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There are certain columns on each schedule which must be filled in every case, or the work of enumeration has not been performed. Such are: 3, 4, 5, 6, 10,

on Schedule 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12,

" Schedule 2, 1, 2, 52,

11 Schedule 3, 1, 2, 3, 12, 15, 18,

" Schedule 4. When the Census Office is put to trouble and expense, by having to obtain through subsequent correspondence the answers to these questions, the cost of clerk hire and correspondence to the Department will be estimated, and deduction will be made for work not done. The attention of Assistant Marshals is invited, in this connection, to the phraseology of the law fixing the rates of compensation. “For each farm fully returned, ten cents; for each establishment of productive industry, fully taken and returned, fifteen cents." (Section 13, act of May 23, 1850.) • After enumerating a family, farm, shop, &c., the entries made

should be read over to the party giving the information, that all mistakes may be corrected on the spot, at the time. This is a requirement of law.

The name of the town, township, parish, &c., of the county, of the State, and of the post office; the day of the month, and the month, and the name of the Assistant Marshal, in his own handwriting, must be filled into the proper spaces on each page, except in the case of the Agricultural Schedule, where each alternate page will be signed and filled as above required.

On all the schedules, when Values are required to be stated, omit fractions of a dollar.

As far as possible, Assistant Marshals will have the first copy of their returns made from the sheets as they are completed, so that the full returns may be sent to the Marshal at the earliest practicable moment after the enumeration closes. Great pains will be taken in comparing the copy intended for the Census Office with the originals, point by point. The second copy required by law will be forwarded to the Marshal when completed. At the end of each set of returns, the Assistant Marshal will certify that they were made according to law and instructions,

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Special attention will be paid to the rules relating to the distribution, care, and use of blanks, laid down in circular from the Department of the Interior, of May 12th, 1870.

Assistant Marshals will return their portfolios to the Marshals when their duties are completed.

The tenth section of the act of May 23, 1850, requires that the Assistant Marshal shall make the enumeration by actual inquiry at every dwelling-house, or by personal inquiry of the head of every family, and not otherwise. The duty cannot be performed by deputy or proxy. General publication will be made of the fact, so that citizens may know their rights, and resent unauthorized intrusion or inquiry. When persons properly subject to enumeration refuse to give information in the particulars required, they will be admonished of their liability under the provisions of the fifteenth section of the act of May 23, 1850, Assistant Marshals will, however, make as little show as possible of authority. They will approach every individual in a conciliatory manner; respect the prejudices of all; adapt their inquiries. to the comprehension of foreigners and persons of limited education; and strive in every way to relieve the performance of their duties from the appearance of obtrusiveness. Anything like an overbearing disposition should be an absolute disqualification for the position.

No graver offense can be committed by Assistant Marshals than to divulge information acquired in the discharge of their duty. All disclosures should be treated as strictly confidential, with the exception hereafter to be noted in the case of the Mortality Schedule. Information will be solicited of any breach of confidence on the part of Assistant Marshals. The Department is determined to protect the citizen in all his rights in the present Census.

Assistant Marshals, on receiving notice of their appointment, are advised and requested to prosecute informal inquiries, within the limits of civility and discretion, in any direction which will enable them the better to begin and complete their work; especially to make themselves as intelligent as possible in regard to the industrial character of their subdivisions, and the peculiar conditions of each important industry.

INHABITANTS.-SCHEDULE 1. Numbering.-Dwelling-houses and Families will be numbered consecutively, in order as visited, until the township, borough, or parish (or ward of a city) is completed, when a new numbering will begin, as is the case with the numbering of pages.

Dwelling-houses.—By"Dwelling-house" is meant a house standing alone, or separated by walls from other houses in a block. Only such buildings are to be reckoned as dwelling-houses, as have been used as the entire habitation of a family. But houses only temporarily uninhabited are to be returned and numbered in order. In that case, a dash, thus, — , will be drawn through column No. 2, and the remaining spaces on the line be left blank. Hotels, poor-houses, garrisons, asylums, jails, and similar establishments, where the inmates live habitually under a single roof, are to be regarded as single dwelling-houses for the purposes of the Census. The character of such establishments 'should be written longitudinally in the column.

Eating-houses, Stores, Shops, &c.—Very many persons, especially in cities, have no other place of abode than stores, shops, &c.; places which are not primarily intended for habitation. Careful inquiry will be made to include this class, and such buildings will be reckoned as Dwelling-houses within the intention of the Census law; but a watchman, or clerk belonging to a family resident in the same town or city, and sleeping in such store or shop merely for purposes of security, will be enumerated as of his family.

Families.-By“Family" (Column 2) is meantone or more persons living together and provided for in common. A single person, living alone in a distinct part of a house, may constitute a family; while, on the other hand, all the inmates of a boarding-house or a hotel will constitute but a single family, though there may be among them many husbands with wives and children. Under whatever circumstances, and in whatever numbers, people live. together under one roof, and are provided for at a common table, there is a family in the meaning of the law.

Names of Individuals.—In column 3 will be entered the Name of every person in each family, of whatever age, including the Names of such as were temporarily absent on the 1st day


of June, 1870. The name of any member of the family who may have died between the 1st day of June, 1870, and the day of the Assistant Marshal's visit, is to be entered, and the person fully described, as if living; but the name of any person born during that period is to be omitted. The name of the father, mother, or other ostensible head of the family in the case of hotels, jails, &c., the landlord, jailor, &c.) is to be entered first of the family. The family name is to be written first in the column, and the full first, or characteristic christian or "given" name of each member of the family in order thereafter. So long as the family name remains the same for the several members, it need not be repeated, provided a clear horizontal line be drawn in the place it would occupy, thus:

Smith, John.

– Elizabeth. Place of Abode.—By “Place of Abode" is meant the house or usual lodging place. All persons temporarily absent on journey or visit are to be counted as of the family; but children and youth absent for purposes of education on the 1st of June, and having their home in a family where the school or college is situated, will be enumerated at the latter place.

Sea-faring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal-men, express-men, railroad-men, &c., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupation, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on the 1st of June.


PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. Columns 4, 5, and 6 must, in every case, be filled with the age, sex, or color of the person enumerated. No return will be accepted when these spaces are left blank.

Ages.—The exact age, in figures, will be inserted in column 4, wherever the same can be obtained; otherwise, the nearest approxi

mation thereto. Where the age is a matter of considerable doubt, the Assistant Marshal may make a note to that effect. Children, who, on the 1st of June, 1870, were less than a year old, will have their age stated by the fractional part of the year, as, (one month) iz, (three months) i, (nine months) 1, &c. In all other cases, months will be omitted. The age taken is the age at last birthday.

Color.It must not be assumed that, where nothing is written in this column, "White" is to be understood. The column is always to be filled. Be particularly careful in reporting the class Mulatto. The word is here generic, and includes roons, and all persons having any perceptible trace of African blood. · Important scientific results depend upon the correct determination of this class in Schedules 1 and 2.

(For reporting Occupation, see remarks at the close of the instructions in regard to this schedule.)

Property Column 8 will contain the value of all Real Estate owned by the person enumerated, without any deduction on account of mortgage or other incumbrance, whether within or without the Census subdivision or the county. The value meant is the full market value, known or estimated.

“Personal Estate," column 9, is to be inclusive of all bonds, stocks, mortgages, notes, live stock, plate, jewels, or furniture; but exclusive of wearing apparel. No report will be made when the personal property is under one hundred dollars.

Column 10 will contain the “ Place of Birth ” of every person named upon the schedule. If born within the United States, the State or Territory will be named, whether it be the State or Territory in which the person is at present residing or not. If of Foreign birth, the Country will be named as specifically as possible. Instead of writing " Great Britain” as the place of birth, give the particular country, as England, Scotland, Wales. Instead of Germany," specify the State, as Prussia, Baden, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, Hesse Darmstadt, &c.

The inquiries in columns numbered 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, and 20, are of such a nature that these columns only require to be filled when the answer to the inquiry is “Yes.” If the person being enumerated had a father or mother of foreign birth; if he or she

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