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intended to be so. Figure 10 shows one of this sort. The material of all is rather soft, and the surface is not ground so smooth as in many gouges of other forms. The groove is shallow, long and wide, and, as has been noticed, the edge is not sharp. The surface shown is flat, the lower regularly convex. The length of this specimen is 3.5 inches, width across the edge, 1.6 inch, and the thickness in general about .5 inch, though in places more. Still farther removed from gouges with cutting edges, are specimens with a very shallow groove, and with the grooved end not brought to an edge or anything like it, but only worked somewhat thinner than the rest of the implement and then evenly rounded. These are made from talcose or schistoze rocks and hence are not very hard.
A comparison of the figures given with these pages will make evident several facts worthy of notice. As the reader has probably discovered, I have included under the name "gouge" a variety of specimens, some of them without very much in common, but it has seemed more convenient to do this than to attempt a subdivision of the group into classes.
The term groove has also been for the same reason used to designate the excavated portion of each implement, whatever its character niay be. We have seen that in some the edge is straight, in others curved, in some concave, in others flat, and the groove is found in all gradations between a very simple, oval depression and one elegantly wrought and extending through the entire length of the specimen, as in figure 1. In most, the lower surface, by which is always meant that opposite the groove, is convex, both transversely and, to a less degree, longitudinally, though in a few cases the thickness is greatest, not near the center, but at the upper end. This end in nearly all specimens is narrower than the other. In many specimens this end is rough and broken, or splintered, but not in all, for there are specimens in which this end is as smooth as any part of them.
A gouge in which the edge shows signs of hard usage is very uncommon. These facts must be considered when we attempt to discover the purpose for which these implements were designed. I have searched the writings of Champlain and other early explorers for some mention of these implements, and some hint as to their use, but thus far in vain, and without some such aid, theorizing upon the use of these, or any other such implements is of little value. The most plausible theory for the use of the gouge, is, perhaps, that it was the chief implement used in excavating dug-out canoes. Champlain gives a very brief account of the manner in which some of the Indians whom he met on the coast of Maine, made canoes, and tells how by charring and scraping away the charred wood and again charring it, the desired form was obtained, but he does not give us any definite idea of the form or character of the stone implements with which the work was accomplished, and we know that in many parts of the country, canoes were chiefly made of elm or birch bark. Evans seems to incline towards this view in speaking of the "hollow chisels" of flaked flint found in Denmark, and far less abundantly in England, as he states that they are found chiefly where canoes would be most likely to have been used. We also learn from old writers that gouges made from the columella of the conch, were used by southern tribes for scraping away charred wood in making canoes, and Evans, quoting another, says: “On the western coast of North America mussel shell adzes are still preferred by the Abts to the best English chisels for canoe-making purposes.” Bone gouges are also common in the south, more so, according to Col. Jones, than those of stone. I have never seen any other than a stone gouge in Vermont. That some of the specimens figured, or such as they, were thus used, either held in the hand or attached to a handle as adzes, is quite probable, but that all were so used does not seem so. Another theory has been suggested, that the gouges were intended for use in tapping maple trees in the sugar making operations of the aborigines. I cannot see any basis of probability for this theory to rest upon. If this view were correct, we should find gouges most abundantly near those places where the sugar maple is most abundant, but this is not the case, at least in Vermont. On the uplands where the sugar maple now grows, and has for a long time, we do not find gouges as we do on the lowlands and meadows. While the form of such a gouge as that shown in figure i might suggest such a use as that just mentioned, the form of most would certainly be a strong argument against such use, and the material of which many are made is such as to unfit them for cutting hard wood such as that of the sugar maple. It is a remarkable fact that so many of our gouges appear to have seen so little service. It would seem certain that implements requiring so much labor for
their formation, and made with such care, must have been designed for some important service, but even those of the comparatively soft talcose rock have as sharp and apparently unused edges as if just made, the polished groove and edge often not showing even a scratch or notch. Some of them are worn, especially some of the smaller specimens, but most are not. Another noticeable fact, which perhaps might be less so in a larger collection, is that each specimen has certain peculiarities of its own, so that it is quite difficult to find duplicates, though they do sometimes occur, but each specimen seems to have been made according to the present fancy of the maker, and this appears to have varied somewhat as each new specimen was undertaken. This variety in form, size and material indicates that the gouge was not an implement designed for a single, limited use, but that, whether we can ascertain the use of the various kinds or not, their uses were as varied as their form and material. Gouge-like implements have been figured as skin dressers by some authors, and this, it seems to me, suggests better than anything else the probable explanation of the character of these implements. If used in cleaning adhering bits of fat or muscle from the skins so generally in use among the aborigines, the edge would remain unworn for a long time, even if the implement were made of no very hard material. It may not improbably be true that some were used in excavating the charred portions of a log selected for a canoe, but it seems more probable that most were used, in one way or another, in the processes of preparing skins for clothing or for whatever other purposes the skins may have been needed.
BY C. V. RILEY.
a rapid, darting flight and hover over flowers, from which they extract nectar by means of a long proboscis which is a characteristic of most of the genera. They derive their popular name of bee-flies, or humble-bee flies, from their general resemblance to bees, due to the hairiness of the body, and enhanced by the humming which they produce in flight. Nothing had been published of their larval habits in this country till last year, though an undetermined larva, at first supposed to be Hymenopterous, but which subsequently proved to be that of Systechus, was figured in the writer's ninth report on the insects of Missouri (1877), and copied in his “ Locust Plague in the United States," and into the First Report of the U.S. Entomological Commission.
1 Adapted from the Second Report of the U. S. Entomological Commission, to which the publishers are indebted for permission to have impressions of the plate made at their expense.
In October, 1879, we obtained from a lot of larvæ sent us by Mr. G. M. Dodge, of Glencoe, Neb., a single pupa which agrees with those of Systæchus oreas O. S.,' presently to be described, but which, as Baron Osten Sacken writes us, is probably that of S. vulgaris, a common species in the Western States, east of the mountains.
During the past two years we have been in correspondence with Professor J. G. Lemmon, of Sierra Valley, Cal., who has kindly sent us many specimens of locusts occurring there, and especially the eggs and early stages of Camnula pellucida.
Among such eggs these bee-fly larvæ were, if anything, more common than we had found them among the eggs of the destructive locust, Caloptenus spretus, east of the mountains. We here quote one letter in illustration:
"By this mail I dispatch another cigar box filled, this time with sods containing eggs of the terrible locust that for three years past has devastated Sierra Valley; also the large, fat, white larva that lately made its appearance as a voracious feeder upon locust eggs. We don't know certainly what this larva becomes, but at a venture he is hailed with great joy.
“ The ground that was first filled with locust eggs by the Edipoda atrox, by the end of September looked as if scattered with loose shells, so thorough was the work of destruction.
“ A few of them were detected in among the eggs in April, but not generally until August. One individual seems to empty several egg cases before retiring from the feast and coiling himself up in a case which he has emptied, or in a nidus of his own make.”—[J. G. Lemmon, in letter to C. V. Riley, October 12, 1879.
During 1878 and 1879 we failed to rear any of then to the perfect state, but on June 20 of the present year, 1880, we obtained from these California larvæ the first fly. This proved to be a male of Triodites mus 0. S., as kindly identified for us by Mr. S. W. Williston, of New Haven. We have, during the summer reared many additional specimens of this species, and also of the Systæchus oreas O. S., already alluded to. Professor Lemmon and his brother, Mr. W. C. Lemmon, have also succeeded in obtaining the mature flies, and have observed this Systechus abundantly buzzing about over the ground in which the locust eggs were laid, as the following extracts from the correspondence of these gentlemen will show:
1 Western Diptera, p. 254; Bull. Hayden's Geol. and Geog. Survey, II, No, 2. 2 Ibid, p. 246.
“An enemy which has proved very destructive in Sierra Valley and vicinity is the larva of, as yet, an unknown insect. It is first observed as a large yellowish-white grub about half an inch or even three-fourths of an inch long when extended, it being usually curved so that the head and tail nearly touch. It is one-sixth to one-fifth of an inch thick just back of the head, and tapers slightly towards the tail, also flattened slightly dorsally. It is usually found in a case of locust eggs which it has devoured, pushing the empty shells aside, and at last occupying the space where were twenty-one to thirty-six eggs. Often it is found in a little space below a number of emptied cases, as though it had feasted off the contents of several nests.
“The grub was first noticed last April 20, in the egg deposits near Loyalton. This fall, September 7, it was detected in great quantity near Sierraville, and afterwards in several infested spots of the valley. A handful of such soil will generally display ten to twenty cases of locust eggs, more or less emptied, and half as many of the fine, fat grubs.”—[J. G. Lemmon in the Sacramento, Cal., Weekly Record-Union, November 29, 1879.
“The white grubs ate out and destroyed thousands of eggs last fall, but, to all appearance, have eaten nothing since, having lain dormant all winter, and being now found still among the eggs, which are fast hatching out."--[W.C. Lemmon, Sierra Valley, Cal., June 13, 1880.
“I send you by this mail another package of the locust-eggeating grubs, some of which you will find more developed.
My brother, Professor J. G. Lemmon, came up from Oakland day before yesterday to spend a few days, and while looking at the grubs that I had gathered for you yesterday, one of them developed into the humble-bee fly which you have bred, and a half dozen specimens of which I have caught and envelop rolled up in paper."--[W. C. Lemmon in letter to C. V. Riley, dated Sierra Valley, Cal., July 18, 1880.
“Happening home on a hurried visit, I find locusts and destruction all around-a sad, sad sight! Find my brother has tried to keep you posted up with specimens and notes. Am pleased to see a solution of the “big white grub” question. He developed into a species of fly, hosts of which are now seen in midday, buzzing about among the locusts."--[Professor J. G. Lemmon in letter to C. V. Riley, dated Sierra Valley, Cal., July 18, 1880.