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&c., of portions of the coal field, prepared for publication, not only refused to publish or go on with the field work, but refused to refund to the principal geologist the salaries of his assistants, and expenses of the survey for the preceding year, which he had advanced from his own means, or to pay for his own services during that time; all of which to this day remains unpaid. This was not only dishonest but foolish-dishonest, because repudiating a just debt; foolish, because a continuance of the survey meant a clearer insight into the riches of the great State for whose highest interests they were sent to legislate. Then came the survey of Dr. White, the results of which, in an imperfect form, were ordered printed despite the protests of the geologist, and the survey again brought to a close. The complete geology of the State is still unknown. Many thousands of dollars are being expended in the counties of Page, Fremont, Mills and Montgomery, in a vain attempt to find coal. The survey of Dr. White, inconiplete as it necessarily was, had demonstrated that no coal could be obtained in that portion of the State, at a distance from the surface to prove remunerative. Personal observations confirm the accuracy of his judgment. So the field is still open, and the various societies in the State might apportion it into districts, convenient to the seat of each, and accomplish a work which a short-sighted legislature declared useless. There are local geologists of some reputation in Iowa, and they could thoroughly and completely perform the work.--R. E. C.

- An important memoir on the crustaceans of the Caribbean sea and the Gulf of Mexico, has been read by M. Alph. MilneEdwards to the Paris Academy. The material he has to deal with had been sent him by Mr. Agassiz, and obtained during cruises in the Blake, in recent years. The author is struck with the great difference between the fauna of the coast and that of the deep parts. The shore animals are of a highly-organized type, while the deep-water animals have a more ancient character. A large number of new species have been met with, and it has often been necessary to form new generic divisions. Several groups, formerly thought foreign to American seas, have been found abundant at great depths (e.g. the family of Galathea). The infinite variety of forms is very remarkable, and the accepted modes of classification will often not apply. There is a large number of transition-forms. M. Milne-Edwards considers that the study of animals, living at great depths, is only begun, and he invites men of science to organized effort in a domain which is certain to prove highly fruitful.

- M. Certes has lately found a method of coloring infusoria and anatomical elements during life. Placed in a weak solution of chinoline blue or cyanine, infusoria are colored pale-blue, and many continue to live 25 and even 36 hours. Strong doses poison immediately. Again, after being 24 hours in a moist chamber, the white blood corpuscles of a frog colored with cyanine show amcboid movements. The cyanine should here be dissolved in serum. Chinoline blue is, par excellence, the reagent of fatty matter. By affecting the cellular and not the nuclear protoplasm in infusoria, it shows fatty matters to exist only in the former. It should prove a useful means of studying cellular life.

The annual meeting of the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science will be at Cincinnati, on Tuesday, August 16, 1881, the day preceding the sessions of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

The following gentlemen have indicated to the secretary their readiness to present essays at the coming meeting: Professor S. W. Johnson, Patrick Barry, Professor W. J. Beal-subject, Testing seeds, Professor J. Henry Comstock, Professor E. W. Hilgard, Professor R. C. Kedzie—subject, The ripening of wheat, Professor A. J. Cook, J. J. Thomas, L. B. Arnold, E. Lewis Sturtevant, M.D.

- The sixth session of the Summer School of Biology will open at the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., July 12th, continuing for four weeks. It is designed expressly for teachers. Professor E. S. Morse, the director, will be aided by Dr. J. W. Fewkes, Dr. C. S. Minot and Professor Straight, and Messrs. Fish and Sears.

-:0: PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.—The annual meeting began in Washington, April 19, the president of the Academy, Professor W. B. Rogers, of Boston, in the chair. The list of papers read is as follows:

Tuesday, April 19.—"The domain of physiology,” by T. Sterry Hunt; "The compass plant of the western prairie,” by B. Alvord; "The solar constant,” by S. P. Langley; “ The color of the sun,” by S. P. Langley ; “On mountain observations" by S. P. Langley ; “On the relations of soils to health,” by R. Pumpelly; “Reduction to sea level of barometric observations made at elevated stations," by Elias Loomis.

Wednesday, April 20.—“On electric light photometry," by Geo. F. Barker; “On the condenser method of measuring high tension currents," by Geo. F. Barker; “On the relation between strains and impacts and the structures of the feet of mammalia,” by E. D. Cope; "On the progress of pendulum work,” by C. S. Peirce.

Thursday, April 21.—“On the carbon lamp fiber in the thermobalance," by Geo. F. Barker; “Upon the production of sound by radiant energy,” by A. Graham Bell; “On the later Tertiary of the Gulf of Mexico," by E. W. Hilgard; “Recent researches in the vicinity of Behring's strait, comprising, 1. An account of the land ice of Kotzebue sound and the Arctic coast; 2. Additions to our knowledge of the currents and temperature of the ocean in the vicinity of Behring's strait,” by W. H. Dall; “A method for finding the proximities of the orbits of minor planets,” by C. H. F. Peters: "Structure of the wings of insects, studied palæontologically," by Samuel H. Scudder; " Biographical memoir of S. S. Haldeman,” by J. P. Lesley ; “On the auriferous gravels of California,” T. Sterry Hunt; “On the utilization of the sun's rays in heating and ventilating," by Edw. S. Morse; "Results just obtained with regard to the molecular height of hydro-fuoric acid,” by J. W. Mallet.

At the executive session of Thursday, Professor A. W. Wright, of Yale College, and Professor H. A. Rowland, of Johns Hopkins University, were elected members, and the following were elected members of the council ; Professor S. F. Baird, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, Cambridge; Professor A. Hall, United States Navy; Professor J. E. Hilgard, Coast Survey; Mr. Clarence King, Mr. Fairman Rogers, Philadelphia; Professor Simon Newcomb was elected home secretary, and Professor J. H.C. Coffin, United States Navy, treasurer.

BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY (Section of Entomology), March 23.--Mr. Edward Burgess, of the Bussey Institution, described the structure of the pharynx in the Orthoptera, and particularly in Anabrus, where its muscular development is as well marked as in the case of the Lepidoptera. A closely similar arrangement of longitudinal and annular, or transverse, muscular layers, as well as suspensory muscles, obtain in both orders; and thus the evolution of a powerful sucking pharynx from one possessing only the ordinary function of deglutition is made easy.

Mr. Burgess spoke also of the very uniform character of the endocranium in mandibulate insects. This portion of the interior skeleton has received almost no notice, but will be found an interesting study, and its modifications throughout the hexapods deserve to be followed up.

April 6.-Professor Penhallow described the manners and customs of the Ainos of Japan, and Mr. F.Gardiner, Jr., gave an account of the work done by the U. S. Fish Commission during last summer.

April 20.—Dr. J. S. Diller read additional notes upon the felsites and associated rocks north of Boston, and Mr. J. S. Kingsley described the anatomy of a five-legged frog.

NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, New York, March 28.The following papers were read: Notes on the fauna and flora of the gorilla region, Equatorial West Africa, by Mr. Hugo von Koppenfels; On the occurrence of Helix aspersa (European) in California, and the geographical distribution of certain West American land-shells, etc., by Mr. Robert E. C. Stearns.

April 4.-Mr. N. L. Britton read a paper on the geology of Richmond county (Staten Island), N. Y.

April 11.—The following paper was read: On the building and ornamental stones used in New York, with illustrations of their microscopic structure, as shown in the lantern by polarized light, by Mr. Alexis A. Julien.

May 2.-Mr. A. A. Julien presented the results of some recent observations on fluid cavities in minerals; and the president (Professor J. S. Newberry, exhibited some interesting and remarkable fossils lately received at the School of Mines.

APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN CLUB, April 14,-Professor Charles E. Hamlin read a paper entitled "Mount Ktaadn and its approaches as seen in 1879 and 1880." A newly constructed model of the mountain illustrated the paper.

20: SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPICAL SCIENCE.-April. The minute anatomy of the Branchiate Echinoderms, by P. H. Carpenter. On young stages of Limnocodium and Geryonia, by E. R. Lankester. The origin and significance of the metamorphosis of Actinotrocha, by E. B. Wilson. A further contribution to the minute anatomy of the organ of Jacobson in the Guinea pig, by E. Klein. On the development of certain microscopic organisms occurring in the intestinal canal, by D. D. Cunningham. On the cause of the striation of voluntary muscular tissue, by J. B. Haycraft. On the relation of micro-organisms to disease, by J. Lister. Observations and reflections on the appendages and on the nervous system of Apus cancriformis, by E. R. Lankester.

The GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE.-April. Geology of British Columbia, by G. M. Dawson.

ANNALS AND MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.–March. On some new or little known Infusoria, by C. Mereschkowsky. On Synaxes, a new genus of Crustacea, by C. Spence Bate. On silicious sponge growth in the Cretaceous ocean, by Dr. Wallich. On Spongilla cinerea, by H. J. Carter.

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARts. — April. Monograph by Professor Marsh on the Odontornithes, or toothed birds of North America, notice by G. B. Grinnell. Elements in orographic displacement, by W. J. McGee. The basin of the Gulf of Mexico, by J. E. Hilgard. The Geology of Florida, by E. A. Smith, New order of extinct Jurassic reptiles (Cælaria); Discovery of a fossil bird in the Jurassic of Wyoming ; American Pterodactyles, by O. C. Marsh. May. Action of frost in the arrangement of superficial earthy material, by W. C. Kerr. Dall's observations on Arctic ice, and the bearing of the facts on glacial phenomena in Minnesota, by N. H. Winchell. Geology of Peace river, by G. M. Dawson. American Jurassic Dinosaurs, by 0. C. Marsh. CANADIAN NATURALIST. March 17

Revision of the land snails of the Palæozoic era, with descriptions of new species, by J. W. Dawson. Note on fossils from the red sandstone system of Prince Edward island, by F. Bain. On new Erian (Devonian) plants, by J. W. Dawson.

THE

AMERICAN NATURALIST.

Vol. xv. - JULY, 1881. — No. 7.

ORIGIN AND DESCENT OF THE HUMAN BRAIN.

BY S. V. CLEVENGER, M.D.

THE

HE object of this paper is to present to comparative anato

mists certain aspects in the phylogenesis of the spinal cord, which culminate in the development of the brain of man.

The word brain is here used to include only the nerves and ganglia of the skull. The term has been applied so loosely that Professor Wilder rightly advises its discontinuance from neurological nomenclature.

Briefly stated, the nerves interrelate the rouscles as the muscles interrelate the bones, nerves further are internuncial in conveying external or internal molecular vibrations to irritable or contractile tissues.

Biological investigations enable us to approach very closely the border land of sensation and molecular physics. While the physicist is striving to reduce his laws of sound, heat, light, electricity and gravitation to their ultimates, the biologist is meeting him over consideration of the forces which control the motions of the Ameba or evolve the animal from the cell.

In the Journal of the Royal Microscopicas Society (Vol. III, No. 1, p. 63, from Arch. Mikr. Anat., XVII, 1879, p. 58) are diagrams of the simplest acoustic and visual cells. These forms of nerve cells proceed from a still simpler protoplasmic cell, which, according to situation or the influences brought to bear upon it,

Read before the Chicago Academy of Sciences, February 8, 1881.
VOL, XV.-NO. VII.

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