of the Fruit of Tilia while in the Air, 998; The Sensitiveness of
Tendrils, 999; The Superabundance of Pollen in Indian corn, 1000; The Common Names of our
Plants, 1000; Coreopsis rosea, 1000; Ceratophyllum demersum in Fruit, 1001 ; Botanical Notes,

10ot.

Zoology.-Notes on the Land-shells of Dominica, 56; Breeding Habits of the European as

Compared with those of the American Oyster, 57; Change in the Nervous System of Beetles

durilg Metamorphosis, 58; A New Genus of Catostomidæ, 59; Cellular Irritability, 59 : Budding

in Free Medusæ, 59; Zoological Notes, 60; Description of a Hermaphroditic Phyllopod Crustacean

(Eubranchipus), 136 ; Habits of the English Sparrows in the United States, 139; Intelligence in

a Cat, 140; Curious Habit of a Dragon-fly, 141; Migrations of the Sand-hill Crane, 141; Zoö-

logical Notes, 142; Dredgings in the Bay of Biscay, 230; Fauna of the Luray and Newmarket

Caves, Virginia, 231; A rare Fish in Illinois, 232; The Japanese Lap-dog. 233; The Epidemic

among Marine Fishes, 234; The Lac Insect, 235; Deep-water Fauna of the Swiss Lakes, 235 ;

The Poison Apparatus of Spiders, 236; Deep Dredgings in the Lake of Tiberias, 236; Fresh-

water Microscopic Organisms, 237; Zoological Notes, 237; Value of the House Wren as an In-

sect Destroyer, 318 ; Our Social Blue-jays, 319: Zoological Notes, 319; New Texan Unio, 390 ;

Note on Succinea campestris and S. aurea, 391; The English Sparrow in Illinois, 392 ; The Red-

winged Starlings, 393: The Indigo Bird, 394; Zoological Notes, 394; More about that Cat, 475;

Birds out of Place, 476 ; A Hawk New to the United States, 477; Curious Instance in the Breed.

ing Habits of the Blue-bird, 478 ; Zoological Notes, 478 : The king snake (Ophibolus sayi) sups on

a full grown water moccasin (Ancistrodon piscivorus), 561 ; Survival of wild habits in domesticated

Cattle, 563 , A Dog's discrimination of Sounds, 563 ; Discoveries in the Anatomy of Crustacea, 564;

Effects of different colored light on the growth of Animals, 564 ; Zoölogical Notes, 564; Brief Notes

on some lowa Birds, 653 ; The Organs of Smell in Land Snails, 655; The Structure of the Orang

Outang, 655; Marine Animals in Aquaria, 656; The Eye-like Organs of the Skin of Certain

Fishes, 657; Mason's Microscopic Studies on the Central Nervous System of Reptiles and Ba-

trachians, 657; The Jelly Fishes of Narragansett bay, 658; Zoological Notes, 658; A Shower of

Cyclops quadricornis, 736; Mussel and Insect Climbers, 737; A Woodchuck climbs a Tree, 737 ;

Carphophiops helenæ in Indiana, 738; Eutænia radix in Indiana, 738; Habits of the Yellow-bel-

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