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it seems that previous to 1845 it had been detected in North Carolina,
The disease appeared in Michigan about 1857; the exact time is not known, nor by what method it was introduced. To my knowledge it has not been reported in Ohio or Indiana. If this be true it is a query how it got to Michigan unless imported in the fruit or young trees brought from nurseries in infected districts. This I believe to be the case, and have a faint recollection of seeing a published statement to that effect.
The orchards of the South Haven district seem to have been the first to suffer.
From the above facts of history, it will be seen that this disease is one that progresses slowly, and yet in one sense rapidly, and is as sure in its results as is pulmonary consumption. It is to be hoped that such active measures shall be taken that its future history shall not cover near as much territory as at the present time. It is a disease that, unless checked in its progress, will follow wherever civilization advances.
[To be continued.]
ON THE SO-CALLED CHUKCHI AND NAMOLLO
PEOPLE OF EASTERN SIBERIA.
BY W. H, DALL.
THE natives of that portion of Asia lying cast of the meridian
of 180° from Greenwich, and between Behring sea and strait and the Arctic ocean, have always been regarded with particular interest. This interest arises partly from the fact that they alone of all the Siberian tribes have maintained their independence of Russian authority, and partly from the idea that these people form a link between the races of Asia and America; a thorough knowledge of their ethnological position being supposed to be all that was required to confirm or disprove certain theories of migration.
Another source of interest is the confusion that has always existed in regard to their division into different stocks, and which is still far from being cleared away. The forthcoming work of Lieut. Nordqvist, of the Vega Expedition, will doubtless afford
Read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Cincinnati, 1881.
means of rightly locating a part of these people and the rest will doubtless be cleared up before many years by new investigations.
F. von Stein, in Petermann's Mittheilungen,' has recently given an interesting résumé of the information in regard to these people contained in articles by Nordqvist and Hovgaard in the Isvestia of the Russian Geographical Society; among others who have contributed some information on the subject, most of whom are referred to by Stein, are Wrangell, Neumann, Maydello (or Maidel), Kennan, Bush, Stimpson, Professor Asaph Hall' and Dall.20 Others, to whom I have seer no reference made, are Shismareff and an unknown writer in the Journal of the Interior Department of Russia, both articles being in the Russian language.
In a summary of our work for the season of 1880 (being an abstract of a letter from me describing my third visit to the coast of Northeast Siberia), contained in the January number of the Royal Geographical Society's Proceedings, this paragraph occurred:
"It was remarked that the proper name of the people on the Asiatic side described by Nordenskiold and his companions, and previously by Hooper13 and Mr. Dall, is Yū'-it, a corruption or shortening of In-nu-it (Eskimo), of which they merely form one tribe. They are totally distinct in language, race and manners from the so-called Reindeer Chukchis ( Tsau'-yi-at), who are a mere tribe of the Korak nation.”
To this somewhat ambiguous and not literally exact statement, Lieut. Nordqvist has taken exception in a communication to the Imperial Geographical Society of St. Petersburg, which I have not seen, but which is summarized in a note in the Royal Geographical Society's Proceedings for June, 1881.2 According to the editor, Lieut. Nordqvist's observations are as follows:
11881, Heft 11, pp. 41-45. 2 Band xvi, Heft 11, 1880.
3 Narrative of an expedition to the Polar sea (Sabine's ed.). Svo. London, 1810 (p. 126). Cf. also The Telescope, 1835, No. 26.
* Hist. Ubers. Tschuktschen Exp.; Isv. Sib. Abth. Russ. Geogr. Soc. Vol. 1, Nos. 4-5, II, No. 3, 1871.
5 Antworten der Tschuktschen Exp.; Isv. I. c. 11, Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 60-70; 1871. 6 Tent Life in Siberia, etc.
New York and London, 1870. (p. 120.) 7 Reindeer, dogs and snowshoes. Svo. Harper Bros., 1871. (p. 426.) 8_9 Cf. Alaska and its Resources, pp. 549-554.
10 Alaska and its Resources, Boston, 1870, pp. 374–385. Also, Contr, to Am. Eitnology (J. W. Powell), 1, pp. 12-15, 93–106, 1877. Also Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc., Jan., 1881, pp. 47-49; Sept., 1881, pp. 568-570.
11 Zapiski Hydr. Dept., X, pp. 178–200, 1852.
12 Zhurnal Minist. Vnutr. Diel, 8vo, St. Peterbuorg, 1835, XVI, 5, and 1851, Nos. 6-7.
13 Ten months amorg the tents of the Tuski, etc., Svo, London, J. Murray, iS53.
“ According to Lieut. Nordqvist the stationary and nomad Chukchis both belong to the same race, and call themselves in the singular Chau-chau,' and in the plural 'Chau-chau-ate.' These people, he says, live to the north of Cape Chukotsky, and must not be confounded with the true Eskimo who live to the south of it, chiefly on the shores of the Gulf of Anadyrsk, as far as Cape Oliutorsky, a fact which Lieut. Nordqvist urges, is incontestably proved by a comparison of the idioms in the languages of the two peoples.”
While not holding Lieut. Nordqvist responsible for the literal words of the above note, it was evident that some misapprehensions entered into his suppositions concerning the people on the coast referred to, as well as some errors of my own to be corrected. This called my attention to the subject, and induced me to overhaul my notes and look up the Russian literature of the subject, trusting that to Lieut. Nordqvist's valuable investigations in regard to the people on the north coast of Siberia, west of East cape, some facts might be added in regard to those on the eastern and southern shore of the same great peninsula.
On the Siberian coast south and west from East cape, the Vega spent less than a day at St. Lawrence bay, and little more than a day and a half at Konyam bay, a length of time insufficient to give to the members of the party more than a cursory glimpse of the people, without affording any ground for positive statements; as indeed is frankly admitted by these gentlemen (according to Stein's digest of their publications), who express themselves with due reserve in regard to the ethnological problems of this section of the coast.
The summary of the season's work was written by me while on the voyage home, having then seen only Palander's narrative, which appeared in the Scientific American Supplement, Nos. 231 and 232. There being little doubt that at some former time the Eskimo had occupied the north coast of Siberia as far west as Koliuchin bay; the description of the manners and customs given by Palander of the dwellers on that coast agreeing precisely with those of the Eskimo tribes further south; and the few words given of their language belonging, at least in part, to the jargon spoken by both Eskimo and Korak (or Chukchi) in communication with the whites and with each other, it was not all unnatural to suppose that the winter neighbors of the Vega were Eskimo (or, as formerly distinguished, sedentary Chukchis) similar to those with whom I had had personal intercourse.
1 Published in its Bull. fascic. II of 1881. 2 1. c. p. 36.
The observations of Lieut. Nordqvist must be taken as conclusive in relation to the people with whom he was brought in contact. Hence we must conclude that at the present day the inhabitants of the region on the north coast of Siberia, west from East cape and as far as Cape Shelagskoi, belong to that branch of the Korak nation which form the original genuine Chukchi of the early Russian explorers. They are, however, not the wandering or reindeer Chukchi, but that part of the nation which gain their living by sealing and fishing. The Vega party were visited by reindeer Chukchi, during the winter, repeatedly; some from the vicinity of Behring sea appearing on two occasions, but in Stein's paper no reference is made to any comparison between them and the fishing Chukchi, by which the differences in life and manners might be made clear. The names Chukchi, sedentary Chukchi, etc., have been used in such a confused manner that they no longer have any clear signification, and it is desirable that they should be discarded entirely. For instance, in speaking of sedentary Chukchi, I should refer to the Eskimo of N. E. Siberia, to whom that appellation has generally been misapplied, but Lieut. Nordqvist would understand the north coast people of his wintering place, to whom it more properly belongs. It will, therefore, be advantageous to preface any discussion of the different branches by a synonymy which will show what is meant by any particular name. For the real, original wandering Chukchi, who live by their reindeer and by summer fishing, the name of
Fof the twenty-three words given in Palander's account (as printed in the cited work) three were Eskimo or corrupted Eskimo; seven were recognized as similar to words having the same meaning of the Chukchi (reindeer men) of the vicinity of Plover bay; one (certainly, and probably two) is of Hawaiian origin, and is in use on both sides of Behring sea among all the people who have had intercourse with whalers and traders from the Sandwich islands; another is a corrupted Rassian word; the rest were not recognized, but were pretty certainly not of Eskimo origin. Several apparently were roots reduplicated in a manner characteristic of the jargon, but, to the best of my belief, not so formed in the language as properly spoken among themselves.
Tsau-yü' may be adopted; at least there is no doubt that such as live near Plover bay so call themselves.
Reindeer Chukchis of authors.
whalers who know them best by this name.
Lieut. Nordqvist tells us that the termination at or ate is merely a plural inflection, and that the first part of the word has the collective signification, and in this I have no doubt he is correct, though until his criticism was made I had not looked thoroughly into the matter.
There is, I presume, little doubt that these people adopt slight distinctive changes in their national name according to their native habitat, or that they are in some way divided into clans or tribes, since competent explorers give slightly different names as the tribal name, yet all with a fundamental similarity. Thus Matiushkin on the Kolyma found Chck-to; Erman from some source derived Tsau-chū; Stimpson, on Seniavine strait, near Konyam bay, obtained Tsu-tsin; the writer, near Plover bay, Tsau-yū ; Nordqvist for the "sedentary” branch on the north coast, Chau-chau, and Shishmareff for the same at Mechigme and St. Lawrence bays, Chau-chū, for the term “people," meaning themselves collectively. I am inclined to doubt if the Ch should not be more properly Ts, as in many American tribes, for instance, Chinook and Chehalis, which we know should be written and pronounced Tsink and Tsikalis, but which have become permanently crystallized in the language under the former erroneous spelling. Nevertheless, as no one is better qualified to pronounce on this subject than Lieut. Nordqvist, his spelling will be here adopted for the people of the Korak race allied closely to the Tsau-yu, but who live as the Eskimo do, along the shores, and possess no reindeer, but derive their subsistence from the sea.