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deaths occurred within their subdivisions, under circumstances which rendered it reasonably certain that the deaths could not or would not be reported elsewhere; as, for example, of a vagrant, the death should be reported, with a statement of the fact, and with as much information in regard to age, sex, color, &c., as can be obtained. In such case, the deceased person will not be reported as of any family. Deaths which have occurred between the 1st of June and the day of the enumerator's visit will not be reported; but the person will be reported as living on the 1st of June.
Married and Widowed.—Column 6 will only be filled where deceased was, at the time of death, either married or widowed. The letter “M." will be written for married: the letter “W." for widowed. The term Widowed includes both widows and widowers.
Parentage.—The columns (8 and 9) headed "Father of foreign birth," "Mother of foreign birth,” need only be filled when the answer is affirmative, in which case an affirmative mark, thus, /, will be drawn in the space.
Diseases.—The twelfth question, “Disease or Cause of Death,” is the important question of this Schedule. Especial pains will be taken to make the answers in this column ample and exact. State the character of the disease, or of the accident, as specifically as possible. The majority of cases will fall under a few simple and familiar heads, as Consumption, Typhoid fever, Cholera Infantum. Whenever the disease is not familiar, more than common pains should be taken to ascertain the correct form of statement. It is only necessary that each Assistant Marshal should be at a few minutes' additional trouble in regard to each of half a dozen such cases, to remove nine-tenths of all the absurd and unnecessary terms which have heretofore embarrassed the work of compilation.
The following more specific directions and warnings should be carefully studied and observed:
Experience has shown an almost fatal facility on the part of persons making return of Diseases to confound Apoplectics, Epileptics, and Paralytics. Assistant Marshals will assure themselves that they understand the difference between these diseases, and that, as far as possible, the persons reporting them do.
It is desirable that distinction should be made between acute and
chronic bronchitis, acute and chronic diarrhoea, acute and chronic dysentery, acute and chronic rheumatism, as causes of death.
Cerebro-spinal meningitis should not be confounded with either brain or spinal disease.
Great caution should be exercised about reporting Old Age a cause of death. Wherever any defined disease was developed, let that be reported, and not old age.
Instead of reporting "Hemorrhage" simply as the cause, the death should be assigned to consumption, to hemorrhage from the stomach, hemorrhage from the bowels, or hemorrhage resulting from gun-shot wounds, &c., &c., as the case may have been
Death should not be attributed to " Intemperance," where a distinct disease was developed, as delirium tremens, cirrhosis of the liver, or apoplexy.
If " Ulceration of intestines” is due to typhoid fever, the latter should be given as the cause.
In reporting "Suicide," distinguish the means, whether cutting of throat, drowning, shooting, poisoning, charcoal suffocation, or other.
"Sudden Death” should only, in the rarest cases, be reported in this column. It is in this class of cases, generally speaking, that the real cause of death can be most easily and certainly determined.
"Died of Cold Water" is nearly as objectionable as “died of hemorrhage" or "died of intemperance.”
"Inflammation" as cause of death is unsatisfactory. It should be “inflammation of brain, of stomach, of bowels, of peritoneum, of pleura," &c. So of " Dropsy," whether of the heart, of the chest, of the abdominal cavity (ascites), &c.
The words “cancers," "ulcers," "carbuncles," and "tumors," should not be indiscriminately used in assigning cause of death,
Typhus, typhoid, and typho-malarial fevers should be carefully distinguished.
As few deaths as possible should be reported under such general terms as “disease of the throat," "disease of the brain," "disease of the liver,” disease of the lungs,”,“ disease of the bowels," "disease of the spine," &c., &c. These should, as far as possible, be reported under special heads, Disease of the liver should be
reported as hepatitis, jaundice, &c.; disease of the heart, as aneurism, valvular disease, hypertrophy, dropsy of pericardium, &c., &c.
Remarks.—A space is left at the bottom of each page of this schedule for remarks. It is desired that the Assistant Marshals should there describe any particular malady or unusual or peculiar disease which has prevailed in the subdivision, and the supposed cause thereof. In case of any unusual number of deaths by violence or accident (as by the caving of a mine or similar calamity), an explanation should be given in the space for Remarks.
Assistant Marshals are authorized to add to the Mortality lists of their subdivisions the names of all persons who are shown by the official records to have died within the subdivision during the year, but whose names have escaped them during the course of enumeration. This permisssion, however, only extends to supplementing the usual method of inquiry (by personal visit to each house) by means of official records. It will not allow of official records being substituted for personal inquiry. In all such cases, the facts of Age, Occupation, Nativity, &c., &c, must be obtained as required by the schedule.
Assistant Marshals will, very likely, in the course of enumeration, find some physician who will be willing, out of public spirit and professional interest, to glance over the entire list of diseases and correct a defective classification. If the death has, within his knowledge, been assigned to a wrong cause, he will indicate the true one. Assistant Marshals are authorized to submit this schedule to inspection for this purpose.
AGRICULTURE.-SCHEDULE 3. "Farms,” for the purposes of the agricultural schedule, include all considerable nurseries, orchards, and market gardens which are owned by separate parties, which are cultivated for pecuniary profit, and employ as much as the labor of one able-bodied workman during the year. Mere cabbage and potato patches, family vegetable gardens, and ornamental lawns, not constituting a portion of a farm for general agricultural purposes, will be excluded. No farm will be. reported of less than three acres, unless five hundred dollars' worth of produce has been actually sold off from it during the year. The latter provisó will allow the inclusion of many market gardens in the neighborhood of large cities, where, although the area is small, a high state of cultivation is maintained, and considerable value produced.
· A farm is what is owned or leased by one man and cultivated under his care. A distant wood lot, or sheep pasture, even if in another subdivision, is to be treated as a part of the farm; but wherever there is a resident overseer, or a manager, there a farm is to be reported.
The amounts of the various crops will be estimated according to the best judgment of the proprietor or manager, where no exact account is kept.
By “Improved Land" is meant cleared land used for grazing, grass, or tillage, or lying fallow. .
Irreclaimable marshes and considerable bodies of water will be excluded in giving the area of a farm improved and unimproved.
In reporting live stock, columns 12, 13, and 14, sucking pigs, spring lambs, and calves will be omitted. Column 15 requires the total value of live stock of every description, whether enumerated in the preceding columns or not.
In the “ Produce of the Year" will be included the total of all crops, &c., whether consumed at home or sold off the farm.
By Clover and Grass seeds is intended only that which has been cleared for use or prepared for market.
In reporting Molasses, other than from cane, the letter “M.” for maple, "S.” for sorghum, will be inserted in the space above the figures denoting quantity.
Where Hemp is prepared by water-rotting, the letters "W. R.” will be inserted in the space above the figures. Where no lettters are inserted, dew-rotting will be understood. If any other process than these two is used in preparing the hemp reported, the fact will be indicated by a foot-note.
Under “Home-made Manufactures” is to be included the value of all articles manufactured on the farm, whether for home use or for sale, when the same has not been reported upon the Products of Industry (Schedule No. 4). The value of materials purchased for such manufactures will be deducted.
The total value of " Annual Production." column 52. is intended to exhibit the total results of all the labor of the farm during the year, whether in the production of crops, in additions to stock, in fencing, or in improvements of any description, so far as the same are due to farm labor. Building, fencing, &c., by professional mechanics, will not be included. Neither will a speculative rise of land, nor an enhancement of values by the opening of railroads, &c., be reckoned in the Annual Production of the Farm.
Great care will be taken, in reporting Production, in every case to give the amount according to the unit of quantity prescribed by the printed form, as tons, pounds, bushels, &c.
PRODUCTS OF INDUSTRY.—SCHEDULE 4. The term “Productive Industry” must be understood, in its largest significance, to include all Manufacturing, Mechanical, and Mining operations, and also all coast, lake, and river Fisheries. The smallest shop must not be omitted, provided the production reaches $500, annually, including the cost of materials. It is believed that but few shops, which employ the entire labor of one able-bodied artisan, fall short of this limit at the present prices of labor. Assistant Marshals will take pains to reach all the productive establishments, large and small, within their subdivisions. It is not necessary that there should be a distinct shop to constitute an establishment of productive industry in the meaning of the law. A room finished off in the barn, or a chest of tools kept in the corner of the house, may constitute a distinct establishment, provided the artisan does not habitually work in any other shop which could be separately enumerated. Assistant Marshals will do well, therefore, when any one reports his occupation (for the purposes of Schedule No.1) as a carpenter, blacksmith, plumber, painter, mason, or other skilled artisan, to ascertain, by inquiry, whether his labor is included in the production of any mechanical establishment; and, if not, the place where he keeps his tools or does his work may be reported as an establishment of productive industry for the purposes of the Census. This rule only applies to the TRADES, and not to unskilled labor.
When large manufacturing corporations are part in one subdivision and part in another, they should be reported in that subdivision where the office is.
The products, &c., of manufacturing establishments will not be