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lied Woodpecker, 738; Probable cause of the Longevity of Turtles, 738; The Trichina and other
Animal Parasites, 739 : The Tail in the Human Embryo, 740; New Type of Parasitic Crusta.
cea, 741; Cilia and Possible Nervous System of Infusoria, 741; New Genera of Cuttle Fishes,
742; Note regarding change of color in Diaptomus sanguineus, 742; New Discoveries concern-
ing Deep-sea Crustacea of the Gulf of Mexico, 742; The Musk Sheep, 743 : Zoological Notes,
743; A Correction, 744; Recent Zoological Work in France, 807: Evolution and Hybridism in Or.
nithology, 808; Breeding Habits of the Fish Hawk, 809; Blackbirds Catching Fish, 810; Habits
of the Rocky mountain Axolotl, 810; Systematic Position of Balanoglossus, 811; Unusual
Actions of a Hen Turkey, 812 ; Change of Color in Crabs and Prawns, 812; The Blue Gull, 812 ;
Male Crustacea producing Eggs, 813; Animal Pests in Greenwood Cemetery, 813; Zoological
Notes, 813; The Resemblances and Differences of the two Sexes, 899 : On the Morphology of
the Corbula of certain Plumularidæ, gor; Migration of Birds at Night, 902 ; Braving the “ Bliz-
zards," 903 ; Snakes Climbing Trees, 904; The Blue Jays, 904: Does the Crow Blackbird eat
Crayfish, 904; Avian Riders 905; The Migration of Birds, 905; The Claw on the Index Digit of
the Cathartidæ, 906; The Paper Nautilus again in New Jersey, 908 ; Zoological Notes, 908; The
Cæloma Theory, 1002 ; The Tortoises of Tucson, 1003; Intelligence of a Cat, 1004 ; Migration
of Birds, 1004; Sudden Interest in Japanese Ornithology, 1005: Terns as Fly.catchers, 1005 ;
Asilus and Libellula, 1005; Specimens of Melantho wanted, 1005; Zoological Notes, 1005.

Entomology.-Salutatory, 61; Biological Note on Euplectrus comstockii Howard, 61; Ovipo-

sition in the Tortricidæ, 63; Supplementary Note on the Food of the Blue-bird, 66; Larval Hab-

its of Bee-flies (Bombyliidæ), 143 : Experiments with Pyrethrum : Safe Remedies for Cabbage-

worms and Potato-beetles, 145; The Food of Fishes, 147, Insect Enemies of the Rice Plant, 148;

Description of a new Species of Cynips, 149; The“ Yellow Fever Fly," 150; Ways of Limen.

itis bredowii; 151 ; Habits of Xylotrechus convergens, 151 ; An Aquatic Sphinx Larva, 151 ;

Notes on the Grape Phylloxera and on laws to prevent its introduction, 238; Cecropia Cocoons

punctured by the Hairy Woodpecker, 241; Notes on the Elm-tree Leaf-beetle (Galeruca xantho-

melæna), 242; Food Habits of Saperda cretata, 244; Hybernation of the Cotton-worm Moth:

case with which mistakes are made, 244; Pyrethrum Seed, 245; The French still looking toward

American Vines, 322; Legislation to control Insects injurious to Vegetation, 322; On some Inter-

actions of Organisms, 323; Belgian Entomological Society, 324 : Insect Locomotion, 325; Plant.

feeding Habits of Predaceous Insects, 325; Notes on Papilio philenor, 327 ; Anatomy of the

Milkweed Butterfly, 329; Entomological Notes, 330; Exuviation in Flight, 395 ; On some new

Tube-constructing Spiders, 396; The Rascal Leaf-crumpler in Georgia, 400; Vertical vs. Hori-

zontal Insect Boxes, 401; Insects Affecting the China Tree, 401 ; Galls on Eucalyptus, 402 ;

North American Anthomyiadæ, 402 ; Galls and Gall Insects, 402 ; The Periodical Cicada, alias,

“Seventeen-year Locust," 479 ; A new species of Oak Coccid mistaken for a Gall, 482: The

“Water-weevil” of the Rice Plant, 482; The impregnated Egg of Phylloxera vastatrix, 483 ;

Works on North American Micro-lepidoptera, 484; Moths mistaken for Aletia, 486; Scale Insect

on Raspberry, 487: Specific Value of Apatura alicia Edw., 487; Dimorphism in Cynipida, 566 ;

Blepharoceridæ, 567; Braula coca not particularly injurious to the Honey Bee, 568 ; Economic

Entomology in England, 568; The cultivation of Pyrethrum and Manufacture of the Powder,

569; Trees attractive to Butterflies, 572 ; Hudson bay Lepidoptera, 572 ; Trade in Insects, 573 ;

Ants Injurious in Arizona, 573; Larvæ of Coleoptera, 574 ; Covering of Egg puncture mistaken

for Dorthesia, 574; Saw-fly, 574; Supposed Army Worm in New York and other Eastern States,

574; Migration of Butterflies, 577; Classification of the Mites, 577; Carrying out the Law, 578 ;

Locusts in Mexico in 1880, 578; Erratum, 578; The Egg-case and Larva of Hydrophilus trian-

gularis Say, 667; The Cultivation of Pyrethrum and Manufacture of the Powder (continued),

744: The Caterpillar Nuisance in Cities : How to Suppress it, 747; Blepharoceridæ, 748; Re-

markable case of Retarded Development, 748; Promotion of Silk-culture in California, 749;

Locust Flights in Dakota, 749; The Hessian Fly, 750; The genuine Army Worm in the West,

750 ; A new imported Enemy to Clover, 750 ; Another Enemy of the Rice Plant, 751; Canker

Worms, 751; Lepidopterological Notes, 751; Notes on Hydrophilus triangularis, 814; The Cul-

tivation of Pyrethrum and Manufacture of the Powder (continued), 817; Migration of Plant Lice

from one Plant to another, 819; The Chinch Bug, 820; Phylloxera Laws, 821 ; One half the Vine

area of France affected by Phylloxera, 821; London Purple and Paris Green, 821 ; Entomolo.

gist for the Pacific Coast, 821 ; Dilar in North America, 822; Locusts in Nevada, 822 ; Odor in

Butterflies, 822 ; Entomology at the recent meeting of A. A A. S., 822 ; The Permanent Sub.

section of Entomology at the recent meeting of the A. A. A. S., 909; The New Imported Clo.

ver Enemy, 912; Crambus vulgivagellus, 914; Larval Habits of Sphenophori that attack Corn,

915; Effects of Drought on the Hessian Fly, 916; Simulium from Lake Superior, 916; Cole-

opterous Cave Fauna of Kentucky, 916; Hemipterological Studies, 917; Entomology in Buffalo,

N. Y.,917; Lampyridæ, 917; Severe Cold and Hibernating Apple-worms,917; Retarded De.

velopment in Insects, 1007; Preparation of Diptera, 1008; The Permanent Subsection of Ento-
mology at the recent meeting of the A. A. A. S., 1008 ; Another Herbivorous Ground-beetle,
1011; A Disastrous Sheep Parasite, 1011; Phylloxera not at the Cape, 1011; Resistance of
Grape vines to Phylloxera in sandy Soil, 1012; Locusts in the West, 1013; Structure of the Claw
in Psocina, 1013; Insect Collection for Sale, 1014.

Anthropology.--Matériaux pour l'Histoire de l'Homme, 68; Anthropology in Austria, 68; An-

thropology in Italy, 69; Archiv fur Anthropologie, 69 : Anthropology in Mexico, 70; British

Periodical Literature and Anthropology, 70; Comparative Theology, 70 ; Archäological Explora-

tions at Madisonville, Ohio, 72; The Revue d'Anthropologie, 73; Bibliography, 73 ; Early Man

in Britain, 151; The Anthropological Society of Paris, 153: Fossil Men and their Modern Represent-

atives, 154; Gesture Signs, 155; Report on Indian Affairs, 155; Transactions and Proceedings of

the New Zealand Institute, 155; Asiatic Culture in America, 156: A new Periodical, 156; Skin

Furrows on the Hand, 156: Ethnography of the Caucasus, 156; Population of the Earth, 156 ;

German Anthropology, 157; Corrections, 157; Bibliography, 157; Anthropology in Missouri,

245: The Study of Indian Languages, 248; A Prehistoric Rock Retreat, 248; Antiquity of Man,

249: The Aztec Dictionary of Father Alonzo de Molina, 249; The Indo-Chinese and Oceanic

Races, 250; The Pawnee Indians, 250; The Western Reserve Society, 250; The Census of

Alaska, 251; The Davenport Academy, Iowa, 251 ; Anthropology in France, 331; The History

of Religion, 332; German Anthropology, 333; The Trenton Gravels and Early Man, 333 ; Mica

Veins, 333; The American Antiquarian, 333 : The Bronze Age in Germany, 334 ; Anthropology

in Great Britain, 334; Bibliography, 335; The People of Alaska, 403; Landa's Alphabet, 404 ;

The Historical Society of Wisconsin, 405; America and the East, 405; Harvard Library Bulle-

tins, 405; Antiquities of Peru, 405; Anthropology in France, 405; Sepulchral Mound and Cos-

tume in Japan, 406; Ethnography and Philology of America, 407; Anthropology in Germany,

487; Anthropology in France, 488; The Egyptian Stone Age, 488; Pre-historic Illinois, 489;

Ancient Works in New York, 489; The American Antiquarian, 490; German Anthropology, 490;

Anthropology in Great Britain, 490; Bibliography, 491; Archæological Researches in Nicaragua,

578; Wild Rice in Europe, 580; Norse Mythology 580; Inscribed Stones, 581 ; American

Philosophical Society, 582 ; Cruise of the “Corwin" in Behring sea and the Arctic ocean, 582;

Chavero, Alfredo, 582; The Victoria Institute, 582; Congress of Americanists, 582 ; Anthropol-

ogy of the East Indies, 583; Bibliography, 583 ; Comparative Biology, 663 ; The British Asso-

ciation in 1880, 665; Anthropology in Berlin, 665; Italian Anthropology, 666; The American

Antiquarian, 666; Politico-social Functions, 666; Bibliography, 666; The Sacrificial Stone of

the City of Mexico, is it Genuine or not? 752 ; Ancient Pueblo Workshop, 754, French Anthro-

pology, 754; German Anthropology, 755: Bibliography, 755; The Indians of Berks county, Pa.,

822; Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, 823 ; Harvard University Bulletin, 824: The

Archäological Institute of America, 824; Anthropology in New Zealand, 825; Zuni and the

Zunians, &26; The Indians of Canada, 826; Bibliography, 827; Temporal Process of the Malar

Bone in Ancient Human Crania, 917; A Prehistoric Cup made from a Human Cranium, 918;

Anthropology at the American Association, 919; Anthropology in France, 920; Professor Baird's

Report for 1880, 1014; Peabody Museum of American Archæology and Ethnology, 1014 : Changes

in Mya and Lunatia since the deposition of the New England Shell-heaps, 1015: Ancient Jap.

anese Bronze Bells, 1015; Worked Shells in New England Shell-heaps, 1016; Congres et Mis-

sions Ethnographiques, 1016; Italian Anthropology, 1017.

Geology and Paleontology.—The Vertebrata of the Eocene of the Wind River Basin, 74 ;

Professor Kerr on Frost Drift, 75; Discoveries of Minerals in Western North Carolina, 76 ; Geo-
logical News, 79; Geology of Southeastern Pennsylvania, 161; Alleged changes in the relative
elevation of Land and Sea, 162 ; Catalogue of Vertebrata of the Permian formation of the United
States, 162 ; Geological News, 164; Apparent Glacial deposits in Valley Drift, 251; Extinct Palæo.
zoic Fishes from Canada, 252; The Millstone Grit in England and Pennsylvania, 253; A new
Fossil Bird, 253; The Stream-tin Deposits of Blitong, 253 ; Geological News, 254; Mammalia of
the Lower Eocene Beds, 337; The Fault of the Yankee Hill Silver deposit of Leadville, Colorado,
338; Filhol on Proælurus, 339: The Classification of the Perissodactyla, 340; Geological News, 340;
Discovery of the Preglacial Outlet of the Basin of Lake Erie into that of Lake Ontario, 408; The
Iron Ores of Southern Utah, 410; Geological News, 412; The Taconic System in Geology, 494 ;
A Fossil Phyllopod Crustacean from the Quaternary clays of Canada, 496; Miocene Dogs, 497;
Reinsch's Microscopic Investigations of the Structure of Coal, 497; Geological News, 500; Fossils
of the lowa Loess, 585; The Rodentia of the American Miocene, 586; A New Clidastes from
New Jersey, 587; The International Geological Congress, 588; Gaudry on Stereorhachis, 588 ;
Diller's Felsites of the Region of Boston, 589; Geological News, 589 : The Temporary Denti.
tion of a New Creodont, 667; A Laramie Saurian in the Eocene, 669 ; Colors of Geological
Maps, 670; Geological News, 671; Mammalia of the Lowest Eocene, 829; Geology of the Lake

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Valley Mining District, 831; A Fossil Tertiary Crayfish, 831; Geological Notes, 835; Eocene
Plagiaulacidæ,921 ; Belodon in New Mexico, 922 ; Geological Notes, 923; A new type of Perisso-
dactyla, 1017; New genus of Perissodactyla diplarthra, 1018; Notes on Creodonta, 1018; The
Permian formation of New Mexico, 1020; New Carboniferous Fossils in Scotland, 1021; Stego-
cephali in Saxony, 1022; Fossil Organisms in Meteorites, 1022 ; Geological News, 1023.

Geography and Travels. The Explorations of Capello and Ivens in West Central Africa,

78; Col. Prejevalsky, 81; The East Central African Expedition of the Royal Geographical So-

ciety, 165 ; African Exploration, 166; Franz-Josef Land Revisited, 254 : Voyages in Behring

Strait in 1880, 341; Lake Tanganyika, 344; Siberia in Europe, 413; Col. Prejevalsky, 415 ; M.

de Brazza's Journey from the Ogowe to the Congo, 415; Stanley on the Congo, 416; African Ex-

ploration, 417; Important Discoveries in South America, 500 : Franz-Josef Land Revisited, 502;

The Third International Geographical Congress, 504; African Exploration, 590; Geographi-

cal News, 593; East Central Africa, 672 ; West Central Africa, 675; Geographical News, 676.

756; The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 835: The Arctic Campaign of 1881, 837 ; The Ogowe

and Congo Routes to Stanley Pool, 924: The Great Andes of the Equator, 926; Geographical

News, 928; Proceedings of the Geographical Section of the British Association, 1024; Hudson's
Bay, 1027.

Microscopy.-Adulterations of Drugs, 82; Hard Rubber Zoophyte Trough, 83; The Acme

Microscopes, 83: The Spencer Objectives, 84; Gutta Percha Cells, 84 ; Fertilization by Means

of Pollen-tubes, 168; American Microscopical Society of the City of New York, 169; Pathology

of Acute Delirium, 258; Fine Rulings, 259; Ye Microscope of ye Olden Time, 260; Abnormal

Entozoa in Man, 260; Exchanges, 260; A new Fine Adjustment, 346 ; New Method of Dry

Mounting. 346; Mounting in Copal Varnish, 346; Importance of Stating Magnifying Power

used, 347; American Society of Microscopists, 347 ; Examination of Metalliferous Clays, 418;

Arranging Small Objects on Slides, 419; The Hartnack Microscopes, 419; New Sea-side Labo-

ratory, 419; Microscopic Objects, 420; Test Objects. Amplifier, 506; Recent American Books

on Microscopy, 595; Prizes for Microscopical Essays, 597; The Blood in Hibernation, 677;

Mounting Starches, 678 ; New Microscopical Journal, 678; Recent Pamphlets, 678; Society

Notes, 678; Micrographic Tracings, 757; Sea Mosses, 758; Angular Aperture, 758; Meteoric

Dust, 839: Microscopy in the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 840; New

Freezing Microtome, 841; Mounting Chick Embryos whole, 841; Examination of Carbon Diox-

ide in the fluid cavities of Minerals, 929; Death of Charles A. Spencer, 931; American Society

of Microscopists, 1028 ; Verification of Objectives, 1029; Mounting on Square Slips, 1029 ; Mi-

croscopic Test for Poison, 1029 ; Slides of Marine Algæ, 1030.

Scientific News, 84, 170, 260, 347, 420, 506, 597, 679, 759, 842, 932, 1030.

PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SocieTIES, 86, 175, 263, 351, 422, 510, 599, 684, 759, 845, 934, 1032.

SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS, 88, 176, 264, 352, 424, 512,620, 688, 760, 848, 936, 1036.

THE

AMERICAN NATURALIST.

VOL. XV. - JANUARY, 1881. – No. 1.

THE ANCIENT GLACIERS OF THE ROCKY MOUNT

AINS.

A

BY ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, F.R.s. MONG the many profoundly interesting questions in Ameri

can Quaternary geology, one of the most important is unquestionably the determination of the area and movements of the ice during the glacial period. In the Eastern States much has now been done towards the elucidation of this problem. The general southern limits of the great ice sheet, and its course from Canada southwards have been more or less definitely fixed; though much remains to be done before our knowledge even on these points can be regarded as more than a mere outline of the truth. When, however, we try to realize the relations of the icesheet westward of the Mississippi basin, we soon perceive the meagreness of our information in regard to these vast western regions. But it is there that one of the most remarkable parts of the glacial problem must be solved. The important labors of Dr. Percival and Profs. Whitney, Irving and Chamberlain, have shown that even within the area embraced by the northern icesheet, there was a tract of about 12,000 square miles in Wisconsin that escaped glaciation. Prof. Irving points out that this tract does not owe its immunity from glacial drift to its being higher than the surrounding ground; on the contrary, it is actually lower than the ice-ridden region in Minnesota to the west of it. He supposes it to have escaped because it lay between deep depressions leading out of Lake Superior, by which the great mass of ice, filling that basin, moved off to the south. If this be the true explanation, and it bears strong evidence of probability,

1 Director of the Geological Survey of Scotland.

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the ice-sheet must evidently have become considerably attenuated in the Wisconsin region, though still retaining momentum sufficient to carry it down the Mississippi valley into Missouri and Kansas. In Dr. Aughey's recent interesting volume on Nebraska, the extension of the ice westward into that State is clearly proved, and the ice-movement is there shown to have taken a southsouth-east direction, or down the Missouri valley. No doubt the glacier had thinned away greatly in that region. Its south-western and western margin, however, remains to be traced up the plains watered by the Missouri. And the day is probably not far distant when the work so well done by Mr. Dawson, in British Columbia, will be prolonged into the Missouri region, and the precise limits and course of the ice-sheet will be mapped across the whole breadth of the continent.

Subsequent explorations have amply confirmed the original observation of Prof. Whitney as to the driftless nature of the surface of the vast interior region lying between the Missouri valley and the Sierra Nevada. The fact may seem almost incredible that the low ground of Eastern North America should have been buried under a southward-creeping ice-sheet, from which the lofty plateaux of the West remained free. The cause of this difference was probably meteorological, as Prof. Dana had pointed out, the snow-fall over the Rocky mountains and western ranges having been insufficient to give birth to a general ice-sheet descending from those heights into the plains. But the question remains: what was the probable condition of the West during the time when glaciation in the East was at its height? We must remember that a considerable portion of the ground through which the drainage of the western plateaux and mountains now reaches the sea, was then blocked up with ice. The valley of the Missouri with all its tributaries on the right down into Kansas, was under ice. Any water-drainage from the west would be ponded back by the great tongue of ice that crept continuously southward from British America, and would no doubt flow parallel with the ice and join the streams, escaping from its melting end. I am not aware, however, that any evidence of such arrest of drainage has yet been met with, though it is a point deserving of attention.

That the mountain ranges of the West had their glaciers, is now well known. Even at the present time, as Mr. Clarence

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