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in recognition of his extraordinary and heroic achievements in aerial flight while serving with the air arm of the Army from 1908 to 1935, and in recognition of his outstanding contributions to military aviation during that period. As Chief of the Air Service, American Expeditionary Force, during World War I and later as Chief of the Army Air Corps from 1931 to 1935 he was highly instrumental in developing the fledgling air arm of the United States from its infancy to a position of power and prestige.



Senator GOLDWATER. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee.

This is a resolution to take care of what I like to think of as an oversight in justice which is nobody's fault because at the time this man could have been awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for his flying activities, we did not have such an award.

Gen. Benjamin D. Foulois entered the service in 1898 as an enlisted man in the Army Engineers. Later on he became a commissioned officer in the Army, and in 1908 he was assigned to the aviation section of the Signal Corps. He performed a rather unique feat in learning to fly in that he learned by correspondence with the Wright brothers. We had an airplane but nobody understood how to fly it.

The Wright brothers were in Dayton and the general wrote letters to the brothers and learned to fly.

Chairman RUSSELL. What was his rank?

Senator GOLDWATER. He was a lieutenant. He became a captain later on, I am not certain what date, but he was sent to Texas when the first of the Texas flying fields were beginning to open up in San Antonio about 1913, if I remember correctly. There he helped organize the first instruction field at San Antonio and later was placed in command of the 1st Aerial Squadron.

In fact, it was the first company of the First Aerial Squadron.

In 1915, he was sent with this aerial squadron into Mexico and was stationed at various points from Columbus, N. Mex., on down to a point below Chihuahua City: The story of this squadron's activity in the Mexican War is a very interesting one.

I will not relate it here, but the aircraft were not suitable for the missions that were assigned, but they did do a very commendable job. They flew mail, they flew messages, and they flew observation missions in aircraft that frankly could not get high enough to do the mission properly.

He had an interesting experience in Chihuahua City where two aircraft landed in a flight north of the city, two landed south and one from the south went to the north, and they threw rocks and poked holes and undertook to dismantle the aircraft on the north side.

One aircraft was destroyed. The others got away.

After this period from about March of 1915, I would say, through August of the same period, that mission was finished, and, by the way, just as the outfit returned to Columbus retired General Spaatz joined the 1st Aerial Squadron.

Chairman RUSSELL. It may be interesting to know, Senator, that the Air Force presented the committee with a flag today with all of their battle streamers, and the first one was commemorating that 11 hamn. That is the first battle streamer on the Air Force

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Star WATER. I am very glad to hear that, and I am glad u on the day that it was not over to this committee. Charman Russtein We had sin exercises before the committee.

Senaar de wa Ii **s y argunent even stronger for recsynttillrif this singes He became the commander Rif the lirit Word War in Europe, and when he annet in Heuca v became the first commander of His lation of the Army. ki ti during this whole period of service

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wie wartied any recognition of his flying during the
silnika vice on in the Army, and it is because of that
to celt that he should be so recognized, particularly

It'll contribution then and now, and I have introto calling for the award of the Distinguished Fly

Releu Gen. Benjamin Foulois.

buy questions?
SLUZILL. Senator Goldwater, what was his part in
i lex

OTER. I mentioned it. He was made Chief of the
Drivve the American Expeditionary Forces in France. Then
She served as military attaché and military observer in
it is in Europe.
W.2 e came back to this country in 1925, he was made com-

viser at Mitchel Field in New York, and in 1927 was elelithe post of Assistant Chief of the Air Corps, and in 1931 Mir Chief of the Air Corps, and he held this post until he rePiti 1930).

man RUSSELL. Any further questions? Sol THURMOND. I am just wondering: Hiss the tir Force ever given any consideration to this matter? Stor GOLDWATER. Yes, the Air Force is very interested in havPuthis brought about. But, as I understand it, it has to be done by

Poolution because the award did not exist during the period that he performed in a manner that would have caused the award to have des made at that time. The Flying Cross did not come into being mil the 2d of July 1926, and by that time I would suppose he had Reched vaches around 50 years of age, and if the Air Corps was then what

, it is now, they begin to frown on you when you get that age.

Senator THURMOND. The Air Force is in accord with your resolut?

Senator GOLDWATER. Yes.

Chairman RUSSELL. We have the Air Force supporting the resolution but the Department of Defense has made no report on it.

Senator GOLDWATER. Do awards have to be approved by the Department of Defense ?

you here.

Chairman RUSSELL. No.

The Congress has a right to give them, whether they approve them or not, but as a general proposition this committee does not report bills until we have at least their views on them. We get their suggestions and views and we have not yet heard from the Department of Defense.

If there are no further questions, Senator, we are delighted to have Senator GOLDWATER. Thank you very much. Mr. Chairman. Chairman RUSSELL. That will concude the open hearing.

Senator THURMOND. Mr. Chairman, I just want to say it is a great pleasure to have before this committee a man who believes in the Constitution of the United States.

Senator GOLDWATER. Thank you very much.

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p.m, the committee went into executive session.)


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