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POWELL, J. W.-Wyandotte Government. A short study of tribal society. A. A.

A. S., Boston. Science, 1, No, 17; Cong. Record, Feb. I, 1881; Tr. Anthrop.

Soc. W., 1, 76. Royce, C. C.-The Indian title. The method and chronology of its extinction.

Tr. Anthrop. Soc. W., 1, 84. Yarrow, Henry Crecy--Introduction to the study of mortuary customs among

the No. Am. Indians. Washington, Gov. Print. Office. ix. Religion.-Religion, in its widest sense, includes the belief in the existence of spiritual beings, together with all the paraphernalia and observances which have grown up around that belief. In this sense the anthropologist takes the term and seeks to trace its origin and history. The following works appeared in 1880: ANDERSON, RASMUS B.-- Teutonic mythology. Am. Antiquarian, 11, No. 4. [Pro

fessor Anderson conducts the department of Pre-columbian Hist. in the Anti

quarian.] Dorsey, J. OWEN—The rabbit and the grasshopper : an Otre myth. Am. Anti

quarian, III, I. GATSCHET, A. S.-Superstitions. Tr. Anthrop. Soc. W., 1, p. 103.

The four creations of mankind; a Tualati myth, id., 60. LUQUINS—The Avesta and the storm myth. New Englander, Sept. MALLERY, GARRICK--Comparative mythology of the two Indies. Tr. Anthrop. Soc.

W., 1, 12. Powell, J. W.-Mythologic philosophy. Vice-president's address before the Am.

Association at Saratoga, Vol., XXVIII.
Riggs, STEPHEN R.-The Theogony of the Sioux. Am. Antiquarian, 11, 4.

x. Instrumentalities.--Under this head we have no more to do than to enumerate the sources of information to which the student must go for his materials of study. American Antiquarian, Rev. S. D. Peet, Clinton, Wisconsin, Ed. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. XXVIII, Saratoga

Meeting. American Naturalist, McCalla & Stavely, Philad. Papers by various authors.

Notes by O. T. Mason. Anthropological Society of Washington. J. W. Powell, Prest., C. C. Royce, Sec. Archæological Institute of America, Boston. Edward H. Greenleaf, Sec. BOEHMER, GEORGE H.-Index of papers on anthropology published by the Smith

son. Inst, from 1847-1878. Sm. Rep., 1879 and separate. Davenport Academy, Iowa. Proceedings. J. D. Putnam, Prest. Davis, CHARLES H. S.-Index of articles on archæology, anthropology and ethnol.

ogy. Am. Antiquarian, il, No 3, 239. Index Medicus. A monthly classified record of the current medical literature of

the world. Compiled under the supervision of Dr. John S. Billings and Dr.

Robert Fletcher, Vol. 11, 1880. N. Y., Leypoldt. Index to Periodical Literature. Published by the American News Co., N. Y. Index.Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office, United States

Army. Authors and subjects. Vol. 1. A. Berlinski with a list of abbreviations of titles of periodicals, indexed. Washington, Govt. Printing Office, 1880.

[Under the word anthropology, pages 437–444, will be found a grand collection of titles and journals. A list of abbreviations occupies pp. 1-126. Without exception this work is the most minute specimen of cataloguing in exis.

tence.] Mason, O. T.--For Anthropological Summaries. Smithson. Rep., 1879, 428-475.

Am. Naluralist, May, and Notes in each number from Jan.-December. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. Twelfth and Thirteenth Annual Reports,

Vol. 11, Nos. 3 and 4.
Popular Science Monthly. N. York, D. Appleton & Co.
RHEES, Wm. J.-Visitors' Guide to the Smithsonian Institution and the National

Museum. Washington.
Saint Louis Academy of Natural Sciences, Nathaniel Holmes, Secretary.
Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report. Contributions to knowledge.

Besides these, there are innumerable sources of publication in our country of which anthropologists are willing to avail themselves, and in which they seem willing to hide their productions. All of these that have any value, however, find mention in the Index Medicus, or in the Index to Periodical Literature. phlets and brochures should be sent to the editor of the Department of Anthropology in the AMERICAN NATURALIST, addressed to 1305 Q st., N. W., Washington, D. C.

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This manuscript was found about the year 1865 at Madrid, Spain, by the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg while on a visit to the Library of the Royal Historical Academy and named by him “Manuscript Troano,” in honor of its possessor Don Juan de Tro y Ortolano.

So far as I am aware nothing more is known in reference to its history; we are not even informed by its last owner where or how he obtained it. In ordinary cases this would be sufficient to arouse our suspicions as to its genuineness, but in this case the work itself will dispel all such suspicions.

This work was reproduced in fac-simile by a chromo-lithographic process, by the Commission Scientifique du Mexique under the auspices of the French Government, Brasseur de Bourbourg being the editor.

The original is written on a strip of Maguey paper about four1 Extracts from a paper now being prepared by Professor Thomas for the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution.

teen feet long and nine inches wide, the surface of which is covered with a white paint or varnish on which the characters and figures are painted in black, red, blue and brown. It is folded fan-like into thirty-five folds, presenting when the folds are pressed together the appearance of an ordinary octavo volume. The hieroglyphics and figures cover both sides of the paper comprising seventy pages, the writing and painting of the figures having been apparently executed, after the paper was folded, so that the folding does not interfere with the writing.

A slight examination of this manuscript is sufficient to convince any one at all familiar with Landa's characters that those used here are substantially the same, be the significations what they may. On almost every page are to be found columns of characters agreeing precisely with those given by him as reprerenting the Maya days. Are they used on account of the signification of the words they represent, as Brasseur supposed, or simply to designate days ?

The determination of this point must be one important step toward ascertaining the object and contents of the work.

Another prominent feature of the manuscript is the great number of numerals or numeral characters—short straight lines and dots-found on every plate. These, together with the columns of day characters, constitute fully one half the written portion of the work; hence if we can ascertain the method in which, and the object for which, these were used, sufficient will have been learned to indicate, beyond doubt, the character of the work, and will render the task of deciphering the hieroglyphs much easier than to work at them blindly.

Assuming that the reader is familiar with what has already been written upon this subject, I will at once proceed with what I believe to be the correct explanation of the use of these two classes of characters in this manuscript, and which I believe is the key that will ultimately unlock its mysteries,

As I shall have occasion to refer very frequently to the Maya calendar, and cannot, without occupying too much space, give here a full explanation of it, I refer the reader to the following easily accessible works: "Bancroft's Native Races," Vol. 11, and Dr. Valentini's article in the Proceedings American Antiquarian Society, giving here only the following brief summary:

No. of


3 Cimi

Their year consisted of eighteen months of TABLE I.

twenty days each, and five intercalated or added Nos. Maya Days. days at the end. These added days—to make the

Kan full number, 365—were not counted in any of the

Chicchan months, as the month never counted more or less 4 Manik than twenty days. The names of these twenty Lamat

days are given in the annexed table. Although
Oc they were sometimes numbered from 1 to 20, yet

the usual method, especially in computations of 9 Eb

time relating to religious feasts and ceremonies, was
as shown in the table. Commencing with 1 they

were numbered to 13, the following day instead of
Ezanab being 14 was numbered 1, the next 2, and so on to

13. As will be seen from the table, supposing it to 4 | Ahau Ymix represent the first month, the second month would

begin with 8 Kan, and so on through the year as Akbal

shown in the following table of the months and days:

Ben II Ix 12

Men 13 Cib 1




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8! 2! 9 310 40 512 613 7 1 8 2 9 3 2 9 310 411 5.12 613 71 1 8 2 9 310 4 3 10 4 11 5112 613 7 1 8 2 9' 310 411 5 3 40 512 613 7 1 8 2 9 3.10 411 12 6 5.12 613 7 1 8 2 9 310 411 5,12 61 13 7 1 8 2 9 310 411 512 13 7 1 7 1 8 2 9 310 411 512 613 7 1 8 2 8 2 9 3.10 411 512 613 7 1 8 2 9 IO 9 310 411 512 613 7 1 8 2 9 310 411 10 411 512 613 7 1 8 2 9 310 4U 512 10 u 5 12 6,13 7 1 8 2 9 310 411 5 12 6 13 11 12 613/ 71 1 8 2 9 310 4'11 512 613 7 112 13 7 1 8 21 9 3.10 411 5.12 613 71 1 8 2 13 1 8 2 9 310 411 512 613 7 1 8 2 9 3 14 2 9 310 I 5.12 13 7 1 8 2 9 310 4 15 310 411 5 1 2 13 7 1 8 2 9 310 II 411 5112 13 7 1 8 2 9 310 411 512 17 5'12 61

13 8 2 9' 3'10 40 512 613 7,18 613 71 1 8 2 9 310 411 512 613 7 18 19 7 8 2 9 310 411 5.12 613 7 1 8 2 9 20


Cimi. 12


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2 6

If the first day of the year was Kan, as in this table, then each month would commence with Kan and end with Akbal, though numbered differently. If the last day of the 18th month was 9 Akbal, as shown in this table, the five added days would be 10 Kan, ni Chicchan, 12 Cimi, 13 Manik and i Lamat; the first day of the next year would be 2 Muluc.

When the year began with 2 Muluc, the last day of the 18th month would be to Lamat and the five added days would be Muluc, 12 Oc, 13 Chuen, i Eb and 2 Ben. The next year would then begin with 3 Ix. Following out this process we shall find TABLE III.

the years commencing as follows: 1 Kan, 2 Muluc, 3 Ix, 4 Cauac, 5 Kan, 6 Muluc, 7 Ix, 8 Cauac, 9 Kan, 10 Muluc, 11 Ix, 12 Cauac, J3 Kan, i Muluc, 2 Ix and so on, the first day being in all cases one of these four. As 13 is a prime number it will

require a cycle of 52 years—13 X 4-before we 5

12 again reach i Kan. I give here a table of one of 13

3 these cycles, showing the order of the years for this 4 5 8 9 10 11 length of time. The names by which the years of

the different columns are designated are given at 314

the head of the columns.

Although their system was somewhat compli5

cated by this singular method of numbering the 12 13 1

days and years, still it is not difficult to understand it so far. But in order to further complicate this calendar, which was undoubtedly devised by the priests as Landa truly says, “to deceive this simple people,” another period called the Katun or Ahau was introduced. This period, according to most authorities, consisted of twenty years, but according to Perez of twentyfour. Instead of being numbered in regular order, one, two, three, &c., these periods were also numbered by the thirteen series, but in the following singular order: 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, the 13th Katun preceding the lith, and

9 10

3 7 II 2 6


12 13


I 2

5 6 8

9 10
12 13

3 4
7 8


2 6 IO

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The chief difficulty experienced in attempting to bring this period into harmony with the system so far as given, is, ist. The uncertainty as to whether it consisted of 20 or 24 years; 2d. To place these periods in their proper positions in the great cycle, that is, to determine what year in any cycle was the first year of a Katun. If this can be done, then it is not difficult to compare

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