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attended school during the year; if he or she cannot read or cannot write; if he is a citizen of the United States above the age of twenty-one years, and if, being such citizen, his right to vote is denied or abridged on other grounds than participation in rebellion or other crime, then an affirmative mark, thus, /, will be drawn in each of the above columns, opposite the name.

Education. It will not do to assume that, because a person can read, he can, therefore, write. The inquiries contained in columns 16 and 17 must be made separately. Very many persons who will claim to be able to read, though they really do so in the most defective manner, will frankly admit that they cannot write. These inquiries will not be asked of children under ten years of age. In regard to all persons above that age, children or adults, male and female, the information will be obtained.

At School.It is not intended to include those whose education has been limited to Sunday or evening schools.

Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Insane, or Idiotic.—Great care will be taken in performing this work of the enumeration, so as at once to secure completeness and avoid giving offense. Total blindness and undoubted insanity only are intended in this inquiry. Deafness merely, without loss of speech, is not to be reported. The fact of idiocy will be better determined by the common consent of the neighborhood, than by attempting to apply any scientific measure to the weakness of the mind or will.

CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS. Upon the answers to the questions under this head will depend the distribution of representative power in the General Government. It is therefore imperative that this part of the enumeration should be performed with absolute accuracy. Every male person born within the United States, who has attained the age of twenty-one years, is a citizen of the United States by the force of the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution; also, all persons born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers at the time of their birth were citizens of the United States (act of February 10, 1855); also, all persons born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, who have been declared by

judgment of Court to have been duly Naturalized, having taken out both papers."

The part of the enumerator's duty which relates to column 19 is therefore easy, but it is none the less of importance. It is a matter of more delicacy to obtain the information required by column 20. Many persons never try to vote, and therefore do not know whether their right to vote is or is not abridged. It is not only those whose votes have actually been challenged, and refused at the polls for some disability or want of qualification, who must be reported in this column; but all who come within the scope of any State law denying or abridging suffrage to any class or individual on any other ground than participation in rebellion,or legal conviction of crime. Assistant Marshals, therefore, will be required carefully to study the laws of their own States in these respects, and to satisfy themselves, in the case of each male citizen of the United States above the age of twenty-one years, whether he does or does not come within one of these classes.

As the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting the exclusion from the suffrage of any person on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, has become the law of the land, all State laws working such exclusion have ceased to be of virtue. If any person is, in any State, still practically denied the right to vote by reason of any such State laws not repealed, that denial is merely an act of violence, of which the courts may have cognizance, but which does not come within the view of Marshals and their Assistants in respect to the Census.

Indians.—“Indians not Taxed” are not to be enumerated on Schedule 1. Indians out of their Tribal relations, and exercising the rights of citizens under State or Territorial laws, will be included. In all cases write “Ind.” in the column for Color. Although no provision is made for the enumeration of "Indians not taxed,” it is highly desirable, for statistical purposes, that the number of such persons not living upon Reservations should be known. Assistant Marshals are therefore requested, where such persons are found within their subdivisions, to make a separate memorandum of names, with sex and age, and embody the same in a special report to the Census Office.

Occupation.—The inquiry " Profession, Occupation, or Trade," is one of the most important questions of this schedule. Make a study of it. Take especial pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation. Call no man a “factory hand" or a "mill operative." State the kind of a mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "works in cotton mill," "works in paper mill," &c. Do not call a man a "shoemaker," " bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot and shoe factory, say so.

Do not apply the word "jeweler” to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments.

Call no man a “commissioner," a "collector," an "agent,” an “artist," an "overseer,” a “professor," a "treasurer," a "contractor," or a "speculator," without further explanation.

When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as “apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecary's apprentice.”

When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say “retired lawyer," "retired merchant;" &c. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents.

When clerks are returned, describe them as “clerk in store,” “clerk in woolen mill," " R. R. clerk." "bank clerk,' &c.

Describe no man as a "mechanic" if it is possible to describe him more accurately.

Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.

Do not call a paper-bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term Manufacturer for proprietors of establishments : always give the branch of manufacture.

Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise, say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, &c.

Add, in all cases, the class of business, as wholesale (wh.), retail (ret.), importer (imp.), jobber, &c.

Use the word Huckster in all cases where it applies.

Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points


to which the Assistant Marshal should especially direct his attention.

Confine the use of the words "glover," "hatter," and "furrier” to those who actually make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."

Judges (state whether federal or State, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, if they have any, as "retired merchant, governor of Massachusetts,” “ paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office, and put in the occupation.

As far as possible distinguish machinists as “locomotive builders," "engine builders,” &c.

Instead of saying "packers," indicate whether you mean “pork packers ” or “crockery packers," or."mule packers.”

The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worth while to make distinction in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants."

Cooks, waiters, &c., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants.

The term “house-keeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as “ keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.

You are under no obligation to give any man's occupation just as he expresses it. If he cannot tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and characterize his profession accordingly.

The inquiry as to Occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. “At home" or "attending school” will be the best entry in the majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting



15 in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.

MORTALITY.-SCHEDULE 2. Assistant Marshals will not omit to take out the Schedule of Mortality in the case of every family, and ask whether any deaths have occurred in the family within the twelve months ending June 1, 1870. Care should be taken to have it understood that the period covered by the inquiry is from the 1st of June, 1869, to the 31st of May, 1870, inclusive; otherwise, many will understand by the phrase, “within the year,” since January 1, 1870; or by the phrase, “last year,” the year ending December 31, 1869. The Deaths reported in previous enumerations have fallen far short of the total number known to have occurred. This is owing to the fact that Assistant Marshals have been indifferent on the subject, considering the compensation allowed for the service as not proportioned to the time consumed and the trouble caused. Assistant Marshals will, however, understand that, in the present Census, the proportion between deaths and living inhabitants will be carefully scrutinized, and whenever the ratio is such as to make it probable that considerable omissions from the table of Mortality have occurred, payment will be withheld until inquiry-local, if necessary—has been made, and the Department is satisfied that the work has been faithfully performed in this particular. This rule will be rigidly enforced in all cases.

All the explanations given in regard to Schedule No. 1 apply to Schedule No. 2, so far as the inquiries are common.

Families.-In column 1 will be entered the number which was given in column 2, Schedule 1, to the family in which the death occurred. Hence the numbers of the families on Schedule 2 will not be consecutive, as they are on Schedule 1.

Names.In column 2 will be entered the name of every person whose death occurred during the year ending June 1, 1870. The family wherein the death occurred, if from disease, will be considered the “Place of Abode.” Where, however, death was sudden or violent, and occurred outside of any habitation, the usual place of abode of the deceased will be given. If it should come to the knowledge of the Assistant Marshal that any violent or sudden

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